Findings on motivation and job satisfaction
In this chapter, there will be a batch of treatment on assorted findings on motive and occupation satisfaction which will give a brief apprehension of the research subject, the significance of volunteerism, the construct of voluntary firemans, volunteerism in the Nigerian fire service, the assorted theories of motive, benefits provided to the voluntary firemans and besides the critical issues impacting volunteering in Nigeria.
All these shall be review through the usage of text editions, Magazines, Journal, Internet and other related periodical publication
THE Meaning AND USE OF VOLUNTEERING
Volunteerism plays a critical function in the operation of marketing systems, and hence look intoing voluntary activities on an single degree has of import micromarketing deductions ( Laverie & A ; McDonald, 2007, p.xx ) .
During the twelvemonth ended September 2006, 61.2 million Americans volunteered for an organisation at least one time, stand foring 26.7 per centum of the population ( United States Department of Labour 2006 ) . In Australia, 5.2 million people ( or 34 per centum of the Australian population ) participated in voluntary work in 2006 by lending 713 million hours to the community ( Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007, p.xx ) . Unfortunately, statistics for these activities are non registered locally in Nigeria, but postulated figures from the Ministry of Works, province that there are merely over 1.6 million voluntaries yearly in different working sectors, with over 64,000 expected to take part in the up-coming 2011 elections.
These voluntaries now recognize they have the freedom, capablenesss, and assurance to turn to chronic societal jobs in their societies, such as unequal wellness systems, entrenched poorness, environmental menaces, and high-crime rates among other societal ailments ( Bornstein 2004, p.xx ) . For illustration, voluntary Numberss at the Olympic Games have gone from about nothing in the 1980s to 40,917 commissioned voluntaries used in carry oning the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney ( Green and Chalip 2004 ) . In retrospect, research workers have concluded that without these voluntaries, the Sydney Olympic Games could non hold been produced. An extra dimension for societies that host particular events such as the Olympics is that such events are now used in the economic and societal development schemes of metropoliss, parts, and states to win placement as a favorable finish for concern, investing, and touristry.
Volunteers now exist in private and public industries, Government and NGO establishments similarly, chiefly dwelling of young persons, unemployed, the ageing population and protagonists of a cause. Since 1982, the voluntaries for Peace ( VFP ) association have registered over 28,000 voluntaries for its international plan, yearly.
The importance of volunteering in Nigeria is highlighted by the undermentioned remark by Lola Akinmade of the Global Vision International ( GVI ) “ With a population forcing 145 million in a state twice the size of California, the demand for voluntaries is highly important. A rampant deficit of equal health care installations and professionals has caused local infirmaries and clinics and other of import societal installations to be stretched beyond capacity. A hunt onA Volunteer AbroadA yields merely 10 listings forA Nigeria, and over 200 listings forA Kenya, even though Nigeria is Africa ‘s most thickly settled state ” .
It is good understood that volunteering can besides hold a positive impact on the voluntary themselves, every bit good as on society as a whole. Volunteers unrecorded thirster, have better mental wellness, have higher occupational prestigiousness, and have greater employment chances than those who do non volunteer ( Wilson and Musick 1999 ) . Brooks ( 2008, p.183 ) notes that charity brings felicity for psychological grounds because it gives persons a sense of control, while volunteering clip can supply an of import manner to mentally ”reboot ” and airt energy off from personal jobs. These benefits translate into reduced wellness attention costs, greater productiveness, and higher quality of life, straight profiting society as a whole.
Overall, the importance of volunteering in Nigeria can non be understated. A expression at the figures highlighted above, give an penetration into the developments that are necessary to be undertaken in order to better this working system that can merely assist better the province of the Nigerian society. Granted, it is non needfully a moneymaking beginning of life for a state populated by ambitious enterprisers, nevertheless, there are the few that if reached out to, like in any other state will be more than willing to affect themselves in such activities to better both themselves and their society.
THE CONCEPT OF FIRE FIGHTING
The function of fire combatant entails a committedness to making a occupation: combat fires and taking attention of communities. Jules Naudet ( 2002 ) , a film maker who filmed the fire bid activity in the World Trade Centre, said, “ They ‘re fire combatants, they ‘ll set the fire out, that is what they do. ” Fire combatants did their occupation on September 11 because it was their occupation. They identified with the occupation and with the function the occupation of fire combatant imposed on them ; they were committed to that individuality, and it predicted their behavior. Commitment is an of import multidimensional concept that links persons in changing ways to a superior, to a work group, to an organisation, and eventually, to a served community.
In the CBS, full name, documental 9/11, a provisional fire combatant remarks on his really little paysheet cheque, stating that if he wanted money, he would hold been a attorney, but “ I wanted something that I could populate with for the remainder of my life. I can populate with this. ” In the same docudrama, a fire head says that when he gets up in the forenoon he wants to experience good and “ to look in the mirror and know that I am making something with my life. ”
Harmonizing to Mr. Danny Shinto ( cited by, XXX, 2000, p.xx ) of Nigeria Firefighters Oshogbo Branch, as quoted from a address he delivered when asked what motivates people to be a voluntary fireman ; Money or wage is non involved as a consequence, people are motivated to fall in the fire service based on non pecuniary wagess. Dennis Smith take name ( 2002 ) reports a narrative about a retired fire marshal who bemoaned the decease of a fellow fire combatant who was driving when a rope broke. Another fire combatant responded by stating, “ Remember this is portion of the occupation ” .
Fire combatants commit to an individuality that requires heroic behavior. Identity theory dictates that they act altruistically because that is what is expected. Fire combatants do their occupation in order to keep internal congruity and because others expect them to move as their occupation requires.1 In these instances, we see commitment directed toward the role-most notably, a occupation that entails duty to safeguard the public assistance of others. Fire combatants are non the lone professionals in this class. We include other public-sector callings, such as constabulary officers, instructors, and military forces, and private-sector businesss, such as flight attenders and physicians. These occupations require the individual to continue a higher criterion, and they are expected to make what is required to keep the safety of their charges. They do good because it is their occupation to function the community.
Sargent ( 1992, p.xx ) commented on satisfaction and keeping of voluntary firemans found that selflessness ranked foremost as the most hearty ground for volunteering.
The eight top grounds for active firemans to remain on the occupation were selflessness, accomplishments, bangs, work environment, direction, societal dealingss, stuff issues, and acknowledgment. Retention policies identified as of import by the active voluntaries were direction quality and accomplishment development, quality of the work environment, and selflessness.
VOLUNTEERING IN THE NIGERIAN FIRE SERVICE
In researching what motivates people to go voluntary firemans, one must foremost understand what motivates people to go firemans in the first topographic point. The writer ‘s findings reveal that the young persons in the society are encouraged to fall in the voluntary service because of their friends and as a mark to demo their degree of engagement in the development of the society. They see the voluntary fire service as a societal part and as a societal service to the community. They are encouraged because of equal group influence and the demand to be seen as being relevant to the demands of the society. Once they see their co-workers have oning the uniform of the voluntary fire service and any of the firemans receives recognition from other members of the society after show of his art in slaking a fire catastrophe in the vicinity, few hebdomads or months subsequently you see other members of the young persons in the society coming to fall in the voluntary fire organisation.
Voluntary fire combat in Nigeria is viewed as a service to the community and the state. Many people take up the voluntary service for enhanced ego regard in the community. When they engage in this service the people of the community see their part to the public assistance of the society. This acknowledgment by the members of the society is a kind of motive that encourages other to enlist for the voluntary fire service in Nigeria.
The work of the voluntary fire service in Nigeria is another beginning of motive for people to fall in the voluntary fire organisations. The work of the voluntary fire combatants is arranged in a manner that it is seen as less burdensome or humdrum. The work is designed in such a manner that you encounter challenges and you are able to decide the present challenge you are faced with, which encourage you to utilize your enterprise and personal determination as you continue to make the work. These challenges that are involved encourage self-motivation, inaugural and invention in the employees. And even when they are faced with troubles there is a supervisor ever at manus to develop, promote and train them.
The undermentioned penetration was besides given during a personal interview of division head bookman of the Chico fire Department in Nigeria, when questioned what motivates people to go parttime, on-call firemans: We find that a batch of our firemans do it non for the money, but for the chumminess and the feeling of giving back to their community in the signifier of civic responsibility and civic pride, “ I merely want to give something back to the community. ” And some participate in firefighting for the challenges associated with firefighting and the fluctuation from their regular occupation. On the E seashore, they have much more peer force per unit area and you are about expected to be portion of the voluntary fire section as socialite outlook. Besides in a rural country there is a much greater sense of community. On the West seashore it is a critical constituent on the entry-level firemans resume. It is a manner of acquiring pre-employment occupation experience, and used much more as a calling stepping-stone. On the West seashore, in most instances they get discriminatory intervention on calling gap ” .
Eases [ 2003 ] farther substantiated this in his research on motive of voluntary firemans in combination fire sections. “ as firemans search to carry through their demands for self-esteem and complacency in mallow ‘s Hierarchy of demands, this in bend allows the person to make his/her highest degree in mallow ‘s Hierarchy of demands, that being self-actualization ” .
However, damaging to these volunteering, Olu Imago of the Ajaokuta fire division remarks that a alteration has besides occurred in society, impacting the activities of voluntaries. In his words, “ as our societal interaction is more dependent on engineering and the cyberspace, less accent has been placed on the societal facets of volunteering ” . This has hurt enlisting and keeping for those organisations dependent on voluntaries across the state. Peoples join unpaid fire sections and remain involved non to function their community and aid others in demand, but besides to develop societal relationships.
Again, volunteering in Nigeria is likely non every bit capacitated as it should, but we have so far realized that activities are undergoing to guarantee that voluntaries are decently motivated and catered for. There are and will ever be the obvious hinderances to such activities, but understanding the motive theorems involved and using them to do benefits for the voluntaries will evidently guarantee continued advancement in the right way for Nigerian volunteering, peculiarly in the fire contending sections.
BENEFITS PROVIDED TO VOLUNTEER FIREFIGHTERS
Normally, the voluntary fire combatants are insured against any danger in an effort to transport out their responsibilities and duties. Once there is any danger, the employees are certain that the province will pay compensation to them and in the event of decease, compensation is paid to the members of their household. The insurance strategy encourages effectual engagement of the voluntary fire combatants.
Harmonizing to USA National voluntary fire council ( 1998 ) among the 50 provinces, voluntary firemans received a assortment of benefits which were grouped into five classs: 1 ) Workers ‘ compensation, 2 ) Death benefits, 3 ) Retirement pension, 4 ) Property or income revenue enhancement discounts, and 5 ) Health attention benefits. 44 provinces, including Pennsylvania, provide workers ‘ compensation benefits for voluntary firemans injured or killed while on responsibility. Twenty-seven provinces provide decease benefits, and 20 provinces provide retirement pensions. Seven provinces provide income revenue enhancement or belongings revenue enhancement discounts and merely one province, Louisiana, provides voluntaries with wellness attention benefits.
The Head of the Osun-State Firefighters confirms that every bit is seen in the united province of America, these same installations exist in assorted parts of the state ( Nigeria ) , although every bit is in the united province of America, they are dependent on the authoritiess in single provinces of the federation. As he remarks, “ these wagess provide acknowledgment to people of voluntary firemans for their accomplishments and part. Stating if wagess are deserving holding and come-at-able and people know how they can achieve them, they can move as incentives ” .
Officials said they believe nonfinancial inducements are more effectual at actuating and retaining voluntary firemans than fiscal benefits. A common sentiment was that fiscal benefits do non actuate voluntaries ; nevertheless, changeless fire service related disbursals made it hard for voluntaries, particularly those with lower incomes, to go on their voluntary service.
In response to an incident that occurred in the country affecting 13 members of the voluntary firemans in 2006, the Head of Association of voluntary fireman Airport Road subdivision Lagos remarks ; “ We want to thank the authorities for their support and encouragement towards our work. To demo us love by giving a befitting entombment and province engagement in the burial agreement of the victims of the fire catastrophe was extremely encouraging. The victims were treated as worthy boies and girls of the state, who have put up a gallant battle in the defence of their fellow existences and their homeland as this will promote others to fall in the voluntary fire service, so that the province can give them such burial in instance they die in the discharge of their responsibilities ” .
The compensation paid by the insurance organisation to the households of the victims of the fire catastrophe is expected to promote other members of the society to inscribe for the voluntary fire service ; the authorities besides contributed financially to the households of the bereaved. Obviously, the deceases of these persons was a hindrance to pulling new prospective voluntaries, but seeing the authorities being so supportive, and the cognition that voluntaries where covered by insurance, was an inspiration to the workers to ask for more voluntaries, and for voluntaries, a warrant of the religion that was shown in them ; an inspiration, or every bit would be more defined academically, a motive. Assorted writers explain in their ain theories how motive can be defined, and used to act upon the determination of these voluntaries. This is highlighted in the following subdivision.
To be familiar with how to pull and retain voluntaries, it is imperative to place cardinal motivations of single voluntaries and their consequence on pro-social attitudes toward assisting behavior ( Bussell and Forbes 2002 ) . The primary aim of this literature reappraisal is to try some treatments of “ Motivation in Volunteers ” , a complex trouble, confronting the NGOs ‘ and Human-centered Aid Agencies of today. Subsequently, this chapter is dedicated to the survey of assorted theories about motives over the old ages. Studies specifically associating to this country started in the early old ages to the present twenty-four hours.
In the troubled world-economy of today, Volunteerism seems more relevant today than the more often employed tools associating to Typical Employment methodological analysiss of the past and present. The probe of motivational factors in a group, single in public sector milieus is cardinal to developing ways to better public presentations in an organisation. The ground why motive should be investigated in generic organisational behaviour footings every bit good as public service and voluntary footings for this research is that there are some facets of motivational theories that are related irrespective of the sector and industry. An apprehension of motive in wide footings, public service footings and voluntary footings in the literature reappraisal will travel a long manner in doing certain that there can be a constructive influence on the public sector voluntary workers ‘ public presentation degrees.
In the last century preceded by the great Industrial Revolution and followed by the great Information Age, much has been said and done sing employee motive and the ways to augment or tackle it to accomplish superior organisation ends. It started with the Hawthorne Studies of the 1920s ( McCarney R, Warner J, Iliffe S, new wave Haselen R, Griffin M, Fisher P ( 2007 ) which in item were ab initio carried out to find the effects of Light on employee end product, nevertheless by the manner reflected the importance of working as a group, holding a concerned supervisor and work recognition were so the existent drivers of efficiency.
Therefore, started the long research in Human Motivation, climaxing in such great plants as Maslow ‘s Hierarchy Theory ( A.H. Maslow, A Theory of Human Motivation: Psychological Review 1943 ) which discussed motive under such headers as: Physiological, safety, societal, ego, and self- actualizing. He argued that the lower degree demands had to be meet before traveling over to the following higher degree of demand as to actuate employees while Herzberg ‘s ( 1959 ) categorized motive into two factors: incentives and hygiene ‘s theory. Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as accomplishment and acknowledgment, produce occupation satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as wage and occupation security, produce occupation dissatisfaction. However it was n’t until the 1970 ‘s that work on Motivation in Volunteers began. While holding much in common with motive in employees if compared peculiarly to Herzberg ‘s motivational hygiene theory, there are so some alone factors such as reciprocality, self esteem, personal growing, acknowledgment and societal apprehension.
Furthermore, research by Wiehe et Al ( 1977, pg 73-79 ) show that ; of 490 individuals reaching a voluntary enlisting and referral centre bespeaking to be referred to a group of people bureau for station as voluntaries, 249 questionnaires were returned inquiring them to descry their motive for seeking to be voluntaries. Four classs of motive were ordered by sharers in the research on the footing of most to least of import: personal satisfaction, self-improvement, selflessness, and demands from outside. Deductions for the assignment and enlisting of voluntaries are noted.
Gidron ( 1978:18-32 ) carried out a broad research in an apprehension of volunteering motive. For this ground he based his research on the surveies and theories of Herzberg two factor theories. This two factor theory, as reviewed above, focused on both the intrinsic every bit good as extrinsic motivations behind a working individual. Gidron was one of the first research workers who believed that extrinsic factors might be found in the general thrust to work in voluntaries. He believed that voluntaries were working for either the intrinsic motivations which focused on ego achievement and working towards the growing of a positive relationship with the society or towards things that are extrinsic, in an indirect manner. This might consist the demand to derive some work experience that may come in ready to hand in the hereafter. For this ground he carried out a survey which involved 317 voluntaries across four mental and wellness establishments. The call for was to be able to descry the carbon monoxide relationship that might be between different motive factors and the age of the person. He rounded it up that voluntaries who were grown-up were really more interested in voluntary work for intrinsic factors and it was the younger voluntaries where work experience and indirect extrinsic factors besides played some portion on the whole motive.
Terpstra ‘s ( 1979 ) ain theoretical account of motive drew its inspiration from the motivational theoretical account presented as the hierarchy of demand laid down by Maslow ( 1954 ) . Maslow talked about five demand degrees in a motivational model known as the physiological demand, the safety demand, the societal demand, the self-importance demand and the demand for self realization. Harmonizing to this theoretical account, the most indispensable demands had to be fulfilled before the following demand of the human being comes into the drama. Terpstra looked into this theory of Maslow from the angle of the industrialised age.
Maslow assumed that the most critical demand was the physiological demand. It is merely after the achievement of this peculiar demand that the function of other factors comes to the equation. In the instance of our research of the voluntary fire combatants, the privation for safety as laid behind in the demand hierarchy holds significance. The single head and senses are more motivated to make better in an environment where the safety steps are good. This is why the primary research of the fire combatant voluntaries and their motive will besides see the component of safety in their work environment and occupation design.
More late, Brewer et Al. ( 2000 ) built up their research on the evidences of the 40 articles listed down by Perry and verified motivational properties. They came up with four classs of motive in the public services two of which are extremely relevant in our survey every bit good i.e. do-gooders and communitarians. These classs in more ways than one still follows the same rule that old writers have modeled farther outlining and proposing that Motivation has been a critical portion of fresh thought, particularly towards staff and voluntary enlisting.
The topic that frequently revolves around Public service motive is whether it can be really used for the good of positively act uponing the motive degree of employees in public service. Basicss such as enlisting, choice, showing, keeping, occupation public presentation and satisfaction are of import to understand in a public service context as per the research range of this paper. In the instance of non-profit-making organisation, more than 60 per centum of employees in a research carried out by Paul ( 2002 ) said that they worked in the organisation with the motivation to do a difference in the community. The lesser the economic inducement for working in an organisation, the more chance there is that the intrinsic factors constitute the motivational force for the workers. His research concluded that workers in such environments emphasize on doing a difference every bit good as a shared vision of the work topographic point ( Paul, 2002 ) . Compared to workers in the private sector, these employees and workers were more antiphonal to factors such as being of aid to the populace, being able to do a difference to the community and making a occupation which has significance. As all these entail committedness to function the community.
An of import factor was besides noticed in ( 2000 ) by Brewer et Al. Who believed that persons working in a voluntary place are ever witting of the fact that the mission of public service should non be compromised. In this instance, the mission statement of the voluntary fire combatants should be respected in order for them to remain motivated with their work harmonizing to the research.
One of the most indispensable research methodological analysiss and study was done by McEwin and Jacobsen-D`Arcy in 2002. The research methodological analysis and rule will besides help in the research work in measuring motive of fire combatants as voluntaries. The research carried out by McEwin and Jacobsen consisted of around 280 voluntaries who came from a broad array of organisation. The research was based on three separate phases. The first phase was focused on 40 voluntaries who came from two organisations. They were given checklists, asked unfastened ended inquiries and given the autonomy to explicate why they voluntaries every bit good. On the footing of the participants and a literature reappraisal, there was the development and preparation of the concluding questionnaire with 15 classs. In the following phase, this study was distributed to over 200 voluntaries based on which the voluntary motive stock list was developed dwelling of 40 statements. They came up with 8 motivational factors on a 5 point Likert graduated table which the research have decided to utilize in this research work. The eight motivational factors that were utilised include values, calling, personal growing, acknowledgment, hedonic, societal, reactive and reciprocality. Let us look into each one of this factor for a better apprehension of the stock list.
McEwin and Jacobson ( 2002 ) 8 Motivational Factors
The person might hold strong personal or household values which have a relationship with volunteering. Every human being has a set of values and volunteering might be a component of this set.
The person might be taking portion in voluntary services for the intents of geting experience and field. These volunteering services might in the terminal assist them in their professional calling or assist them in happening occupations.
The person ‘s personal growing demands are frequently met by the volunteering services.
The person might be motivated by the ultimate acknowledgment that might be received for the volunteering services that are given. This means a satisfaction of the acknowledgment of parts that are made to the society.
A This is associated with the felicity that might come with the act of being of aid to the community
This a manner of happening a pleasant feelings in the societal concept of volunteering where they interact amongst each other and construct their personal relationship web.
A The person might be taking portion in voluntary services as a reaction to a past incident. Therefore, this act might in fact be a demand to turn to a personal yesteryear issue
The person might see it as an equal exchange and positions it as an act of higher good
In drumhead, a research undertaking carried out by Dr Judy Esmond et-al ; ( 2004 ) , explains that “ organisations can utilize information on motives to pull possible voluntaries by orienting enlisting messages to closely fit their motivational demands ; And besides in measuring the motivational demands of new voluntaries, organisations can guarantee effectual arrangement of voluntaries into activities that meet their demands, by understanding their voluntaries ‘ motives, organisations can seek to keep unpaid satisfaction by guaranting these motives are fulfilled ” .
CRITICAL ISSUES AFFECTING VOLUNTEERING
As far back as 2 decennaries ago, Willing ( 1994 ) asserted that volunteerism, in general, was diminishing, and thereby negatively set uping enlisting and keeping of voluntary firemans. The fact that Nigeria is still sing such jobs further high spots the recline that the state hopes to eliminate. As Arinze ( 2007 ) remarks, “ Our fire combat service is now moribund. Let us revive the fire brigade so that lives and belongingss will non be lost unnecessarily. It is clip to look into whether some people are roll uping the allotment for instruments meant for the fire contending service or there was no allotment for it at all. The continued disregard of our fire service establishments is a continued disregard of the people ” .
The undermentioned statement, points out to a debauched manner of operations services in Nigeria, non merely in the fire service but in other functional divisions of the Ministry of Works. Looting of money and other deceitful activities has ensured that the executing of assignments in many sectors of the authorities is underfunded and in consequence renders these sectors un-effective. This has besides affected the fire service in Nigeria and its ability to pull voluntaries, as the remarks above describe. As a consequence, there are unequal installations to work with and deficiency of support to provide for the staff and voluntaries, among other jobs.
Other critical issues included a deficiency of appropriate preparation and making plans which are non limited to the voluntaries themselves, but the fire service section as a whole. Same writer remarks that certain signifiers of fires have non been decently researched and equipment to counter these fires are therefore unavailable as a consequence of a deficiency of cognition and information.
In drumhead, as a consequence of these factors, “ many houses were razed down by fire and there was no fire combatants insight. Many lives were lost and belongingss destroyed. That fire would hold been checkmated if we had an effectual fire contending arms and good plenty trained fire combatants in topographic point. I am seeking to utilize this piece to pull our attending to the distressing province of the fire combat system. We should non wait until more lives and belongingss are lost before we will make something about that organisation. Nigerians have been known for their fire brigade attack to things. But now our fire brigade is down due to little Numberss of staff and unequal arms to contend the fire ” .