Save Forest and Wildlife Essay Example
Save Forest and Wildlife Essay Example

Save Forest and Wildlife Essay Example

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Save Forests and Wildlife As man learnt about nature he started to interfere with the laws of nature. He cut off the forests for agriculture and tamed wild animals for his food and clothing. Man was able to conquer nature, yet he can't control it. A balance exists between all living and non-living things in nature. Ecological disasters are bound to happen if there is any disturbance in the natural equilibrium. Increased industrialization and human requirements have led to the destruction of our forests and wildlife, which are interdependent in more than one ways. Forests are indispensable to mankind.

They provide us with wood, raw materials; prevent floods and soil erosion; increase underground water supply and humidity of air; provide an abode for the wildlife, check air pollution,


etc. On a sunny day a large elm tree gives off vapor which is equivalent to 1500 gallons of water. Annual world production of forest products exceeds US $ 150 billion, thus playing a vital role in the economy of a nation. According to a UN report, rain forests have been destroyed to a large extent. Man has mercilessly chopped off trees without paying any attention to the destruction he is causing to his own life and future.

Hillsides have been stripped off its vegetation cover in the Himalayas, which has become a major cause for the earthquakes, avalanches, and landslides. Deforestation not only diminishes the natural beauty of any place but also upsets the ecological balance of that place. It is believed that the Thar Desert is a man-made desert. Yes! Emperor Akbar went for hunting there. Wildlife is at the brink

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of destruction! Due to destruction of forests, pollution, climatic changes and extensive hunting of animals, many species of wildlife have become extinct.

With extension, when a species disappears, it is gone forever! Wildlife destruction has upset the whole mechanism of natural regulation and balance, which could endanger our very existence. Animals are being used widely in drug research nowadays. Scientists believe that animal experimentation is necessary for the progress of medical sciences. They may be right but what we need is a balance between biomedical research and animal welfare. The day is not far away when sighting a tusker will be a rare occurrence in India.

The world famous Hangul, a reindeer species found only in Kashmir, is endangered. Maybe the future generation will not know what a Hangul was! Chiru, the Tibetan antelope, is also facing the threat of extinction due to its extensive hunting for the fleece, which is required to weave the famous Kashmiri Shahtoosh shawls. India is one of the world extensive networks of officially Protected Areas. These areas a re a place of biological diversity and harmony but are now under a ruthless assault due to urbanization, population pressure, industrialization, etc. rade in wildlife products is a vast business involving billions of dollars! Some of the facts that point out the urgent need to save our national wealth are: *A national survey in India in 1980s revealed that humans inhibited 69% of Protected Areas. *It is believed that an area of tropical forest 4 times the size of Switzerland disappears every year! *Forest lands in the developing countries have declined to half of the original! *Destruction of forests

leads to the destruction of wildlife. For every plant species that becomes extinct upto 30 dependent animals and insects die. Earlier in this century there were about 50,000 tigers in India, but there are now less than 2000! *Sri Lanka is a classic example, which can be cited while mentioning a place where the tusker population has been reduced to zero! *95% of the elephants that were killed in India were tuskers whose existence has been endangered due to poaching for ivory. According to the estimate provided by Airport, Bangalore Asian Elephant Conservation Center, on an average 250 tuskers are killed every year in India. *In a period of about 400 years, on an average, every year a species has become extinct.

By 1985 this rate had increased to one species per day! *According to a study of World Watch Institute minimum of 140 plant and animal species are condemned to extinction each day. *There was a time when 40% of the land on earth was covered with forests. Unfortunately, only 1/3rd part of the land is now covered with forests and the rate of decreasing green cover is increasing day by day. *A 50 year old tree generates oxygen worth 5. 3 lakh rupees and 5. 3 lakh rupees of shelter for birds and animals. Hence, destruction of one tree is worth loss of more than 32 lakh rupees!

National Forest Killing Wildlife such as the aak bird of northern polar region, moa bird of New Zealand, dodo bird of Mauritius, thylacine of Tasmania, Indian tiger, Indian rhino, pink-headed duck, black-necked crane, bustard, barking deer, monitor lizard, panda, black panther, jaguar, lions,

Indian wildass, muskdeer, etc are examples which are already or are about to become extinct. Animals facing the threat of extinction are Gila trout, Houston toad, gharial, Californian condor, javan rhinoceros, puma, polar bear, antelope, humpback whale, Kashmir stag (hangul), etc.

Among plant species monkey orchid, alpine catchfly, snakes head fritillary, etc are endangered. The way in which man exploits and destroys nature may definitely bring some short-term reward or profit but it harms him in the long run. The survival of the human race is possible only with the survival of our environment as a whole. A person may think that killing animal or a bird wont matter much. But what is worth considering is the fact that there are millions of people out there having such attitude, thereby killing just one animal or bird every now and then!

It is this threat to wildlife that makes it mandatory for every person to understand the relation between organisms and their environment. We have to make serious efforts toward wildlife conservation campaign. This credit goes to America because the first conservation area of the world- Yellow Stone National Park- was set up there in 1872. Today there are about 1200 such national parks and reserves in the world. The Himachal Wildlife Project, which was launched in the early 1980s, was the first serious attempt made by Indian conservationists in this direction.

International Union for Conservation of Nature and natural resources (IUCN) was set up in 1948 in Switzerland and has done great work for the cause of healthy environment. WWF was set up in 1962 to provide funds for the conservation and

preservation of wildlife. About 70% of World Wildlife Fund (WWF) projects have achieved their targets. India has taken the lead in rescuing a vital and charismatic predator- the snow leopard. Also, the Indian branch of the World Pheasant Association had started publication of a quarterly journal called the India News.

IWLA was passed in 1972 to protect habitats and endangered species. The government of J State had raised a trained force called as the Forest Protection Force to tackle the illegal activities going in the forests in the state. Something has been done, a lot more needs to be done. We have to develop harmony with nature as against conflict. Environmental issues should not only be discussed and talked about, but efforts should be made to do something at all possible levels. This issue needs to be a part of the public agenda. The concerned authorities should safeguard forests.

Poaching and illegal hunting should be stopped. The export and sale of animal products should be completely banned. Habitats of the wildlife should be conserved like forests, wetlands, etc. Massive afforestation programs have to be set in motion. Eco-friendly stationery can save hundreds of bamboo or eucalyptus trees. Recycled paper use should be encouraged. Forest fires need to be prevented. Our political and legal systems alone can accomplish much. To prevent the inhuman slaughter and hunting of these animals and birds, voluntary organizations should come forward and fight for this cause.

We should protest if trees are being illegally cut down. We should support and participate in the programs of environmental groups and agencies. It is true that man has caused these problems;

it is equally true that the solutions are also to be provided and implemented by man himself! If we sincerely want that Hangul should not become history for the future generations, we have to make serious efforts toward its conservation. The future generations should be given the opportunity of witnessing the unique and beautiful Planet earth of ours and not read about the green planet in the books of fiction!

We have no option but to conserve nature or its bankruptcy will extinguish us all! Strategy (Greek "????????? " - strategia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship"[1]) is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. Strategy becomes ever necessary when it is known or suspected there are insufficient resources to achieve these goals. Strategy is also about attaining and maintaining a position of advantage over adversaries through the successive exploitation of known or emergent possibilities rather than committing to any specific fixed plan designed at the outset.

Henry Mintzberg from McGill University defined strategy as "a pattern in a stream of decisions" to contrast with a view of strategy as planning [2] while Max McKeown (2011) argues that "strategy is about shaping the future" and is the human attempt to get to "desirable ends with available means". strategy Definitions (2) 1. A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to a problem. 2. The art and science of planning and marshalling resources for their most efficient and effective use.

The term is derived from the Greek word for generalship or leading

an army. See also tactics. Ads by Google Read more: http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/strategy. html#ixzz2TtWXaEWz Wildlife conservation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (October 2011) The Siberian tiger is a subspecies of tiger that is critically endangered; three subspecies of tiger are already extinct.

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans. [1] Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes. 2] Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. The science of extinction. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters. Contents •1 Major threats to wildlife •2 North American Model of Wildlife Conservation o2. 1 Public trust doctrine o2. 2 Non-frivolous use o2. 3 Wildlife as an international resource 3 Government involvement •4 Non-government involvement •5 Active non-government organizations •6 References •7 External links Major threats to wildlife This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose.

You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (May 2011) Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below:[3] •Habitat loss: Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear little resemblance to the wild areas which existed in the past. Climate change: Because many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight insects are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in moisture level. [4][5] •Pesticides and toxic chemical: Widely used, making the environment toxic to certain plants, insects, and rodents. •Unregulated Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife.

Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. •Natural phenomena: Floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires. •Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. •Over-exploitation of resources: Exploitation of wild populations for food has resulted in population crashes (over-fishing and over-grazing for example) •Perhaps the largest threat is the extreme growing indifference of the public to wildlife, conservation and environmental issues in general. 6] North American Model of Wildlife Conservation The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation is considered to be one the most successful conservation models in world. [citation needed] It has its origins in 19th century conservation movements, the near extinction of several species of wildlife (including the American Bison) and the rise of sportsmen with the middle class. [7][8] Beginning in the 1860s

sportsmen began to organize and advocate for the preservation of wilderness areas and wildlife.

The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation rests on two basic principles – fish and wildlife are for the non-commercial use of citizens, and should be managed such that they are available at optimum population levels forever. These core principles are elaborated upon in the seven major tenets of the model. Public trust doctrine In the North American Model, wildlife is held in the public trust. This means that fish and wildlife are held by the public through state and federal governments. In other words, though an individual may own the land up which wildlife resides, that individual does not own said wildlife.

Instead, the wildlife is owned by all citizens. With origins in Roman times and English Common law, the public trust doctrine has at its heart the 1842 Supreme Court ruling Martin V. Waddell. [8][9] Non-frivolous use Under the North American Model, the killing of game must be done only for food, fur, self-defense, and the protection of property (including livestock). In other words, it is broadly regarded as unlawful and unethical to kill fish or wildlife (even with a license) without making all reasonable effort to retrieve and make reasonable use of the resource. 10][11] Wildlife as an international resource As wildlife do not exist only within fixed political boundaries, effective management of these resources must be done internationally, through treaties and the cooperation of management agencies. [10][11] Government involvement The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy

was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed "framework" to successful conservation.

The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources "(IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)"[12] The strategy aims to "provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions. [12] This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended "users" of the strategy to its very priorities and even a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption therefore endangering the area to over fishing. The main sections are as follows: •The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement: 1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. 2. Preservation of genetic diversity that is flora and fauna. 3. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems. Priorities for national action: 1. A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies. 2. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development. 3. Environmental planning and rational use allocation. •Priorities for international action: 1. International action: law and assistance. 2. Tropical forests and drylands. 3. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas. Map sections: 1. Tropical forests 2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification. Non-government involvement

As “major development agencies” became “discouraged with the public sector” of environmental conservation in the late 1980s, these agencies began to lean their support towards the “private sector” or non-government organizations (NGOs). [13]

In a World Bank Discussion Paper it is made apparent that “the explosive emergence of nongovernmental organizations” was widely known to government policy makers. Seeing this rise in NGO support, the U. S. Congress made amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act in 1979 and 1986 “earmarking U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds for biodiversity”. 13] From 1990 moving through recent years environmental conservation in the NGO sector has become increasingly more focused on the political and economic impact of USAID given towards the “Environment and Natural Resources”. [14] After the terror attacks on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 and the start of former President Bush’s War on Terror, maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and natural resources became a “priority” to “prevent international tensions” according to the Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002[14] and section 117 of the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act. 14] Furthermore in 2002 U. S. Congress modified the section on endangered species of the previously amended Foreign Assistance Act. Sec. 119. 100 Endangered Species: (a) The Congress finds the survival of many animals and plant species is endangered by over hunting, by the presence of toxic chemicals in water, air and soil, and by the destruction of habitats. The Congress further finds that the extinction of animal and plant species is an irreparable loss with potentially serious environmental and economic consequences for developing and developed countries alike.

Accordingly, the preservation of animal and plant species through the regulation of the hunting and trade in endangered species, through limitations on the pollution of natural ecosystems, and through the protection of wildlife habitats should be an

important objective of the United States development assistance. (b) 100 In order to preserve biological diversity, the President is authorized to furnish assistance under this part, notwithstanding section 660,101 to assist countries in protecting and maintaining wildlife habitats and in developing sound wildlife management and plant conservation programs.

Special efforts should be made to establish and maintain wildlife sanctuaries, reserves, and parks; to enact and enforce anti-poaching measures; and to identify, study, and catalog animal and plant species, especially in tropical environments. [14] The amendments to the section also included modifications on the section concerning "PVOs and other Nongovernmental Organizations. "[14] The section requires that PVOs and NGOs "to the fullest extent possible involve local people with all stages of design and implementation. [14] These amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act and the recent[when? ] rise in USAID funding towards foreign environmental conservation have led to several disagreements in terms of NGOs' role in foreign development. Active non-government organizations Many NGOs exist to actively promote, or be involved with wildlife conservation: •The Nature Conservancy is a US charitable environmental organization that works to preserve the plants, animals, and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive. 15] •World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world's largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 90 countries, supporting around 1300[4] conservation and

environmental projects around the world.

It is a charity, with approximately 60% of its funding coming from voluntary donations by private individuals. 45% of the fund's income comes from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. [16] •WildTeam •Wildlife Conservation Society •Audubon Society •Traffic (conservation programme) •Safari Club International •Wild Earth Guardians Role in the Modern Conservation Era During the 1960s and 1970s, the WCS took a leadership role in pioneering zoological exhibitions by seeking to recreate natural environments for the animals on display.

Under the leadership of WCS director William G. Conway, the Bronx Zoo opened its World of Darkness for nocturnal species in 1969 and its World of Birds for avian displays in 1974. [7] Eventually New York City turned to WCS to renew and manage three city-run facilities in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens. The redesigned Central Park Zoo opened in 1988, followed by the Queens Zoo in 1992 and the Prospect Park Zoo in 1993. [8] From 1994 through 1996 Archie Carr III of WCS helped establish the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize, a reserve for endangered jaguar. Today

Today WCS is at work on some 500 projects in more than 60 nations around the world that are intended to help protect both wildlife and the wild places in which they live. [9] The organization endeavors to protect 25 percent of the world's biodiversity—from the gorillas of Africa and the tigers of Asia to macaws in South America and the sharks, whales and turtles traveling through the planet's seas. In recent years WCS has actively worked in conflict areas like Afghanistan, South Sudan and Myanmar, where

agreements on wildlife resource have contributed to peace and stability.

More than 4 million people visit WCS's wildlife parks in New York City each year. WCS's zoos and aquarium inform visitors from across the globe with state-of-the-art exhibits with naturalistic settings. Guests encounter a variety of species threatened in the wild and learn how they can help secure the future of these animals. With the award-winning Congo Gorilla Forest, which presents several troops of western lowland gorillas as one might see them in the wild, the Bronx Zoo became the first zoo to directly contribute exhibit admission fees to field-based conservation, with more than $11 million raised for work in central Africa. 10] Mannahatta Project The Mannahatta Project[11] is a project by the WCS to reconstruct and map how Manhattan looked in 1609 when Henry Hudson discovered the island. Elements being mapped include where the streams flowed and where each species of tree grew. [12] The Lenni Lenape people who lived there called the island Mannahatta, or "land of many hills. " The project highlights the ways that development has altered the natural ecosystems. Deforestation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Deforestation (disambiguation).

Satellite photograph of deforestation in progress in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia. Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. [1] Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests. [2] Contents •1 Causes •2

Environmental problems •3 Economic impact •4 Forest transition theory •5 Historical causes •6 Industrial era •7 Control 8 Military context •9 See also •10 References •11 External links The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. [not in citation given][neutrality is disputed] However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area[not in citation given]—in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest. [3] In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. 4] Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction. [5][6] Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity.

It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive an enemy of cover for its forces and also vital resources. A modern example of this was the use of Agent Orange by the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale.

justify">In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human induced, is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. [5] Among countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600, net deforestation rates have ceased to increase. [when? ][7][8] Causes According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat, the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture.

Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation; logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation. [9] Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation. [10][11] Some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives, others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. 10] One study found that population increases due to high fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases. [12] Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions,[13][14] the inequitable distribution of wealth and power,[15] population growth[16] and overpopulation,[17][18] and urbanization. [19] Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation,[20][21] though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new ? ws of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery. [22] The last batch of sawnwood from the peat forest in Indragiri Hulu, Sumatra, Indonesia. Deforestation for oil palm plantation. In 2000 the United Nations Food

and Agriculture Organization (FAO) found that "the role of population dynamics in a local setting may vary from decisive to negligible," and that deforestation can result from "a combination of population pressure and stagnating economic, social and technological conditions. [16] The degradation of forest ecosystems has also been traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. [23] Many important forest functions have no markets, and hence, no economic value that is readily apparent to the forests' owners or the communities that rely on forests for their well-being. [23] From the perspective of the developing world, the benefits of forest as carbon sinks or biodiversity reserves go primarily to richer developed nations and there is insufficient compensation for these services.

Developing countries feel that some countries in the developed world, such as the United States of America, cut down their forests centuries ago and benefited greatly from this deforestation, and that it is hypocritical to deny developing countries the same opportunities: that the poor shouldn't have to bear the cost of preservation when the rich created the problem. [24] Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years. 25] Whereas deforestation was primarily driven by subsistence activities and government-sponsored development projects like transmigration in countries like Indonesia and colonization in Latin America, India, Java, and so on, during late 19th century and the earlier half of the 20th century. By the 1990s the majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors, including extractive industries, large-scale cattle ranching, and extensive agriculture. [26] Environmental problems Atmospheric Illegal slash and burn practice in Madagascar, 2010

style="text-align: justify">Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. [27][28][29][30][31] Deforestation is a contributor to global warming,[32][33] and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. [34] According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation, mainly in tropical areas, could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. 35] But recent calculations suggest that carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (excluding peatland emissions) contribute about 12% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with a range from 6 to 17%. [36] Deforestation causes carbon dioxide to linger in the atmosphere. As carbon dioxide accrues, it produces a layer in the atmosphere that traps radiation from the sun. The radiation converts to heat which causes global warming, which is better known as the greenhouse effect. 37] Other plants remove carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the atmosphere during normal respiration. Only when actively growing can a tree or forest remove carbon over an annual or longer timeframe. Both the decay and burning of wood releases much of this stored carbon back to the atmosphere. In order for forests to take up carbon, the wood must be harvested and turned into long-lived products and trees must be re-planted. 38] Deforestation may cause carbon stores held in soil to be released. Forests are stores of carbon and can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances. Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide

(see carbon dioxide sink and carbon cycle). In deforested areas, the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature, leading to localized upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more rainfall. [39] However, according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the models used to

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