Cultural Rules Of Application Theology Religion Essay Example
Cultural Rules Of Application Theology Religion Essay Example

Cultural Rules Of Application Theology Religion Essay Example

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  • Pages: 9 (2240 words)
  • Published: September 12, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
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Babies have the ability to comprehend language before they start making sounds. According to research conducted by Mehler and others, infants can recognize their mother's language because they were exposed to it in the womb. When babies hear their mother's language, they respond by sucking on pacifiers more vigorously compared to when they hear other languages. Initially, babies communicate through crying, which can indicate different needs like hunger, pain, sleepiness, fear, or loneliness. Caregivers quickly learn to differentiate between these cries. Interestingly, these cries appear to be universally understood as foreign mothers can interpret the cries of English-speaking babies and vice versa. The next stage is called cooing and usually happens between six to eight weeks. During this phase, babies make sounds like "coo," "goo," and "gaga." Linguists believe that cooing helps infants gain control over their vocal cords.<


h2>Paraphrase and Unify:

During the babbling stage, which follows cooing, babies combine consonants and vowels like "ba," "ma," "ga," and "da." These sounds may be repeated, resulting in words like "baba," "mama," and "dada." While caregivers often interpret these utterances as a baby's first words, they do not seem to have any inherent significance for the infant. The inconsistent use of should be maintained.

Furthermore, these sounds may explain why variations of 'mama' and 'dada'/'papa' are found across different cultures, where they refer to 'mother' and 'father'.

During this stage of development, babies also acquire intonation skills. They start using a rising tone towards the end of their vocalizations or imitating adults in terms of intonation patterns used for naming or recognition.

Additionally, babies learn to communicate through body language alongside their early use of sound.

Around one year old,

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although this milestone can vary among normal infants, they produce their first word. Identifying the exact moment when this occurs can be challenging. Therefore it is better to consider it as a developmental milestone on a continuum rather than an ultimate achievement.Learning to speak words is just a small part of language acquisition. Understanding grammar rules, semantic rules, and social rules are equally important for developing vocabulary. In late infancy, children learn a few distinct words and can comprehend some language used around them by focusing on context. Around 2 years old, their ability to use language and vocabularies suddenly increases. The size of their nomenclature improves and they begin combining words in short phrases. The ability to convey meaning through language develops alongside activities like playing and imitating. Constructing simple statements requires understanding the meaning of words. Despite extensive research, the process of language acquisition remains mysterious with no single concept fully explaining it. However, it's clear that developing a child's language skills involves participating in responsive human communication and being exposed to a rich vocabulary environment (Bruner, J., 1983). Most studies on language development have focused on how children learn the rules governing its use - specifically pragmatics for social interaction and lexical rules for word combination.Children acquire many of these rules and strategies through social interaction, often without even realizing it. Expressive devices, like irony, serve as signals for the audience to not take what is being said seriously, similar to how adults communicate. Another rule involves using a question to indirectly make a request. However, due to their narcissistic tendencies and limited social experience, children do not fully comprehend these indirect

requests. For children, the practical purpose of language holds more importance than the specific meaning of phrases.

When English-speaking preschoolers interact with non-English speaking children in a group setting, they may engage in play together for days without noticing any language differences. For instance, a 4-year-old English-speaking child approached a 3-year-old French-speaking child and spoke in English. The French child responded in French, but they still managed to play as if they understood each other. This kind of interaction highlights the commonality of practical guidelines across languages while relying on context and non-verbal cues such as tone of voice to understand meanings.

Telegraphic speech reflects a child's inclination to use only essential words for conveying meaning. For example, instead of saying "Mama, I would like some juice," they might say "Mama juice." Between ages 2 and 6, children gradually improve their sentence length. Telegraic conversations exhibit both similarities and variations across different languages.Most languages display omissions of certain types of terms such as articles, conjunctions, prepositions, and simple change-indicating verbs. Understanding telegraphic phrases heavily relies on contextual information. These changes are illustrated by myelogenetic rhythms, which represent the formation of myelin in the brain. This process is referred to as myelogenetic rhythms. There are three crucial myelogenetic periods for children's language learning.

The first period occurs before birth and ends in early infancy, coinciding with babbling growth in the primitive brain. The second period begins at birth and continues until 3.5 to 4.5 years old in a more advanced part of the brain. This aligns with conversation development during infancy and early preschool years.

The third form takes place in areas of the brain that have a significant role

in cognition. Although myelination starts at birth, it is not fully completed until age 15 or later.

Social And Emotional Development

Social development involves children becoming more integrated into society as individuals. This integration process known as socialization includes acquiring society's values, standards, and knowledge from their community.

Character development or personality formation refers to how an individual child uniquely thinks and experiences their surroundings.
Socialization is a crucial aspect of a child's development, starting from birth and particularly important during their early years. It plays a significant role in shaping their understanding of the community they live in. All individuals, regardless of age, contribute to this process. Caretakers establish expectations for the child's behavior and provide appropriate rewards or punishments accordingly. They also create social situations that allow children to learn how to navigate and adhere to societal rules.

Children actively participate in this process by interpreting their surroundings and focusing on what they find significant based on the information available to them. The text highlights the importance of both individual growth and socialization for overall development. During the preschool years, growth is closely tied to success in language and cognitive skills. Social growth becomes evident as children readily adopt the guidelines established by their social group.

By the age of six, children have acquired knowledge on how to behave according to societal norms, respect others' rights, and manage aggressive or angry feelings appropriately. At around 6-7 years old, children transition from childhood into acquiring new societal skills and facing increased demands. Their minds have become complex similar to adults'. This stage marks the beginning of formal education along with expanded social interactions beyond just family circles.

The progress

made during early childhood prepares them for future challenges that lie ahead.
The text suggests that prolonged influences can cause a tree to curve, hindering its reproduction and blooming. However, if the bending forces stop or if the nurseryman aligns the tree vertically, only a minor mark may be left on the trunk but the tree will thrive and integrate into its surroundings.

Question2: In an essay of approximately 1200 words, provide a philosophical and artistic analysis of Jacques-Louis David's painting titled "The Death of Socrates" 1787 (Colour plate 41).

To answer this question, you should consider the historical and political context in which David worked as explained in sections 6 of Units 16 and 17 in Block 3, The Neoclassical World. You should also examine Rousseau's influence on David by revisiting some of Rousseau's ideas outlined in his Social Contract (Sections 1 and 3 of Units 18 and 19 in Block 3, The Neoclassical World; extract B1 Rousseau, The Social Contract in Resource Book). Your analysis should focus on David's Neoclassical style highlighting elements such as color and lighting, selection and arrangement of objects and figures, expressions gestures, attitudes of figures.Unit 20, titled "Art, History and Politics: David," will be highly relevant for your discussion here. You can also utilize Brookner's chronology of David (extract C4) in A Resource Book 2. You can use different sources to assist you; however, it is crucial to document any words or thoughts that are not your own.

The Death Of Socrates

The Death of Socrates, painted in 1787 by Jacques-Louis David, a French painter, is considered one of his best works. The painting depicts one of Socrates' final moments before

he drinks the Hemlock and dies. Socrates faced charges for criticizing the beliefs of Athens and misleading the youth. His punishment was either to renounce his philosophical beliefs or die by consuming Hemlock. Remaining steadfast in his philosophy and stance on death, Socrates chose to drink the Hemlock. Alongside him stood his followers who were visibly distressed by the situation. Crito, a friend and follower of Socrates, reached out and touched his leg as an attempt to comfort or persuade him to reconsider his decision. Plato sat at the foot of the bed with crossed arms and legs while looking downcast. He appeared upset but more defeated than hysterical. There are multiple reasons for this reaction from Plato—firstly being that Plato was a devoted friend, pupil, and follower of Socrates thus realizing he was losing a great friend.
However, as a follower of Socrates' philosophical beliefs, he recognizes that he cannot alter Socrates' fate and trusts the destiny chosen by Socrates. On his bed, Socrates symbolizes the bond from which he has been released, indicating his control over his own destiny. He is free to depart whenever he wishes. Lastly, with his right hand extended towards the Hemlock goblet and pointing towards the sky with his left hand, Socrates portrays acceptance of his decision to drink from the goblet and embrace death. The meaning behind the latter gesture can be interpreted differently. Considering Socrates' background as a philosopher, one interpretation stands out among others - he may be pointing to the sky as a final lesson to console his followers grieving over his death. Firmly believing in an existence beyond death, he might explain that there

is something greater than their current circumstances, including their limited physical state. Confident in sacrificing himself for his beliefs, Socrates seeks to elucidate why. The painting "The Death of Socrates" was created during a tumultuous period in France when revolution seemed imminent in 1787. Parisians began expressing dissent against their absolute ruler and were willing to die for their convictions and desire for change.The painter, Jacques-Louis David, found similarities between Socrates and the political situation in France. Socrates represents the French opposition with his strong beliefs, unwavering confidence, and willingness to die for them. The strange parallels between Socrates' situation in the painting and the political climate in France at that time were depicted by David to provide a relatable figure for the French people and symbolize the revolution. Death is a prominent theme as Socrates believed in an afterlife. He saw death as a consequence of his philosophical beliefs and calmly reaches for the goblet of hemlock despite his circumstances. It is widely accepted in philosophy that an unexamined life has no value, which Socrates may have shared leading him to choose death over exile in order to continue examining life. Philosophy teaches how to die well and being a renowned philosopher with firm convictions, Socrates may have felt he had accomplished all possible goals in this life, confidently moving on to another plane of existence. The painting also utilizes colors as one significant aspect.The chosen colors by Jacques-Louis David establish the mood and elicit specific emotions in the viewer. Socrates and his companions are portrayed within a somber dungeon-like room, characterized by solid gray walls. The sole source of illumination appears to emanate

from an unseen window above. The prevalence of gray imbues the painting with a sense of unease and seclusion. At the heart of "The Death of Socrates" by Jacques-Louis David lies Socrates himself, along with his bed and followers. While Socrates is clad in a white robe, his followers don brightly colored robes. This contrast between light and dark hues symbolizes good versus evil respectively. The vibrant robes worn by Socrates' disciples can be interpreted as symbols of their virtuous nature amidst an evil setting. These garments infuse vitality into the painting, potentially representing the transmission of Socratic teachings to future generations. Meanwhile, Socrates' white robe bestows upon him a prophetic presence that foreshadows his imminent martyrdom. This timeless masterpiece showcases the artist's talent through meticulous attention to detail, skillful use of color, and balanced symmetry. It serves as a poignant reminder that throughout history individuals have fervently defended their beliefs—an idea particularly relevant for revolutionaries in France at that time period. Remarkably sizable in scale given its extraordinary level of intricacy, completing this artwork must have demanded countless painstaking hours of work.
Moreover, David's clever decision to revive the story of Socrates during a critical time demonstrated his ability to stay true to one's beliefs. The painting itself symbolized the significance of remaining steadfast even when faced with death. This revival came at a moment when fellow citizens were in dire need of such inspiration. Contemplating these facts forces me to acknowledge David as an esteemed and brilliant artist deserving recognition and celebration. His exceptional talent and courage in creating artwork that had the potential to ignite revolution, despite the possibility of imprisonment or death,

should be held in high regard and admired greatly.

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