Understand and explore the actuality behind social responsibilities Essay Example
Understand and explore the actuality behind social responsibilities Essay Example

Understand and explore the actuality behind social responsibilities Essay Example

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  • Pages: 12 (3200 words)
  • Published: August 25, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The research aimed to examine the actual societal responsibilities performed by corporate administrations for the benefit of individuals in lower economic strata. The study sought to determine if "good work" or "giving back to society" was being actively practiced or simply talked about, and evaluate its effectiveness. Qualitative research was chosen as the most suitable approach as it enables a deeper comprehension of the socially constructed idea of "benefit." Qualitative research includes methods that describe and elucidate individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and societal contexts without relying on statistical procedures or quantification (Fossey et al, ).

Since the 1980s, quantitative methods - ranging from participant observation to question to talk about analysis - have become fundamental methods of societal research (Seale et al., 2004). According to Graham Gibbs, qualitative data is essentially meaningful and also exhibits a wide range of diversity.



itative research covers a range of human communication forms, including written, audio, and visual behavior, symbolism, and cultural artifacts. It includes interviews, observations, email, recordings, and photographs. The main goal is to illuminate subjective meanings, actions, and social contexts of participants. This term encompasses various styles of social research in sociology, social anthropology, and social psychology. Many students utilize qualitative research for high-quality studies on diverse topics. Understanding meanings and behavioral patterns is the central focus.

(Denscombe, 1999) The qualitative research paradigm involves a detailed analysis of information, rather than focusing solely on populations. Researchers who use qualitative research aim to generate theories rather than solely examining statistical significance. Data may be presented in numerical form or represented on a pie chart, but the main focus is on how new theories can emerge and how social concepts can

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be explained. Through observation or casual conversation, various meanings can arise that cannot be quantified. Researchers can effectively bring these meanings to the forefront by following the correct methodology. William M.K. Trochim describes qualitative research as exploratory and inductive.

One important aspect of well-gathered qualitative information is that it focuses on naturally occurring, everyday events in natural settings, providing a solid understanding of what "real life" is like (Miles and Huberman 1994: 10).

Epistomological Position

Epistemology, a core area of philosophy, examines the nature, origins, and limitations of knowledge (Klien, 2005). The epistemic position highlights the perspective from which the study originates.

Epistemology, according to the Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (2005), deals with issues related to the creation and distribution of knowledge within specific areas of study. In light of the existing social research paradigm, this study opts to draw from two established fields: Advocacy and Liberal Feminism. Advocacy focuses on advocating for the interests of individuals or groups, in this case, the collective. The Princeton Wordweb defines advocacy as actively supporting an idea or action.

Advocating or reasoning for something, known as pleading, is highly important. Liberals and feminists both emphasize the value of freedom and argue that it is the government's responsibility to protect citizens' freedom. However, progressives have differing views on the definition of freedom, leading to different interpretations of broad feminism.

The text examines two types of feminism: classical progressive or libertarian feminism and classless broad feminism (Baehr.A, 2007). It uses the example of India to illustrate how women do not have easy access to true freedom due to social norms and beliefs that limit their rights granted by the constitution. Classical progressive or libertarian feminism views

freedom as the absence of coercive intervention.

According to Baehr.A, it is believed that both adult females and men have the right to freedom as self-owners. However, the use of coercive state power should be limited to protecting this right from interference. In terms of women's rights, equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender are supposed to exist. Nevertheless, in practice, there are limitations in accessing these rights and discrimination against women mostly stems from gender bias.

Cultural libertarian women's rightists, also known as classical broad or libertarian women's rightists, argue that the patriarchal culture in societies such as India is a significant source of oppression for women. They believe that both the patriarchal culture and the state work together to suppress women (Baehr.A, 2007). Classless broad feminism views freedom as a combination of personal liberty, which allows individuals to live their lives on their own terms, and political liberty, which gives individuals a say in determining the conditions under which they exist.

Classless broad feminists argue that women's exercise of personal freedom relies on certain enabling conditions that are often absent in their lives or disregarded by societal arrangements. They also contend that the fundamental conditions of women's lives do not adequately represent their needs and interests due to insufficient representation in democratic self-government processes. These deficiencies in autonomy are attributed to the "gender system" or patriarchal traditions and institutions within families, prompting the women's movement to address them. According to this perspective, as safeguarding and promoting citizens' freedom is a state responsibility, classless broad feminists advocate for the state to support and advance women's liberty as an ally of the women's movement.

(Baehr.A, 2007) This text

explores the obstacles faced by disadvantaged women, such as lack of rights and gender-based discrimination. These women are often blamed for issues within their families and have limited access to education and employment. The study focuses on a specific group of women seeking empowerment and investigates how corporate organizations can offer opportunities for economically challenged women to enhance their social and economic status.

Research Method

To conduct this study, both Primary and Secondary data were used. An extensive analysis of existing literature was performed to gain understanding of the research background and structure the study.

The research utilized in-depth interviews as a means to gather information from management and exemplify case studies. This process helped generate themes, as stated by (Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009), the qualitative research interview aims to understand the perspectives of the participants and uncover their lived experiences. The Chicago School in sociology, studying urban life in Chicago during the 1930s and 1940s, can be considered an important precursor to the later interest in qualitative research interviewing (Warren, 2002, p.).

86) The researcher utilized Elton Mayo's interviewing method during the interviews. This method directs the researcher to follow a specific procedure for conducting interviews in an unbiased and non-judgmental manner. The practice of interviewing has emerged in the past few centuries and has now become a prevalent societal norm, commonly known as the interview society. The act of interviewing as a research method is influenced by historical and social factors (Kvale, Brinkmann, 1999). To validate the study, the researcher included case studies which have shed significant light on emerging topics and have successfully attributed meaning to them.

The researcher followed the seven steps of interview outlined

by Kvale and Brinkmann (2009) which include:

  • Thematizing an interview project
  • Planning
  • Interviewing
  • Transcribing
  • Analyzing
  • Reporting

In qualitative research, the interview is considered a form of discourse. According to Mischler (1986), its distinct features reflect the typical structure and purposes of interviewing, specifically that it is shaped and organized through asking and answering questions.

Data Collection

The participants were chosen using convenience sampling, a type of non-probability sampling. In situations where researchers cannot choose the types of chance samples used in large-scale social studies, convenience sampling is often used. Non-probability methods do not provide information on the likelihood of any element being selected from a population for study (Leslie, 1987). Therefore, non-probability sampling was most suitable for this study. To select the organization to be studied, visits were made to various organizations in the city that significantly contributed to women's empowerment. Selection criteria were based on references and familiarities, and attempts were made to establish contact.

Remaining within the limitations of clip, accessibility, and convenience, Titan was chosen. Availability sampling, also known as convenience sampling, is a technique where subjects who are readily available or easily found are selected. This method is often referred to as random, accidental, or convenience sampling. The main advantage of this method is its simplicity in implementation compared to other methods, but it also comes with a set of disadvantages.

The main concern with convenience sampling is that it is

uncertain which population the participants in the survey represent. The population is unknown, the method for selecting cases is random, and the cases studied probably do not represent any population that could be identified. (Royce, Bruce n.d.) However, these proposed disadvantages do not apply to this particular survey because the goal of the survey is not to generalize, but rather to explore the reality or extent of the impact of CSR. Any company willing to share information about its CSR policies was included in the survey.

For the current survey, in order to obtain opinions from experts and governments regarding CSR, and also to gain access to management personnel for interviews, emails were sent to Human Resource directors, Corporate Social Responsibility heads, and individuals working in the NGO sector. The names of these individuals were obtained through referrals as well as through a thorough search conducted by the researcher. The researcher conducted interviews at two levels: at the management level and at the beneficiary level. The beneficiary level involved field work, as the researcher had to visit the factories where the workers (women) are employed. The field work for the researcher was not just a data collection exercise, but also provided a valuable human experience.

In order to gather information, the research worker needed access to the company profile, policies, and social initiatives claimed by the company. Initially, the research worker scheduled a phone call with the management to gather information. Subsequently, the research worker conducted interviews and collected data at the organization. By "management," we mean individuals who are carrying out activities within the organization. The research worker prepared a semi-structured interview agenda for this purpose.

Semi-structured interviews are typically preceded by observation, informal discussions, and unstructured interviews to develop a deep understanding of the topic. This understanding is crucial for formulating relevant and meaningful semi-structured questions.

Semi-structured interviews were conducted to allow sources to express their positions and provide reliable qualitative data. The study involved four members involved in the company's CSR activities, with each interview lasting 2 hours. The research focused on the Meadow Project (Myrada), a collaboration with self-help groups of rural women that aims to provide employment opportunities for over 400 women in and around Hosur, Tamil Nadu. The researcher visited the site to interview the women involved in this project.

The survey participants were informed about the purpose of the survey and gave verbal consent for conducting interviews. The researcher used audio recording equipment to document all the interviews, as this is an important part of the research process for transcribing the data and keeping notes for analysis purposes. It is recommended to collect audiotapes to analyze the speech in a session or an ethnographic interview (Spradley, 1979). Including different types of data that complement each other strengthens the research, a method known as Triangulation.

According to O'Donoghue and Punch (2003), triangulation is a method of cross-checking information from multiple sources to search for regularities in the research data. Cohen and Manion (1986) define triangulation as an attempt to map out, or explain more fully, the abundance and complexity of human behavior by studying it from more than one point of view.

Picturing the sources of Data collection in the study


(the profile of the company as displayed on their company website has been attached here with permission of the

company) The company selected by the researcher for data collection was TITAN INDUSTRIES LTD. Titan Industries is the organization that brought about a paradigm shift in the Indian watch market when it introduced its futuristic silica technology, accompanied by international styling. With India's two most recognized and loved brands Titan and Tanishq to its credit, Titan Industries is the 5th largest integrated watch manufacturer in the world.

The Titan Group and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation formed a joint venture in 1984, resulting in the success story that transformed the Indian ticker market with international style vitreous silica tickers. The company's depiction of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives is reproduced below with their permission.

Csr Initiatives of Titan

Titan Industries has a clearly defined policy for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). As part of their CSR initiative, the Watch and Jewellery Divisions at Hosur have obtained the 'ISO 9001: 2000 Quality Management System Standards' and 'ISO 14001:2000 Environment System criterion' certifications, highlighting their commitment to being an environmentally responsible organization.

The company's diverse CSR initiatives include:

  • Children's education
  • Enabling the handicapped
  • Artisan parks
  • Women's empowerment
  • Environment management programs
  • Miscellaneous community initiatives

Titan Industries' community initiatives aim to build partnerships for societal development, focus on sustainable initiatives, and improve the quality of life in the communities they operate in.

With 250 dedicated and enthusiastic employee volunteers, the company has established a Community Development Forum. This forum aims to mobilize society and volunteers to ensure the success of community initiatives. The company's diverse community development activities include supporting orphanages, raising awareness about HIV/AIDS, promoting acceptance in small towns, improving vision, providing employment opportunities for rural unemployed women, rehabilitating communities, assisting in tsunami relief efforts, eradicating child labor,

and protecting the environment, among others. Overall, the company has positively impacted the lives of more than 2000 individuals.

Corporate Duty Begins at Place

Titan Industries believes that corporate duty begins with the employees. The company ensures that the harmony, peace, and inclusive approach at the workplace are maintained. Efforts are made to engage the employees in programs designed to fulfill ecological and social duty. Various workplace initiatives are conducted to achieve this: War on Waste - an initiative that reduced the impact of manufacturing operations on the environment. At Titan Industries, Corporate Social Responsibility is more than philanthropic giving - it is an internal process that reflects the essence of the company.

Successful Csr Programmes

  • Titan Industries has successfully completed several community development programmes as part of its CSR initiative. Some of these accomplishments include:
  • Titan ScholarshipA - This programme provides scholarships to over 550 economically disadvantaged students from the Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts in Tamil Nadu. Selection is based on academic performance and socio-economic background.
  • Titan TownshipA - Located in Hosur, Tamil Nadu, this sustainable community provides housing for 1300 residents in collaboration with NGOs MCA and Ashraya.
  • EmploymentA - Titan Industries offers employment opportunities to over 120 individuals with physical disabilities.
  • Karigar ParkA - This social entrepreneurship project consists of six parks, benefiting over 400 craftsmen.
  • Titan School and Titan Foundation for EducationA - The primary school currently serves over 550 students and plans to expand to cater to classes IX and X, accommodating an additional 160 students.
  • Meadow Project (Myrada) A - This joint effort with self-help groups of rural women provides paid employment to more than 400 rural women in the Hosur area of Tamil Nadu.
  • The researcher focused on studying

the Meadow Project for the present survey.

The main goal of this project is to empower women from the marginalized sector of society who are either unemployed or disabled and in need of assistance with their social and economic situations. Titan Industries has been recognized for their commitment to corporate social responsibility and have received the 'President of India's Award' for their efforts in employing the disabled.

Titan Industries, a participant in the Global Compact, has received the prestigious 'Helen Keller Award' and the 'Mother Teresa Award'. In addition, the company has been ranked among the top four, top ten, and top 11 companies in the 'Karmayog CSR Rating of India's Top 500 Companies' in December 2007, 2008, and 2009 respectively.

Other notable awards for CSR include:

  • The FICCI-SEDF Award for Social Responsibility
  • The Rotary Club of Bangalore Award for Corporate Citizenship
  • The PHDCII Award for Good Corporate Citizenship

Ranked as one of the best corporate citizens in the country, Titan Industries is committed to fulfilling its societal responsibility with dedication. The recipients were selected based on availability.

50 adult females were interviewed as they were available and willing to speak.

Field Notes

During the process of gathering information, the researcher made various observations that were not recorded as formal interviews. These observations were documented in a journal and later used in the analysis and discussion of the study. The researcher believed it was important to record these observations as they contributed to the emerging themes. Additionally, informal discussions arose during and after the interviews, which were supplemented by these observations.

The following observations were made by the researcher:

There was a strict protocol for entering the mills as they are restricted areas where visitation depends on company personnel.

  • The work environment appeared favorable.
  • The areas where the women were working were well lit and well ventilated.
  • The atmosphere was relaxed and without rigid rules, allowing women to use their creativity.
  • All women, whether working with machines or not, received comprehensive training and were awarded a professional certification at the end of training.

The mill officials take great care to ensure safety at work. Before entering the work area, women are required to wear a white coat, eye gear, gloves, and a hair mask. All of these precautions ensure the safety of women on the job.

Women have the right to take breaks, such as lunch breaks and tea breaks. Even though there is a hierarchy within the organization, communication happens freely without fear or hesitation.

Method for Analyzing Data

Thematic Analysis has been chosen for this study to analyze the data collected from interviews and case studies. Thematic analysis is a type of content analysis, which is a broad area of research. Alfred R Lindesmith developed a content analysis technique in 1931 to challenge existing hypotheses, and it became popular in the 1960s through Glaser's "The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis".

According to Stemler (2001), thematic analysis is a systematic and replicable technique for condensing text by applying coding rules. This approach involves the

creation and application of "codes" to data. The data being analyzed can take various forms, such as interview transcripts, field notes, policy documents, photographs, and video footage (Gibson). In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the prepared content, the researcher read all the transcribed interviews.

The text discusses the analysis of selected interviews using thematic analysis and cryptography. Thematic analysis involves identifying, analyzing, and describing patterns within data. This process captures important aspects of the data in relation to the research question and represents patterns or meaningful responses within the dataset. Braun and Clarke (2006) provide six steps for conducting thematic analysis. Identifying relationships between the emerging themes is crucial for the study. Polit and Beck (2006) emphasize that this step is where the researcher makes sense of the participants' experiences. The process of analyzing themes is not just a passive account of their emergence but involves an active role by the researcher in identifying and reporting on interesting themes to the readers.

(Taylor ; A ; Ussher in Braun ; A ; Clarke, 2006) In conclusion, the development of themes in relation to the research question and the impact of the interviews was discussed. The researcher also incorporated suggestions from the guide and created a draft of the themes and the relationships that have been identified.

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