Aristagoras of Miletus Essay Example
Aristagoras of Miletus Essay Example

Aristagoras of Miletus Essay Example

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  • Pages: 9 (2391 words)
  • Published: December 3, 2017
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Making thoughtless comments can have negative consequences on friendships and cause anger. It is best to keep personal thoughts private and carefully consider any criticism before sharing it. However, the actions of Aristocrat, a Persian satrap in the early 5th century BCE, had a significant impact on history. In the ancient world, Persia was a dominant empire and while conflicts were common, there were no major wars between empires. Aristocrat's critical remarks sparked a chain of events that ultimately led to significant changes in the Mediterranean world. This includes the fact that delegates to the United Nations now wear suits and ties instead of turbans (Facet 1).

The Persian Empire spanned a vast territory, divided into twenty satrapies overseen by appointed governors known as satraps. The ruler at the time was King Darius I. Satraps were responsible for duties such as


implementing taxes, serving as judges, and making important decisions for their respective satrapy. Depending on their location, satrapies often enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy. Despite this, a uniform system of laws and judges was maintained throughout the empire. Resources were abundant and well-maintained infrastructure connected the lands. In contrast, the Greeks were divided into numerous independent entities known as polis and ruled by tyrants. They lacked resources, leading to frequent conflicts and deep-seated jealousy of one another. While occupying a large area, the Greeks were not considered a dominant world force during this time period. One notable example of a satrapy with significant autonomy was Milieus, ruled by Aristocrat and located in the southwest corner of the empire.

The formation of an alliance by major polis to counteract the Persian threat was brough

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about by the declaration of Near by Diaries. While archaeological studies may not fully document the intricacies that spurred the major events of such an early civilization, Herodotus, known as the "Father of History", was able to provide significant detail and interpretation of history, having traveled to many places in the North including Greece and Persia to gather information for his nine books called the Histories. Considered by most historians as accurate and relatively objective, Herodotus' accounts are the only primary source on the Ionian Revolt, providing a more complete understanding of the causes of the Persian Wars. The story begins with Aristocrat, an Ionian Greek who served as the satrap of Milieus on the edge of the Persian Empire. Placed into power by his father-in-law Historians, prior satrap of Milieus, when Historians was promoted to serve in the court of the Persian Emperor Diaries I (Souza 17).

Aristocrat saw an opportunity for promotion and to add to his growing state when the nearby island of Nanas rebelled against the Persian Empire, as reported by Herodotus. He enlisted the help of Earthiness, Diaries' brother and satrap of Lydia who provided him with access to his navy and a skilled admiral, Megabytes, in exchange for a share of the plunder. However, Aristocrat insulted Megabytes, who then warned the people of Nanas resulting in Aristocrat's defeat. Now without any booty to offer Earthiness, Aristocrat faced the likelihood of being exiled or killed since he had failed to fulfill his promise. The neighboring Greek polis also faced potential danger from a vengeful Earthiness. Despite the risks, Aristocrat had hoped to gain both a promotion and money from taxes

by conquering Nanas.Although unsuccessful in seeking military aid from Sparta, Aristocrat managed to convince both Athenians and Ephesians to join his cause against the Persians in Nanas, appealing to their sense of kinship with Ionian Greeks. Focusing on his heritage as an Ionian Greek, he raised a significant army and marched to Saris, the capital of Lydia, where he burned it to the ground while Earthiness hid in the citadel (Billows 156). When Diaries I learned of the rebels' actions, he mobilized his troops to Saris and defeated all except for the escaping Athenians. Aristocrat fled to Thrace where he later died fighting. His legacy lasted for generations (Redroot's 352). Diaries was outraged by what happened and vowed revenge. He prioritized crushing the Ionian Provinces that aided in the revolt, enslaving their populations as a warning. As a result, Persia decided to take over mainland Greece and punish them for their support of the revolt, leading to the Greece Persian Wars.With Hippies as his advisor, Diaries planned his attack and landed at the Plain of Marathon, an area he chose for its proximity to Athens and lack of fortification. However, Greek spies were monitoring the borders, which led to the Greek generals setting up a strategic offensive position along the southern edge of the Hamlet's-Pentane Pass. Despite being outnumbered, both armies engaged in a standoff for several days until the Persians secretly redirected troops to sail directly to Athens. Leaving a small group behind, the Persians hoped to prevent the Greeks from protecting the city while they attacked it from the sea. In response, the Greeks developed a plan of attack, thinning their ranks to

avoid being outflanked by the Persians. The two armies lined up about a mile apart before the Greeks charged early in the morning.Initially in the First Persian War, both armies engaged in battle where the Persians pushed the center of the Greeks back while the Greek wings collapsed the Persian wings. However, the battle wasn't over yet as the Greek forces had to return to Athens for defense. When the Persians arrived, they found the Greeks ready in battle positions leading to their decision to retreat to avoid loss of life. Consequently, they sailed back to Asia Minor and never returned during Diaries' lifetime. Although the Greeks emerged as victors, a rebellion in Egypt emerged, implying that this conflict was not over. After Diaries' death, Xeroxes, his son, began the Second Persian War and aimed to invade Greece by attacking them at Thermopiles. Due to its mountainous terrain and rugged nature, there were three main "gates" for passage, and the Greeks concentrated their defense at the Middle Gate since it led directly to Athens.Leonia, one of Sparta's two kings, defended with an 8,000-man force, diverting 1,000 to the Myopia Pass to safeguard their back. The Persian plan to conquer Thermopiles was split into two phases: a sea attack followed by a land battle. To capture and obliterate the entire Greek navy, they engaged in a sea battle after blocking the only route of escape with 200 Persian ships redirected around Beebe. Initially repelled by the Greeks in circular formation, they then attacked by breaking ranks and ramming Persian ships. The Greeks succeeded in capturing 30 Persian vessels. The following day, the Greeks escaped while the

200 diverted Persian ships got wrecked in an overnight storm. In the land battle, 20,000 Persian Modes were initially sent but repelled at Middle Gate by the Greeks. Then, Hydrates with his elite Immortals force was dispatched. Initially repelled due to hoppled Nearer's nature, they took the Myopia Pass to flank and attack the Greeks although they retreated after initial engagement. (Bradford 125-127)Upon learning of the Persian advance, Leonia ordered his troops, excluding himself and 300 Spartans, to retreat, allowing time for the Athenians to evacuate. Despite putting up a valiant fight, Leonia's small force was unsuccessful and the Persian army went on to capture Athens, causing the Athenians to flee to Salamis. In a bid for protection, the Greek fleet of 300 vessels sailed to Salamis where the Persians followed with a force of 700 ships. Two hundred of the Persian ships were diverted to block escape and force a confrontation with the Greeks. The Greeks reacted quickly, attacking and sinking 200 of the Persian ships while only losing 40 of their own. As winter approached, Xeroxes left Greece to focus on revolts within the empire while Marooning was left in command of the remaining troops. After winter, Marooning attempted to broker peace with the Athenians by offering them land at the expense of other Greek city-states in exchange for Athens' rebuilding. The Athenians refused and turned to Sparta for protection of their peninsula. Due to insufficient reinforcements, the Athenians once again fled to Salamis for refuge.

Fortunately for the Greeks, a large portion of their army arrived at the northern slope of a mountain to await the Persian army, which had disrupted their

supply lines and captured their water supply, forcing the Greeks to engage in battle at the Plain of Palatial (Cassini-Scott 19). Despite the Persians engaging despite unfavorable odds, the Greeks were better prepared for close combat and killed Marooning, causing panic and forcing a retreat, ending the Persian Wars. Although Greece remained an independent collection of city-states after the victory, they eventually united under Philip of Macedon's rule, continuing their expansion through Alexander the Great and forming the foundation of western culture. Alexander's conquest of the Persian Empire carried on this spread even after his death, with Ptolemy, Secluded, and Alyssum continuing this effort (Allen 56).

The Romans absorbed Greek culture into their own after conquering Greece, ultimately allowing it to spread through their even greater conquests. Despite the fall of the Roman Empire and the onset of the dark ages, Greek culture flourished again thanks to the Hellenization of the north. Had Aristocrat not successfully taken-over Nanas, the growth of Western civilization may have taken a different course, potentially overshadowed by the expansion of the Persian Empire. While Herodotus is credited as the "Father of History," there are some who believe that Aristocrat should be given the title of "Father of Western Civilization." Regardless, Western civilization owes much of its identity to Aristocrat's mistake. Herodotus' writings are a primary source for information about the Ionian Revolt. (Holland 154)The historical context provided by the introduction and epilogue, along with the notes, was incredibly helpful in comprehending the translation of Herodotus' The Persian Wars. Additionally, the glossary provided a useful aid in understanding the people and places mentioned in the text. Herodotus' work delves deeply into

the struggles and events that shaped history and the use of footnotes added to the reader's comprehension. Marathon by David Calcify details the Battle of Marathon, including tactics, weapons, military strategy employed, and a prelude to the struggle. Jack Cassini-Scott's The Greek and Persian Wars 500-323 BC gives excellent background information on these wars and an account of major encounters with illustrated battle maps aiding in troop movement comprehension. Ancient World written by Finn Chandler contains further information relevant to this topic.This text includes information about various books that provide insights into the history of the Greeks and Persians. The first book, "The Greeks and the Persians" by Rev. G. W. Cox, traces the formation and eventual fall of both civilizations and covers significant events for further study. The second book mentioned is "Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia" by John E. Curtis and Engel Tallish, which offers an in-depth perspective on the history of the Persian Empire, including the impact of Aristocrat and the Ionian Revolt. It also includes a lengthy bibliography and numerous illustrations. The third book, "100 Mistakes that Changed History" by Bill Facet, provides an overview of Aristocrat's rule of Milieus and the subsequent rebellion that resulted in war between the Persian Empire and the Greeks, highlighting how his actions changed history. Finally, "Collaboration with the Persians" by Daniel Gillis focuses on interactions between the Persians and other civilizations.This text discusses the Greece-Persian wars and their causes, as well as the major battles and the Greek response to each event. It serves as a good introduction to researching Greek culture, offering a concise and easily understandable overview. The book "Persian

Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West" by Tom Holland provides a recent viewpoint and satirical analysis of Aristocrat. "Ancient Greece" by Brian Kinsey is an illustrative history, covering the Greek civilization comprehensively, including the impact of the Greece-Persian Wars on Greek life. The book contains maps displaying areas under Greek influence and alliances formed after Persian invasion, as well as battle illustrations. Finally, "The Battle of Marathon" by Peter Kerned provides an in-depth coverage of this important battle, discussing events leading up to it, the aftermath, and military strategies employed.The Persian Empire, written by Lindsay Allen and published in 2005 by the University of Chicago Press, offers a comprehensive look at the ancient civilization. The book focuses on Aristocrat's reign and heavily relies on archaeological findings. John Myers's Herodotus: A Father of History, published by London Oxford University Press in 1959, provides background information on the author of the only primary source. Myers covers Herodotus's life and travels, the techniques he used in researching events, an overview of how Histories were structured, an analysis of his writing style, and historical notes on his work. The book explores the rise and fall of the Persian Empire in depth, particularly examining the conflict with the Greeks. Finally, Persians: Masters of Empire by John Panel is a Time-Life Books publication from 1995 that considers the Persian viewpoint on the Ionian Revolt and subsequent battles that shaped western history. The book also details imperial organization within the Persian Empire and its eventual conquest by Alexander the Great.The report featured an excellent illustration of the relief of Diaries, which was found in Any, Amanda, and

Marin McGee's book titled The Ancient Near Eastern World (Oxford University Press, 2005). This book provided a concise overview of the Persian Empire and aided in structuring research, while also exploring the relationship between Persians and Greeks. Masseuse Price's Ancient Iran (Amanita Productions LTD, 2008) was another useful preliminary source that offered a brief overview of ancient Persians and focused on Alexander the Great's conquests and providing illustrations. Bristol Classical Press's Greece and the Persians (1990), authored by John Sherwood Smith, primarily concentrated on the Greece-Persian Wars' impact on history, meticulously analyzing the key battles using primary sources to identify patterns and trends. It included multiple maps and battlefield diagrams to supplement war details. Barry Strauss's The Battle of Salamis (Simon & Schuster, 2004) delved deep into the Battle of Salamis, investigating its causes, effects, and military strategy involving this crucia naval engagement. This resource was also a rich source of illustrations. Philip Souza's expertise provided great value to this report as well.Osprey Publishing's 2003 book titled "The Greek and Persian Wars 499-386 BC" discusses the conflicts between Greeks and Persians during this period.

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