Volunteer organization for the London 2012 Olympics

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The enlisting and keeping of a voluntary organisation for the London 2012 Olympics is the individual greatest influence on the experience the visitants enjoy from around the universe when they attend the many locales and locations throughout the United Kingdom ( UK ) . Attracting, preparation and retaining the best voluntary base for the many eclectic and varied events is extremely dependent on acquiring the best possible voluntaries with the most effectual accomplishment sets needed. The voluntaries truly are the face of the Olympics ; they are the trade name experience that visitants globally will see when they attend events, travel to locales, and sightsee through the many historical landmarks of UK. Given the fact that the voluntaries will order the client experience, there is even greater duty, and that is to guarantee that the 1000000s of moments-of-truth when they are called upon to function the Olympics ‘ invitees go positively, transcending the invitees ‘ outlooks. This is the really kernel, the accelerator if you will, of why recruiting, preparation and retaining the best possible voluntaries for the demands defined is critical. The purpose of this analysis is to specify the optimum series of promotional tools and schemes for pulling the highest quality and most qualified voluntaries for the London 2012 Olympics. Implicit in this analysis is the demand for besides specifying how the most effectual promotional tools and schemes are included as portion of the broader integrated selling communications ( IMC ) strategies advancing the London 2012 Olympics. The promotional tools and schemes need to be extremely relevant and trusted by the mark audience of the full base of voluntaries that are traveling to be recruited ( Stern, 2010 ) . As many of the voluntaries rely chiefly on societal webs and societal media to interact with one another, follow their involvements ( as is the instance with Facebook fan pages ) and besides follow amusement and athleticss famous persons, these platforms need to be used extensively as portion of the promotional schemes and plans to pull, train and retain voluntaries. As the point has been made before, these promotional schemes must besides be tightly coordinated and synchronized with a broader IMC scheme to guarantee the highest degree of effectivity possible is attained ( Sirgy, 1998 ) ( Falk, Hammerschmidt, Schepers, 2010 ) .. All of these schemes and tools, from the usage of promotionally based societal webs and volunteer enlisting plans to the high degrees of consistence to IMC schemes that guide London 2012 Olympics selling, analytics need to be used in order to track their effectivity. This analysis besides includes an appraisal of which cardinal public presentation indexs ( KPIs ) and prosodies or steps of public presentation demand to be used to measure if the promotional tools and schemes are in fact working. This is a critically of import portion of this analysis, as digital selling makes it possible to mensurate, in real-time, the effectivity of promotional and selling schemes. What begins to emerge is an ecosystem of selling schemes and enterprises where publicity drives the upper funnel of activity, followed by the usage of IMC runs and schemes to travel voluntaries through the enlisting procedure to finally subscribing them up for service. In many respects, the series of promotional tools and schemes that are defined in this analysis are tantamount to how a company would seek to pull, sell and function clients. The construct of the gross revenues funnel, with the promotional tools and schemes aimed at capturing involvement and motivating clients to action is allegorically the same as those of pulling chances every bit good ( Gilpin, Palazzolo, Brody, 2010 ) . The same lower-funnel gross revenues activities of actuating chances to ab initio seek a merchandise and go loyal to its purchase is besides allegorical to holding a voluntary willing to travel through testing procedure and finally go portion of the harvests of services suppliers for the London 2012 Olympics.

1.0 Introduction

The Olympic Games have ever been intriguing to me, as this event brings the best jocks in the universe in their given athleticss. The greening of the modern Olympics in the late nineteenth century was absolutely times to co-occur this event every four old ages with more economic, societal and technological alteration the universe had seen antecedently. Each Olympics has reflected the current province of the universe while besides exposing worlds ‘ relentless chase of ever-greater athletic public presentation. This is really inspiring to me, as it shows that no affair what the distraction happening in society, jocks have the focal point and the strength to maintain traveling frontward to their ends. They are grim in their chase of their ends. This is deserving halting to take notice of. It shows that the ancient Greeks realized that competition valuing the greatest athletic endowments could maintain a society traveling frontward, with accomplishment as a prized value or property ( Ref ) . These are the ground why the Olympics intrigue me so much. Given the magnitude of the London 2012 Olympics Games the demand for voluntaries have ne’er been greater. Attracting these voluntaries, developing them and making a unique and valuable client experience for the visitants globally requires greater degrees of coordination and cooperation than of all time before. Choosing the right promotional schemes, supported by the best possible tools and techniques, is besides critically of import.

To set the current Olympics into context, the antediluvian Olympics and its implicit in constructs must be kept in head. The historical significance of the ancient Olympics set the foundation for how competitions are organized, orchestrated across states, and the alone imposts the ancient Greeks had defined that still be today. The ancient Olympics concentrated on competitions between city states, and besides forbid wars or struggles during the clip of the Olympics so every citizen could bask the competitory events. As with all major events in the ancient Grecian civilization, the Gods of the Hellenic civilization beliefs played a major function in the development of the Olympics every bit good. Legend has it that Zeus came up with the thought of the Olympics as a agency to prove his boy ‘s strength, Hercales. Hercales defined the clip between each Olympic event as four old ages. Give the popularity of this God in Grecian civilization, the events that surrounded the Olympics became about spiritual in significance. The growing of the Olympic games reached their vertex in the seventh century, so much so that the swayers of the clip perceived them as a menace and had them discounted until their greening in the late nineteenth century. What fascinates me personally about this patterned advance of events of the ancient Grecian Olympics is how the competition wholly re-ordered the construction and civilization of the society over clip ( Reference to the ancient Olympics )

Most absorbing nevertheless is how the Olympic Games have the potency to maintain what is positive, confirming and beef uping to a society in focal point. Despite the last century ‘s really disruptive economic, societal, technological and political alteration, the Olympics and the public presentation of jocks have continues to come on and derive greater truth, velocity and strength. It is animating that despite how much society has changed in the last 130 old ages since the Olympics began once more that there is a continual committedness to better and happen peace between states through this event ( Reference ) . That is why the Olympics are so of import to me and why I chose this specific country to analyze.

Purposes and Aims

The ability to pull, train and retain voluntaries for the many eclectic London 2012 Olympics activities, events, locale staffing and support demands is critical for meeting and transcending the outlooks of visitants from across the Earth. The success of the London 2012 Olympics is straight dependent on the attitudes, behaviour, and consequences achieved through the attempts of voluntaries. The demand to make effectual promotional plans and schemes that attract the most qualified campaigners while at the same clip continuing their willingness and motivate to volunteer is critical. The effectivity of promotional schemes is extremely dependent on their ability to vibrate and be relevant to the mark audiences over clip ( Reference ) . This is the footing of the research being undertaken ; to find which promotional tools and schemes are by far the most effectual in pulling, preparation and retaining the most gifted and motivated voluntaries for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

The followers are the purposes and aims of this analysis. In finding which promotional tools and schemes are the most effectual for enrolling voluntaries, the enlisting funnel needs to be foremost considered. The funnel is really comprised of a series of schemes that when used in concurrence with each other, lead to extra voluntaries being recruited who have the makings of involvement. Allegorically, the enlisting of voluntaries is much like the series of schemes to derive new clients for a concern. The motives for voluntaries differ drastically nevertheless from consumers, and that is besides a critical point of this analysis. The continued growing of volunteerism globally can be attributed to the displacement in attitudes and beliefs sing the demand to give back and be portion of the planetary community, the demand to be selfless, pay back society, and the demand to give out of a religious demand to supply for others. Surveies of voluntaries globally indicate that there are several big psychographic sections that dominate volunteerism. These seven sections include Communitarians ( 26 % ) , The Devout ( 21 % ) , The Investor ( 15 % ) , The Socialite ( 11 % ) , The Altruist ( 9 % ) , The Repayer ( 10 % ) , and the Dynast ( 8 % ) ( Yavas, Riecken, Parameswaran, 1980 ) ( Strategic Directions, 2010 ) .

These psychographic sections for the footing of the theoretical account used by research workers to understand the tradeoffs and determinations voluntaries make in donating their clip, financess and resources to one cause relation to another. ( Yavas, Riecken, Parameswaran, 1980 ) . These sections are discussed in item throughout the literature reappraisal.

Overview of this Analysis

At the intersection of the philanthropic sections that are defined through psychographics, and the usage of promotional tools and schemes on the other is the demand for specifying best patterns in enlisting and keeping of voluntaries. This is exactly what this thesis looks to carry through, to specify how promotional schemes can be used for recruiting and retaining exceptionally committed and talented voluntaries ( Ref ) .

The choice of which promotional schemes will be the most effectual demands to get down with an grasp of the attacks, schemes and platforms that the intended ( Zyman, Brott,2002 ) base of voluntaries most frequently relies on. For the bulk of them, societal networking is the preferable method of pass oning and deriving updates on plans of involvement ( Bernoff, Li, 2008 ) . The usage of Facebook and Twitter specifically are among the most popular signifiers of coaction between members of the mark audience. There is besides the extended usage of smartphones for remaining connected to these applications, which for many people, organize the foundation of how they manage their societal lives ( Bernoff, Li, 2008 ) .

Concepts, Frameworks and Relationships Between Concepts

Core constructs of this thesis that relate to the intersection of voluntaries ‘ cleavage theoretical accounts and standards for take parting ( Yavas, Riecken, Parameswaran, 1980 ) with the extended array of promotional schemes, tactics and plans form the foundation of this thesis ‘s nucleus focal point and way ( Tellis, 2004 ) . Emanating from these connexions between constructs is the demand to make a high degree of undertaking ownership with the voluntaries. The end needs to specifically be focused on supplying them with the chance to achieve liberty, command and intent ( Yavas, Riecken, Parameswaran, 1980 ) so they will hold strong ownership of their functions and occupations. The combine of liberty, command and intent can be nurtured and achieved over clip, and the construction of the preparation plans for the London 2012 Olympics needs to specifically concentrate on these demands of voluntaries over the long-run.

It has been proven through much of the societal media research completed that the penchants and demands of consumers change over clip ( Bernoff, Li, 2008 ) ( O’Reilly, 2004 ) . This is a critically of import point in this thesis and an result of the research completed. The traditional agencies of pull offing publicity in print media and through inactive agencies of traditional selling has given manner to more unstable, nimble and able to react to how those targeted by the communicating choose to larn and be communicated with. Nowhere is this more prevailing than in societal media and the exceptionally rapid acceptance of Facebook, Twitter, and many other societal media platforms ( Bardhi, Rohm, Sultan, 2010 ) . It is the purpose of this thesis to analyse how best to utilize these germinating platforms in the context of pulling, preparation and retaining cardinal subscribers and voluntaries ( Zhang, A Watts, 2008 ) . The literature reappraisal seeks to equilibrate the demand for greater cognition of volunteerism on the one manus, the and the demand for appreciating merely how rapidly the promotional tools relied on by possible voluntaries are altering and deriving critical mass in society is besides analyzed in the literature reappraisal, which is the following chapter of this thesis.


The speed of alteration is increasing drastically and for any seller, particularly those focused on volunteerism, the challenges can be dashing for how best to maintain up and capitalise on them. Give the finite sum of clip that the London 2012 Olympic Committee has for enrolling, preparation and over clip, retaining voluntaries puts important force per unit area and importance on the determinations of which promotional schemes to utilize. This is farther made more hard by the sheer figure of options available. There are literally 100s of possible promotional schemes and plans, which can be used over clip, the inquiry is which to utilize and in what sequence. This thesis looks to reply those ambitious inquiries and supply penetrations into how best to utilize societal media to achieve consequences.

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The development and fine-tuning of any promotional scheme aimed at the enlisting and keeping of voluntaries must take into account their innate demands for volunteering in the first topographic point, how their shared demands create psychographic or group-based sections, and how best to make them with promotional plans. The purpose of this chapter of the thesis is to discourse and analyse these critical success factors for finding which promotional scheme is the most effectual for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

2.2 Motivations for Volunteering

Motivations vary significantly across age groups and psychographic profiles as to why people choose to volunteer ( Zyman, Brott,2002 ) . Conventional wisdom provinces that the chance to larn more about a given topic and addition valuable accomplishments is why younger voluntaries choose to supply their clip. This nevertheless is non has prevalent as the demand many voluntaries have for making a societal web that they can trust on and be strengthened by over clip. Reducing the motives for volunteering strictly to demographically-driven demands based on the phase of life a given individual is in is rather frankly merely partly right ( Sirgy, 1998 ) ( Fernsler, 1997 ) . What is needed is more of a focal point on how the unmet psychological demands are taken into history every bit good. The misconception that the demands and motives for volunteering are driven by demographic demands entirely is one fraught with possible mistakes in scheme ion enlisting ( Fernsler, 1997 ) . The first portion of this literature reviewed specifically shows why this is the instance. The 2nd half of the literature reviewed specifically shows how upper and lower funnel analysis can be used as a construct for pull offing voluntaries, which is an extension of the construct that is predominately used for gross revenues and selling maps.

2.2.1 Segmenting Volunteers by Psychographic Attributes

The foundation of any successful enlisting scheme for voluntaries demands to hold a really clear, chiseled market cleavage scheme as its focal point. Just as with companies who are perforating new markets, the demand for holding exceptionally clear and focussed thoughts of what the demands, penchants and wants are of voluntaries ( or clients ) is critically of import ( Fernsler, 1997 ) .

To derive greater penetrations into the psychographics of voluntaries, several surveies were analyzed. Immediately evident from analysing them was the fact that the bulk of voluntaries are more goaded by shared duty and sense of shared responsibility to make good and less on the more inward or egoistic values of deriving experience. Just as was suspected during this analysis, strictly demographically goaded demands for contributing and volunteering to an organisation are frequently overshadowed by the shared psychological 1s. Surveies of Internet-based parts and contributions were analyzed every bit good. Not surprisingly, the bulks of givers are younger and of lower incomes, and most significantly, have a shared sense of duty for breaking life in general and for specific groups they have the greatest affinity with specifically. As surveies indicate that givers who most often give over the Internet are in the 18 – 34 twelvemonth old section and give an norm of $ 71 per contribution versus $ 309 by the 35 to 54 age group, the deductions of effectual psychographic cleavage are important. Younger givers have lower incomes yet are much more likely to donate online compared to the 35 to 54 age group or older sections. There are besides the cleavage standards of psychographics, or how the groups define themselves by their shared values ( Yavas, Riecken, Parameswaran, 1980 ) . The book, The Seven Faces of Philanthropy provides penetrations ( Fernsler, 1997 ) including the definitions of sections provided in this analysis make this point really clearly. The function of demographics hence, in specifying how promotional schemes will be used for pulling voluntaries, is basically flawed. The demand for making a more robust cleavage that reaches beyond demographics is hence needed.

2.2.2 Segmentation Criteria Needs To Get Beyond Demographics

It is non adequate to merely section givers on their age or income, as there are more powerful determiners of why people donate than these two demographic factors. Understanding why people give and their outlooks are far more powerful than cut downing the cleavage to age or income ( Sirinek, 1996 ) . The seven sections that were defined originally in the book ( Fernsler, 1997 ) include Communitarians ( 26 % ) , The Devout ( 21 % ) , The Investor ( 15 % ) , The Socialite ( 11 % ) , The Altruist ( 9 % ) , The Repayer ( 10 % ) , and the Dynast ( 8 % ) ( Fernsler, 1997 ) .

In comparing the kineticss of what motivates little versus big givers an wholly different set of outlooks emerge. Larger givers or givers expect to see how their parts are doing a important impact on the organisations they have chosen to donate their clip and resources to ( Seifert, Morris, Bartkus, 2003 ) . Both groups and sections of givers besides expect to hold a much more collaborative degree of feedback with the organisations they donate clip and financess to every bit good ( Morozov, 2009 ) . This latter kineticss is now called Philanthropy 2.0, named after Web 2.0 engineerings and attacks to acquiring clients involved more with organisations through societal networking engineerings ( Heath, 2005 ) . The usage of Web 2.0 engineerings is traveling to be critical for the success of the enlisting schemes for the 2012 London Olympics.

2.2.3 Defining Volunteer Segments through Psychographics

In specifying sections, the psychographic profiles are more critical as they define motive, followed by activity or how frequently have the section participated in philanthropic activities. The leaning of a giver to give clip is relative to their willingness to give on a regular basis ( Fernsler, 1997 ) .



Activity Hours

Age Range



Very High

18 – 34 ; 35 – 54

Undergrad & A ; Graduate

The Investor

Very High

35 – 54 ; 55+

Undergrad & A ; Graduate

The Philanthropist


35 – 54 ; 55+


The Devout

Medium – High

35 – 54 ; 55+

Undergrad & A ; Graduate

The Socialite


35 – 54 ; 55+

Undergrad & A ; Graduate

The Repayer


35 – 54 ; 55+




35 – 54 ; 55+

Undergrad & A ; Graduate

This cleavage theoretical account assumes that younger givers who have higher instruction degrees and matching higher incomes are more likely to seek causes and chances to give where they can see an impact. This besides shows that their psychographic profile is one of the highest concentrations of givers who feel socially responsible for the environment. They have a really high degree of committedness to doing their communities and the universe a more positive topographic point. Last, this section besides is the best attuned to the societal networking kineticss that the proposed web site is traveling to seek to capitalise on. Based on the analysis of voluntaries and their motives for charitable giving, the undermentioned cleavage analysis was completed based on an analysis of Fensler ( 1997 ) . Table 1, Philanthropic Segmentation Analysis: Personality Alignment to Imagery and Messaging shows how each philanthropic psychographic section defines itself by its values and the imagination each considers positive. These are critical penetrations to construct an effectual IMC scheme on, including the definition of promotional entreaties and plans. Analysis of the Beijing 2008 and Athens 2004 Olympics subsequently in this literature reappraisal indicate how promotional schemes were successfully targeted to specific philanthropic sections defined by their associations ( which is the footing of psychographics ) which has systematically shown to be the most effectual attack overall to deriving voluntaries and givers.

Table 1:

Philanthropic Segmentation Analysis:

Personality Alignment to Imagery and Messaging

Beginnings: ( Fernsler, 1997 ) ( Seifert, Morris, Bartkus, 2003 )

How all of these factors relate to the enlisting of voluntaries for the London 2012 is as follows. First, a clear apprehension of the cleavage of the voluntary base in the UK from a psychographic point of view will hold a much greater impact on the public presentation of promotional schemes. Second, it is imperative to understand the how the construction of the voluntary sections determines the prioritization of which causes get the most clip and attending. Understanding that the bulk of voluntaries in the UK for illustration are Communitarians ( 26 % ) leads to the decision that emphasizing the demand for voluntaries to beef up and stress the positive facets of their communities is critically of import for the London 2012 Olympics every bit good. Looking for the win/win scenarios of holding UK voluntaries see the value of lending their clip and attending to the London 2012 Olympics needs to get down by emphasizing the demand for seting each community hosting them into a positive context ( Heath, 2005 ) . This entreaty to holding their local communities be first in their cordial reception, truth and thoroughness of support, and unflawed executing of the Olympics events they are responsible for is a powerful incentive – and most likely one of the most relevant 1s to these voluntaries. This penetration and others like them are why it is critically of import to understanding the voluntary sections foremost, before be aftering the incorporate selling communications ( IMC ) and the function of publicities within in. ( Kitchen, Schultz, Kim, Han, Li, 2004 ) .

2.3 Incorporate Marketing Communication ( IMC ) Strategy Best Practices

To set promotional schemes in the right context every organisation relies on the creative activity, development and executing of incorporate selling communicating ( IMC ) schemes. This is particularly apparent in the selling, publicity and partnership schemes of the Olympic Committee as it relates to Beijing 2004 and Athens 2004. Of these two old Olympics, Beijing 2008 relied to a great extent on societal networking, including Facebook Fan pages for each specific athletics. Individual squad followed this illustration and created their ain Facebook pages for their single states and for squads within each state. This became exceptionally strong as portion of the USA ‘s promotional schemes for their snowboarders take parting in the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. The centre of the IMC schemes for pulling voluntaries and fans has progressively become societal networking-based ( Bernoff, Li, 2008 ) . Of all the societal networking platforms in usage today, Facebook has emerged as the most dominant. This literature reappraisal provides an analysis of Facebook and its deductions as a promotional scheme for the 2012 London Olympic Games ‘ voluntary enlisting attempts. In add-on, the promotional schemes of the Beijing 2008 and Athens 2004 Olympics will be analyzed subsequently in this literature reappraisal. In this subdivision nevertheless the foundational elements of IMC schemes and the function of promotional schemes are defined.

2.3.1 Specifying IMC Characteristics for the 2008 Beijing Olympics: Lessons Learned From Nike

The survey of IMC schemes and their deductions on promotional scheme effectivity is covered in this subdivision. The inclusion of Relationship Management ( RM ) and Electronic Marketing ( EM ) in this treatment is extremely relevant to the schemes environing the usage of promotional schemes for pulling and retaining voluntaries ( Kotler, 2004 ) . The Beijing 2008 Olympics for illustration relied on these two schemes really efficaciously to increase engagement and shared ownership of the games across the many cabals and organisations of the People ‘s Republic Party ( Communist Party ) in China for illustration. This was the first large-scale usage of RM and EM in the context of a non-political event in China and was hence managed meticulously by authorities to guarantee the state made an first-class feeling on the remainder of the universe with their enlisting and hosting of the 2008 Olympic Games. The Chinese authorities acted as the cardinal clearinghouse of the RM and EM facets of this scheme nevertheless, monitoring, filtrating and in some instances, barricading single text messages that may look to be controversial ( Torp, 2009 ) . The struggle of utilizing IMC schemes that have electronic constituents including the usage of societal media put the Chinese authorities in an awkward place of necessitating to back up electronic tools and platforms for promotional entreaties and coordination of voluntaries yet holding to besides quash divergent voices and those that would seek to interrupt the Games for political grounds. The series of schemes that the Chinese used for organizing and in some instances telling voluntaries to take part relied on IMC schemes with a strong electronic constituent for the promotional schemes ( Kitchen, Schultz, Kim, Han, Li, 2004 ) .

The Chinese authorities chose to emulate Nike and its many attacks to pull offing the IMC strategic procedure, including the integrating to RM and EM constituents, as the company has had a really successful launch of Ti places and accoutrements concern in Beijing and Shanghai ( Mengxia, 2007 ) . The Chinese authorities chose Nike as the theoretical account for the 2008 Olympics as the degree of complexness in the company ‘s merchandise lines reflected the great diverseness of athleticss in the 2008 Olympics every bit good. The Nike IMC procedure is considered to be one of the best in category throughout any industry, and the synchronism of trade names across classs shows the company understands how to organize internally and launch planetary promotional plans successfully ( Mara, 2000 ) . The Chinese authorities has informations that suggests Nike and Sony of the most effectual trade names in their state, and chose to emulate or follow Nike ‘s model ( Mengxia, 2007 ) as they believed it would supply the greatest possible coordination of the many athleticss in the Olympics, as Nike successfully manages an array of merchandises and their supporting divisions ( Mengxia, 2007 ) .

The Chinese rapidly realized that the fashioning, planning, executing and support for IMC schemes in organisations take extraordinary degrees of coordination and synchronism for the scheme to achieve a high degree of public presentation. This exceeding degree of attempt aimed at making a extremely synchronized communications scheme predicted on shared strategic communications objective frequently pushes Olympic selling squads into an wholly different mentality ( Mengxia, 2007 ) . . The realisation that cultural silos inhibit and prevent IMCs from being successful forces organisations to alter to back up this new scheme, interrupting down cultural and communications barriers, which in the terminal leads to enhanced degrees of Return on Investment ( ROI ) and net incomes emerge ( Eagle, Kitchen, Bulmer 2007 ) . For any benefits to emerge from an IMC-based schemes and enterprises during the execution of a series of runs to enroll voluntaries for the Olympics, cross-functional coordination and tight synchronism of schemes is critical ( Shimp, 1997 ) . Sirgy ( 1998 ) besides states that the heavy lifting of making an IMC scheme requires an organisations ‘ civilization to alter ( Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders, Wong, 2002 ) and that simply outsourcing the work involved in doing a conjunct and synchronised scheme works really benefits the organisation. In the instance of the Chinese authorities and their attack to enabling alteration of their internal civilizations to do them successful with promotional attempts, the usage of authorities inducements and the hitch of their military units was foremost completed. These units had been specifically trained for particular events including ceremonials and pull offing big crowds at featuring events and government-sanctioned shows of China ‘s military strength and deepness of armed services edification ( Mengxia, 2007 ) .

The synchronism and coordination of procedures that IMC-based schemes require are a strategic benefit to the organisations that adopt them en masse and do them portion of their civilization ( Kitchen, Schultz, Kim, Han and Li 2004 ) . This specific squad of research workers report that the most effectual IMC schemes are those that first force a high degree of coordination and synchronism of procedures through companies foremost, the capitalize on the higher degrees of information sharing and coaction by making cross-functional squads to originate, prolong, and hone the IMC-based runs in advancement ( Kitchen, Schultz, Kim, Han and Li 2004 ) . As executing within organisations continues to better and the merchandising attempts begin to demo the benefits of holding a synchronised set of selling schemes, companies begin to see progressively higher degrees of return on their investings in their selling communications, PR, and selling attempts, hiking consequences in the procedure ( Armstrong & A ; Kotler, 2005 ) .

China and Greece, in pull offing their specific Olympics attempts, found this to be the instance. The greater the degree of integrating both states could accomplish between their military, judicial and webs of voluntary organisations, the more effectual the consequences. As both Olympics consequences show, the greater the integrating across marketing maps that span the external factors of an endeavor, the higher the degree of Return on Investment ( ROI ) attainable from marketing schemes ( Smith, Taylor, 2002 )

in both the short- and long-run ( Clow, Baack, 2002 ) . In the context of Nike ‘s attack to tight integrating of their IMC schemes and enterprises to wholly new concerns, real-time procedure and system integrating is critical for the IMC scheme to give consequences fulfilled through the broader value concatenation. For Nike, the velocity and truth of communicating throughout their full value concatenation, the greater the degree of public presentation of their IMC schemes. The result of this for their RM and EM schemes continues to be important as merchandise debuts are good coordinated and lead to successful gross revenues ramp-up of merchandises ( Spotts, Weinberger, 2010 ) ( Smith, Pulford, 1997 ) .

The organisers of the Chinese Olympics realized that the demand for organizing these many athleticss demands and locales, and the ability to make a feasible base of voluntaries had many similarities to the challenges that China was confronting with hosting the Olympics ( Mengxia, 2007 ) . The determination to pattern their attempts after Nike was made.

Figure 2, specifically shows how the externally facing client, merchandise, market and industry factors have a direct influence on how Nike chose to organize its schemes overall ( Broekhuizen, Alsem 2002 ) . The deductions of this specific graphic in footings of IMCs and their influence on the Beijing 2008 Olympics for illustration is that both the short- and long-run procedures must be cognizant of and be aftering for the demands of events for skilled, knowing and trained voluntaries. As can be seen from this figure, a major benefit of an IMC is that they force a high degree of synchronism and real-time procedure and system throughout organisations, doing them more efficient in the procedure.

Figure 2: Integrated Marketing Communications Value Chain

Beginning: ( Broekhuizen, Alsem 2002 ) A

The strategic benefit of holding IMC-based schemes throughout Nike is the tight integrating of procedures and systems to back up a value concatenation that concentrates on making places and accoutrements tailored to the specific penchants and gustatory sensations of online clients. The contrivers for the Beijing Olympics found an allegorical footing for their attempts in working to make positive experiences for planetary visitants to their Olympics every bit good. This value-chain focal point within China besides extended past the promotional activities of the Olympics themselves and to the existent construction of the plans to enroll voluntaries every bit good.

The experiences of Nike in happening runing efficiencies in holding a higher degree of procedure and system integrating is validated from the research completed in IMC-based scheme effectivity as good ( Grove, Carlson, Dorsch 2007 ) . This was a cardinal take-away for the Chinese Olympics contrivers every bit good.

Extra benefits of an IMC scheme centre on seting the client at the centre of the communications and selling procedure, where a company works to make potencies for merchandise or service test and usage ( Hongcharu, A Eiamkanchanalai, 2009 ) .

This benefit of IMC schemes is to make and foster a relationship with chances and clients. This specific benefit of the IMC scheme centres on making a alone duologue and relationship with chances and clients over clip. In the instance of the Beijing 2008 Olympics, their usage of both online and offline content is specifically designed to back up this facet of their IMC schemes.

2.3.2 IMC Components and Interrelationships

Integrating Integrated Marketing Communications ( IMC ) and Relationship Marketing ( RM ) serve to make client centric messaging and calls to action with both bing clients and new chances. Making a mutual relationship with clients and reenforcing them with credibleness increases the possible for merchandise test ( Kotler, 1999, 2004 ) or in the instance of the Olympics, a willingness to volunteer and put trust and credibleness in the messages sent for intents of enlisting ( Heath, 2005 ) . In fact the premise that holding a test offered though a individual communicating channel seldom is effectual in an IMC scheme, yet succeeds when there is a consistence of stigmatization and messaging across both offline and online channels ( Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders, Wong, 2002 ) .

Extra benefits of IMC schemes are the development of higher degrees of credibleness through reinforcing of messaging through a consistent usage of imagination, stigmatization and alone value proposition statements. The by-product of a well-coordinated IMC run is the development of higher degrees of credibleness than would hold otherwise been the instance in single-channel based communications schemes harmonizing to Ogden, J. R. ( 1998 ) and ( Schultz, Tannenbaum, Lauterborn 1993 ) .

2.4.1 Introduction to Promotional Techniques

The promotional techniques both the Beijing 2008 and Athens 2004 Olympics relied on varied significantly. The Beijing 2008 Olympics relied more extensively on electronic media versus printed media relied on by the Athens 2004 Olympics. Figure 3, Comparing the Effectiveness of Promotional Plans, illustrates the displacement in promotional tools, schemes and plans from traditional media to more socially-based signifiers. The usage of Web-based promotional schemes and societal webs is the greatest differentiating factor in this respect between the Beijing and Athens Olympic games.

2.4.2 Overview of Promotional Techniques, Tools and Strategies by Olympics

During the planning and execution stage of the Athens 2004 Olympics, there was a cardinal displacement happening in the usage of media for originating and pull offing promotional schemes. From the traditional media of newspapers and telecasting to the Web and societal networking, the survey of the usage of promotional schemes across old Olympics makes it clear that a cardinal displacement in effectivity was happening during this clip. Figure 3, Comparing the Effectiveness of Promotional Plans, bears this out. The laterality of telecasting, wireless, print, and the comparative deficiency of prosodies and traceability during the Athens 2004 Olympics gave manner to a much more metrically goaded series of schemes for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The undermentioned graphic is drawn from a the base of research completed for this literature reappraisal. This patterned advance to more mensurable consequences from PR schemes was besides driven by the demand for greater answerability and concentrate on how budgets were being spent to enroll voluntaries and pull off the full Olympics communications mix over clip.

Figure 3: Comparing the Effectiveness of Promotional Plans

2.4.3 Timeline and Project Management of Promotional Schemes

A cardinal facet of the differences between how the 2008 Beijing Olympics and the 2004 Athens Olympics besides was the focal point on how to do the full work flow more co-ordinated to PR schemes for pulling voluntaries. Figure 4, Timeline of PR Activities for the Olympics, illustrates this point. The timing of the promotional activities for the Olympics overall began 18 months in front of the gap twenty-four hours ceremonials. This translated into the 2004 Athens games be aftering Sessionss being in 2002, a clip period when Web-based promotional schemes were still germinating and non every bit mensurable as they were for illustration in the 2006 timeframes when the Beijing Olympics were merely get downing This translates into a significantly different focal point on how to utilize promotional schemes to derive voluntaries as good. The fluctuation in clocking on these two Olympic gamess besides opened up the chance to utilize societal networking ( Bernoff, Li, 2008 ) as the footing of the outreach and PR runs for the Beijing 2008 Olympics every bit good.

Figure 4: Timeline of PR Activities for the Olympics – A General Overview

( Bernoff, Li, 2008 )

2.5 Using Social Media as a Catalyst for Promotional Schemes

Social networking combined the benefits of a Web-based scheme and the outreach potency of a extremely collaborative platform, all with PR schemes that could be tracked and measured digitally. Figure 5, Web 2.0 Meme Map, illustrates how the design objectives for next-generation Web and Internet applications influenced and really served as the accelerator for the development of societal networking applications. Figure 5 shows the Meme Map for Web 2.0 engineerings.

Figure 5: Web 2.0 Meme Map

Beginning: ( O’Reilly, 2004 )

These engineering ends taken together are non every bit important as the effects they had in the development of wholly new types of platforms and applications that made promotional schemes much more effectual and mensurable. The impact of Web 2.0 engineerings so on the Beijing 2008 Olympics is really important. The fact that the Beijing Games relied on Facebook as a platform for enlisting of voluntaries and pull offing preparation is a instance in point.

2.5.1 The Facebook Effect and How It Affected the Beijing 2008 Olympics

The 2008 Beijing Olympics learned that Facebook could be really effectual as a platform for advancing volunteerism and mensurating the consequences of their schemes. Presented here are the major lessons learned. The first major technological tendency Facebook was used for was capitalising on is the move to video-based broadcast medium and the gaining control of picture content so that their recruitement sites have rich content for the long-run. YouTube is turning at a rate where every minute about 24 hours of content are uploaded globally ( Wireless Business Forecast, et.al. ) . Video content is the hereafter of societal networking harmonizing to taking industry analysts and experts every bit good ( Bernoff, Li, 2008 ) ( O’Reilly, et.al ) . The move by Apple to make the iPad and iPhone 4 to let for instant picture conferencing is another information point that supports the fact that picture content will finally rule societal networking globally. This is a tendency that future Olympics voluntary organisers will hold to capitalise on in order to derive voluntaries. There are besides over 200 telecommunication suppliers of nomadic merchandises in 60 states working to make and establish Facebook-compatible merchandises and services as of September 2010. Clearly, Facebook has emerged as more than merely a networking site ; it is today a platform, which leads to the 3rd technological factor that is included in this analysis.

A 2nd major technological factor that the 2008 Beijing Olympics realized is that the rapid growing of the Facebook development community globally could fuel exceeding degrees of engagement and volunteerism in a really short period of clip. This high rate of velocity and growing is attributable to the one million and developers making applications and extensions to Facebook in 180 states today. There is besides a really high use of platform-based applications as good, with 70 % of users trusting on these types of applications over the nucleus set of apps delivered with Facebook itself. There are presently 550,000 applications developed on Facebook today and 250,000 sites integrated into the Facebook platform.

The following major tendency impacting the Beijing 2008 Olympics was the planetary range of the Facebook platform. This is an country of analysis for the company that is giving intriguing penetrations into how best to turn the company over clip. As the instance survey mentioned, the important determination from the usage of demographic informations in the instance was that alumni continue utilizing Facebook even after they have graduated. This moral force of pupils remaining connected after graduating is besides reflected in the latest analysis from market research worker iStrategy Labs, who completed the analysis shown in Table 1, Global Facebook Demographics as of 2010. What this meant for Beijing 2008 Olympic organisers is that one time a nucleus group of voluntaries from a given school or university were recruited they could frequently enroll their full groups of friends as good.

This dynamic on a broader degree besides led to the development of a far greater range for the Facebook platform every bit good. Based on their research methodological analysis, the US user base grew at a 144 % growing rate between 2008 and 2009, from 42 million to 103 million. The research completed by iStrategy Labs besides indicates that the 35+ and over demographic is now more than 30 % of the full client base, and 55+ age group engagement on the societal networking grew 922 % in 2009.

Figure 6

Global Facebook Demographics 2010

Beginning: iStrategy Labs

Facebook has besides benefited from the political, legal and socio-cultural tendencies of greater coaction and communicating while besides coercing greater degrees of answerability and transparence into organisations every bit good. The many dirts that led to the subprime mortgage meltdown, including the usage of authorities financess to finance really expensive holidaies for AIG executives, has made trust more valuable than of all time before. Trust is in fact the new currency of societal webs, and Facebook has had several hard lessons in this country as a consequence of their inclination to concentrate more on what made sense non needfully for users, but for the monetisation of their concern theoretical accounts and the development of more expeditiously direction privateness scenes from a company point of view. The combination of political, legal and socio-cultural tendencies has forced a really high degree of answerability and genuineness on Facebook. The examination on their trustiness has ne’er been higher, and their recent faux pas in this country are another challenge in their growing.

3.0 Methodology

3.1 Introduction

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