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The United Kingdom is a state rich in both literary and historic sites. From Stonehenge to Shakespeare’s house to St. Paul’s, many edifices and buildings exist to associate the state to her historic illustriousness. It has been progressively recognised by both local administrations and the authorities that more incorporate scheme is necessary to guarantee these historic landmarks continued to be preserved for future coevalss. Literary historic sites are of peculiar importance ; they are a draw for foreign visitants every bit good as an educational chance for British and foreign visitants likewise. This study will concentrate on literary touristry, its impact on touristry and economic systems in general, and how it has been and will be effected by alterations in policy and statute law.

No other state has made the literary parts to literature in the English linguistic communication that Britain has, and British authors’ places, work topographic points, and scenes used in literary plants provide a continued draw for both local and foreign tourers ( Smith 2003 ) . As each consecutive coevals interacts with great plants of literature produced by these writers, a new group of fans, and hence possible tourers, emerges. Foreign tourists to historic, including literary, sites come most conspicuously from the United States and Canada, non surprising given their comparatively close propinquity and usage of English as primary linguistic communication. Australia and European visitants rank a close second ( Facker 1998 ) . However, these sites have non ever been unfastened to the populace. Although many celebrated authors themselves record literary pilgrim’s journeies to the places of other celebrated authors who preceded them, such places have non ever been unfastened for visits ( Zemgulys 1999 ) . However, through authorities intercession, investing and policy these locations became to the full accessible to the populace, and sites of organized touristry ( Zemgulys 1999 ) . The authorities continues to make policy and scheme to both better the saving of such national hoarded wealths and advance their popularity. “Museums, galleries and the historic environment are cardinal to understanding ourselves, our communities and our nation” reads the Department for Culture, Media and Sport’s Five Year Plan, “their function in explicating where we have come from is critical to our ability to construct a sense of who we are” ( DCMS 2003, 9 ) .

Preservation of literary historic sites became a affair of public policy in the 1800s, with the metropolis of London being a clear illustration of the premise of historic saving into public policy. London is peculiarly relevant to the survey in this authorship, as it is the first country for literary heritage sites in the UK ( Johnson 2004 ) . Many destructions and redevelopments were taking topographic point in cardinal London in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This reconstructing attempt was to a great extent influenced by topographers and antiquaries interested in continuing the city’s historic yesteryear. The alterations were made, hence, in ways that made London’s literary traditions indispensable to the design of the modern metropolis ( Zemgulys 1999 ) . By the bend of the century a figure of groups had organised to enter hints of old London, and “the texts produced by these societies and by persons created a manner of overhauling London as an “ historic ” city” ( Zemgulys 1999, 2 ) . The London municipal authorities shortly took over the undertaking of entering London’s historic sites ( Zemgulys 1999 ) . Sing topographic points connected to literary illustriousness built-in to the historic character of London, “the London municipal authorities commemorated tonss of authors ‘ houses with plaques and many authors ‘ houses were ‘rescued’ from destruction by being turned into literary museums” ( Zemgulys 1999, 4 ) .

Today, most literary heritage sites are managed either by local trusts or the National Trust ( Smith 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Varlow ( 1996 ) , there are presently 264 literary topographic points open to the populace. Some of these are real-life belongingss, which can be connected to a peculiar author at a peculiar phase of his or her life, such as a place of birth. Others are countries used as scenes in celebrated words, where the tourer has the chance to “see” the topographic point of the authorship ( 2003 ) . Regardless of the type of belongings, literary heritage sites are typically staffed with a little sum of paid workers augmented with a important figure of voluntaries ( Smith 2003 ) . Some charge changing admittances, others offer the chance for contribution. As many are locally controlled, the recent authorities policy of free admittances for museums and galleries does non use to most ( DCMS 2003 ) . A figure of belongingss, peculiarly the really little but popular belongingss, reported facing visitant capacity issues during extremum season, while less popular belongingss faced the job of excessively few visitants ( Smith 2003 ) . Likewise, some of these sites promote themselves rather good, while others offer practically no publicity or selling at all. Policy sing these sites has recognised the importance of proper selling to a successful tourer experience. The writer’s plant and life, in add-on to the pre-visit bordering done by the site directors, create an image with the visitant before they even arrive ( Stiebel 2004 ) . Consistency and genuineness, the existent place where the writer lived, non gutted and remodelled but the manner it was for him or her, the writer’s desk and personal effects, a coherent presentation that meets and so exceeds the tourists’ outlooks of the site will take to its success, peculiarly with the true literary tourer ( Stiebel 2004 ) .

True literary touristry involves seeking out the topographic points associated with the existent life of a peculiar writer, whether their places, workplaces, or defined countries that provided a scene or scenes for their work. In this, the tourer experience for these visitants really starts long before they arrive at the site, with the literary plants. The topographic point has importance to the visitant based on the book that includes the scene or the plants of the writer and how his or her existent life impacted his or her authorship. The topographic point additions significance and “is visited with prepossessions established by the work of fiction, ” contends Steibel, “the thought of topographic point formed in the literary tourist’s head may look more reliable than the existent site one time visited, ” but “such is the power of the imagination” ( Stiebel 2004, 33-34 ) . Along these lines, the authorities has begun important investing in touristry publicity in general, every bit good as offering technological chances for site publicity ( DMCS 2004 ) . They have besides continued their investing in continuing such sites. This will help sites without important fiscal resources in both keeping an reliable presentation which meets the visitors’ outlooks and pulling visitants in the first topographic point.

Not all tourers to literary historic sites have an devouring involvement in or cognition of the writer, nevertheless. On one manus, literary attractive forces and heritage sites attract “a niche section of extremely motivated literary pilgrims” ( Smith 2003, 83 ) . On the other manus, Johnson ( 2004 ) found that less than half of visitants to literary heritage sites in the UK were genuinely fans of the writer. Similarly Smith ( 2003 ) found merely over fifty-percent of visitants to the places of vary celebrated authors others were in the country for general tourer sight-seeing, and included the literary heritage site as they would any other tourer attractive force instead than for its literary significance. Smith ( 2003 ) looked peculiarly at places such as Jane Austen’s House, Chawton, The Bronte Parsonage at Haworth, Wordsworth’s Dove Cottage, and Beatrix Potter’s Hll Top in Cumbria. She besides considered literary parts, such Cabourg, a resort along the Channel were Proust lived and used as a scene for some of his novels ( Smith 2003 ) . Given the celebrity of authors at this degree, a smaller per centum of visitants, somewhat less than ten per centum, came for educational intents. That is, they did non cognize much about the writer or his or her work, but recognised the significance of the author and came to the site to increase their cognition and apprehension ( Smith 2003 ) . This type of tourer activity has increased in recent old ages “as people look for new things to see and as educational touristry experiences a revival in popularity being perceived as less negative in impact than other signifiers of tourism” ( Stiebel 2004, 33 ) . This educational or cultural touristry, of which literary touristry is recognised to be a “specialised sub-set, ” requires the sites to hold informed staff and appropriate takeout stuffs to heighten the visitors’ acquisition experiences ( Stiebel 2004, 33 ) .

Since literary touristry can be used to better local economic systems, any policy impacting it is of involvement to local authorities and concern administrations. An illustration of economic impact would be Beatrix Potter’s place at Hill Top Farm in Cumbria. While the Cumbria / Brampton country has draw with others within the state as a resort country, it does non hold the draw of other countries with foreign tourers. However, as Beatrix Potter’s works continue to hold important influence and are widely read to kids throughout the English-speaking universe, her place and the countries she used to paint the scenes attach toing her plants have continued draw with aliens ( Smith 2003 ) . While partially attracted due to her literary influences, “they besides valued and were attracted by the location’s intensions of childhood, Englishness, saving, and rural nostalgia ( Smith 2003, 86 ) . Knowledge of such values in the typical visitant allows stores and concerns in the immediate country to orient their offerings to besides pull the literary tourer to their constitution. Not merely does Beatrix Potter’s place addition the figure of foreign tourers in the Cumbria country, hence, but besides provides clients who so spend money on housing, repasts, and visits to other local attractive forces. The Department for Culture, Media and Sport has recognised that “Internationally, the imprint of history on our environment is a powerful facet of our image as a state, ” and hence that “the value of this rich bequest as a magnet for tourers is monolithic in economic terms” ( DCMS 2001, 7 ) . This serves as a usher for policy related to touristry and foreign visitants.

Policy response to the acknowledgment of such economic impact, every bit good as the cultural benefits of investing in historic saving, has led the authorities to an unprecedented addition in funding for such sites. Public support for the humanistic disciplines in general, including heritage support, has doubled from about ?200 million yearly in 1997 to more than ?400 million in 2005-2006 ( DCMS 2003, 5 ) . Local touristry is farther supported by the recent policy alteration to stop bear downing for entree to national museums and galleries ; in the three old ages since this action was implemented, visits to these attractive forces have risen by 75 per centum, or an extra 11 million visits ( DCMS 2003, 5 ) .

Government policy besides includes publicity of touristry, in add-on to merely funding, recognizing the importance of the tourer spend to the overall economic system. “Overseas visitants spent ?11.9 billion in 2003, doing this state the 6th most popular touristry finish worldwide” ( DCMS 2003, 4 ) . Including local touristry ( within the UK ) , touristry is valued at over ?74 billion yearly to the UK economic system, with more than two million people employed in touristry or touristry related industries ( DCMS 2003 ) . Tourism is hence one of the country’s most important industries, “bringing non merely economic but sustained environmental and societal benefits to rural and urban communities across the UK” ( DCMS 2003, 42 ) . However, leaders have recognised the importance of support of the touristry industry. The premise can non be made that foreign tourers will go on to come unabated. For illustration, “the combined consequence of September 11th and the Foot and Mouth outbreak in 2001 reduced industry gross revenues by over ?2 billion ( DCMS 2003, 42 ) . The authorities contends they are working with the touristry industry to “minimise the impact of such dazes in the hereafter, ” and to “maximise demand to acquire us back on track” ( DCMS 2003, 42 ) . This includes heavy outgo on advertisement, both here and abroad. To excite the industry following the 2001 reverses, it “put in topographic point a monolithic international publicity of Britain of as a tourer finish backed by ?20 million of Government support, and got visitant Numberss higher than of all time before” ( DCMS 2003, 44 ) .

Some believe that publicity of British touristry is non plenty, nevertheless, and have called for betterment in tourer attractive forces and increased preparation for workers in the industry ( Semenik and Bamossy 1995 ) . ) . While these authors typically support the government’s run for British to holiday in Britain, there is the ever-present, although clearly minority, statement that authorities support really undermines the fight of the sector by supplying publicizing support it can non go on for the long-run ( Semenik and Bamossy 1995 ) . However, one can non reason with the important success of the monolithic international promotional strategy late undertaken.

Regardless of critics, authorities policy and long-run planning includes continued support of the touristry industry. By the terminal of 2005, a “virtual high street for touristry and leisure” will offer “a individual information and engagement service to online users” ( DCMS 2003, 10 ) . Another of import strategic invention by the authorities in advancing touristry, including literary heritage sites, is the VisitBritain web site. VisitBritain maps as the first and lead administration for touristry selling, and promotes Britain both overseas and in the domestic market ( DCMS 2003 ) . This gives users one cardinal location for information, planning and booking travel and tourer programs, doing it easier and hence more attractive to go and / or holiday in Britain.

A major policy determination impacting historic and literary heritage sites throughout the UK was made when statute law was enacted to consolidate historic registers into one national list. This individual incorporate list, the “Register of Historic Sites and Buildings of England, ” will supply a coherent, consistent listing procedure, brining together the current programmes involved in “listing, scheduling and enrollment and integrated World Heritage Sites” ( DCMS 2004, 12 ) . There will besides be a local subdivision to the Register, “which will incorporate a record of all preservation countries and other local appellations such as local lists and registers” ( DCMS 2004, 12 ) .

The old system of historic saving has been germinating for more than one hundred old ages, as evidenced in the authorities intercession in London antecedently mentioned ( DCMS 2004 ) . This had created a comprehensive but slightly gluey legislative model, which, while “safeguarding many different constituents of the historic environment, ” had developed as a complex system, which required “wide public support and buy-in” ( DCMS 2004, 5 ) . This created a slightly hard model, from a policy point of view, as there was no existent centralization or widespread vision applicable to all literary heritage or historic saving sites. Prior to the recent statute law to centralize historic saving listing and go more involved in selling and other facets of literary heritage sites, the government’s “policy towards the historic environment has been expressed chiefly through formal planning counsel and the proviso of financess to organic structures such as English Heritage and the Heritage Lottery Fund” ( DCMS 2001, 9 ) . However, it is recognised that “there is a demand now for Government both to joint a more complete vision for the sector and to look consistently at the agencies of interpreting the vision into reality” ( DCMS 2001, 9 ) .

One job that is eliminated with the execution of the national list is the last-minute intercessions in the signifier of spot-listing sites of historic significance. As topographic point listing is frequently undertaken merely as destruction or major building is about to take topographic point, it has been viewed negatively by the public, peculiarly belongings proprietors ( DCMS 2004 ) . “Although the spot-listing system works unusually swimmingly with around 3,000 instances every twelvemonth being dealt with by both DCMS and English Heritage, a few ( around 1 % ) high profile instances have been adequate to convey the image of naming as an clogging government, peculiarly damaging in regenerative contexts which are a top precedence for authorities delivery” ( DCMS 2004, 6 ) . In extinguishing this negative perceptual experience in the British populace of historic saving, the authorities hopes to increase public support and attending at historic offerings, including those of literary heritage. This addition in local touristry keeps British holiday spend inside the state and exciting our ain economic system, instead than taking it abroad. It to boot builds the tourer industry for both local and foreign tourers.

Another major policy determination involves puting English Heritage in charge of this list. This allows the authorities to prosecute vision in historic saving, while English Heritage handles the single listing of sites, and any public radioactive dust due to a peculiar site difference. “The Government believes that giving English Heritage the statutory duty for roll uping the chief Register, capable to the suggested precautions, will convey much improved lucidity and answerability and take misconceptions about the differentiation between authorities as policy-maker and English Heritage as individual decision-maker ( DCMS 2004, 12 ) . From a touristry position, this policy allows for more efficient operation of historic listing, and hence can lend to the likeliness a tourer will happen out about a peculiar site, peculiarly those non set up as museums. Walking Tourss in London, for illustration, show many literary sites that are presently private places, but yet are still of involvement to the out-of-town visitant. Having a cardinal list of sites and why they merit historic saving can help those in the tourer industry in planning and packaging such attractive forces as a walking circuit, and can besides assist the single literary aficionado find sites of involvement.

Overall, the determinations of the authorities to put in historic saving sites, provide promotional and selling aid and runs, create a cardinal list of historic sites, and take themselves from the day-to-day operation of this list have a important impact on the creative activity, trial to and care of historic literary sites. Policy is helpful and heightening to the local administrations frequently runing such sites, every bit good as to local and foreign visitants, and the touristry sector as a whole.


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