The Theory Of Sociology And Psychology Sociology Essay Example
The Theory Of Sociology And Psychology Sociology Essay Example

The Theory Of Sociology And Psychology Sociology Essay Example

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This assignment will use the theory of sociology and psychological science to the instance study 'The Williams Family ' ( Appendix 1 ) and effort to explicate how the theories apply.

Both sociology and psychological science expression at behaviors of society members and effort to explicate or foretell behaviors that they have or may do.

Psychology looks at the person, giving a micro position. Psychology would reason that it is the single that makes and affects the society. Sociologists nevertheless would state that this is non the instance, they would reason that the person is a merchandise of the society they live in, and that it is the big constructions such as the household or instruction that shapes the citizens within it.

Sociologists would look at the Williams household and instantly do a opinion on their category, economic place and construction. The Williams are a in-between category household. This is based on the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification ( NS-SEC ) which took over from the Registrar Generals Classification of Occupation in 2001. ( ) See Appendix 3.

Sociologists would province that Terry has all the advantages that any member of society could hold in order to be a productive and utile member. He is white, hence a member of the dominant civilization affording him security. He is besides male with all the societal advantages that come with that. Shulamith Firestone wrote in 1971 about the sexual category system. She believed that this was the first signifier of stratification, preceding the category system. ( Firestone S. The Dialects of Sex. 1970


cited in Haralambos and Holborn. Sociology Themes and positions p.105 ) and that the male was the dominant category.

The fact that Terry 's parents are still in a relationship, means that he is in a atomic household where the bond between hubby and married woman is seen as holding great importance. ( Nicholson 1997 cited in Haralambos and Holborn Sociology Themes and positions p.471 ) . The household is seen as being one of the chief constructions in society and is responsible for primary socialization ; the atomic household is besides the ideological theoretical account of the household and is the sensed ideal in our civilization, supplying stableness and function theoretical accounts for the kids within it. It is predominately Europocentric and other civilizations use different systems to child rear. It could be argued that the atomic household can be isolated as it tends non to include drawn-out households as other civilizations throughout the universe do. ( Laslett. 1983, 1984 as cited in Haralambos and Holborn. Sociology Themes and positions p.475 )

We besides know from the instance survey that both Mr and Mrs Williams are instructors. This once more gives Terry a good economic background. This would be relevant when it comes to his success opportunities, as due to his parents ' economic position, Terry would hold been able to go to a good school and derive a good instruction. He besides would hold good degrees of nutrition and good lodging, which would guarantee he was healthy.

The fact that Terry is in-between category improves his opportunities of attainment in instruction. J.W.B Douglas (

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1964, 1970 ) carried out a longitudinal survey of 5,362 British school kids born in 1946 through the instruction system until they reached the age of 16 in 1962. He concluded that the individual most of import factor in educational attainment was the involvement that parents paid to their kid's instruction ( J W B Douglas. 1964, 1970. Cited in Haralambos and Holborn. Sociology Themes and positions p.629 ). We can presume that he achieved a good degree of instruction as he went on to go on his surveies at university. Education is one of the chief constructions in society, socializing harmonizing to the societies norms and values and surely plays a dominant function within this household 's life.

It is besides to be noted that Terry's parents feel that he left university for 'No obvious ground in their eyes. ' One would presume that a ground has non been ascertained, and so it would be utile to larn precisely why Terry left as there may be a trigger for this behavior that has been overlooked. With respect to the aggression towards his parents, it is of import non to presume that due to the high position this household have within society, the usage of aggression within the household is non considered to be a factor and that Terry's behavior is that which he has been socialised to utilize.

Terry's ain sociological positions are that of Marxism. He clearly sees himself as one of those oppressed by the opinion category and appears to be in struggle with society. As a Marxist he would be of the position that the big constructions within society i.e. instruction, wellness etc are merely at that place to profit the opinion category. He would believe that the on the job category are being used by the opinion category and are being exploited. The extremist position he takes illustrates the manner he feels sing his place within society, and it is obvious that he feels oppressed and powerless.

However, he has non opted out of capitalist economy as he has managed to run up considerable debt and so asked his parents for aid in order to pay it off. They are members of the capitalist society and as in-between category citizens can be said to be portion of Marx 's 'ruling category ' . This is straight in struggle with Terry's Marxist Ideology.

Psychologists would see the fact that one of Terry's parents had mental wellness issues. This could take us to surmise that this may hold perchance affected the household throughout Terry's childhood. It is indispensable that Terry's ain mental wellness is assessed in order to govern out unwellnesss. It has been shown that kids who have a parent with mental wellness issues are 10-15 % more likely to endure from issues in this country. ( R.Gross 2005 ) Equally good as marks of depression, he could be enduring from a signifier of simple schizophrenic disorder and this should be ascertained foremost by referral to a professional ( See appendix 2 ) . Terry surely appears to be angry and resentful towards his parents and the grounds behind this

demand to be addressed, perchance through oppugning all members of the household and appreciating the systems that are in force within it.

If mental unwellness is ruled out, so it would be utile to talk to Terry sing his childhood. It is sensible to presume that, with two professional working parents, one of whom has mental wellness issues, that there may be attachment issues underlying Terry's behavior. John Bowlby was asked by the World Health Organisation to research the effects of maternal want ( Bowlby 1951 ), due, in portion, to the high degrees of adult females taking the occupations of work forces after World War 2. The study showed that unequal parenting by the female parent could damage the societal and emotional development of the kid. Children of down female parents have the possibility of developing a negative ego construct and low ego regard. Depressed female parents can hold trouble in pass oning and interacting with their kids frequently showing a 'blank face '. This behavior will put margins for interaction and could intend that the parent-child relationship suffers from want. Such jobs would intensify the societal isolation Terry is sing. A curative platform for communicating between the two may assist the household to get down covering with any implicit in issues ( Hammen 1990 cited in Rutter & A; Rutter 1993 ) and this is found to be particularly true in the instance of male childs. ( Howe 1999 )

Attachment behavior is displayed in fortunes where the single feels emphasis or anxiousness. It could be said that Terry would hold felt stress whilst at university, holding to go forth place, holding to analyze at a high degree and perchance with force per unit area to win. This would explicate the alteration in his behavior.

Surely, with both parents working and one with mental wellness issues, we can presume that Terry might hold had a distant relationship with them. The research on mental unwellness and the ambitious businesss of the parents may hold led to Terry being isolated.

Attachment upsets can include antisocial behavior, delinquency, symptoms of dependence and trouble in edifice and keeping relationships. ( Dwivedi K & A ; Brinley Harper P. 1999 )

There may be some signifier of individuality crisis. This has been written about extensively and is peculiarly pertinent in adolescence. For all civilizations, adolescence is seen as a passage from childhood to maturity. Some civilizations mark this with a crossing over ritual, but western civilization uses the adolescent old ages as a period of accommodation. Freud, Erikson and Piaget all developed theories that explain this transitional clip.

Erikson ( 1963 ) wrote that each passage, for illustration from childhood to adulthood, involves a struggle between personality types that may be either adaptive/ positive or maladaptive/ negative, and that healthy passages need the adaptative personality type to outweigh the maladaptive. The western position that adolescence is a hold of maturity, may take to function confusion and so impede the individuality development. This function confusion, harmonizing to Erikson, affected assorted elements within the person. One would be familiarity. Terry may hold developed a fright of close relationships through a fright

of losing his ain individuality. This could account for his isolation.

His clip position could besides be affected, doing it hard for him to be after for the hereafter and eventually he could hold assumed a negative individuality. This would account for his drug usage and hazard taking behavior. Erikson argued that this negative behavior is preferred to the isolation and solitariness that come with being unable to accomplish any kind of function within society, or that a negative individuality is better than no individuality at all.

The ideas and feelings that Terry displays surely indicate that he feels emotionally angry and stray. It is of import that Terry 's perceptual experiences of his parents and his positions sing their methods of rearing are given cogency and it would be necessary to acquire a clear image of the kineticss of this household so that we can perchance follow the beginning of Terry 's issues. Any intercession should be in a holistic manner, talking to all household members in order to construct a clearer image.

Rogers was a humanistic psychologist, the term humanistic being coined by Cohen ( 1958 ) and known as the 3rd force of psychological science after Freudianism behaviorism. Maslow ( 1968 ) defined humanistic psychological science as a more holistic attack incorporating both of the above attacks. Both Rogers and Maslow believed that the person had the capacity to turn and accomplish ego realization, or congruity, which is when your perceived and existent ego are the same. Humanist psychological science would state that Terry 's perceptual experience of himself ( Self ) is non the same as his existent ego. This has caused incongruence. This in bend leads to moo ego regard. We can presume that all Terry 's primary socialization within the household and his secondary socialization within instruction have made him cognizant of acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

In order for the person to accomplish ego realization, they need to have unconditioned positive respect to be given to them. There should be no footings or conditions to the positive respect that a individual is given as it is in this environment of non-judgementalism, that a individual will turn.

Terry perchance feels judged by his parents due to his behavior and it is this that will guarantee that incongruence continues. Coupled with the demand to have unconditioned positive respect from others, is the demand for positive dignity.

We could presume that throughout his childhood, Terry has received conditional positive respect with respect to his educational attainment. He has continued on the class that his parents have planned for him in order to have this respect from them and positive ego respect for himself. He has conformed to their wants and so non attained his ain ego realization as he has attempted to populate by their outlooks. Many big accommodation issues are caused by this. It should be stressed that Terry needs to accept his ain ideas and feelings alternatively of denying them so that his positive ego respect is non so dependent on conditions of worth. All interactions with Terry by societal workers should affect him being treated with unconditioned positive respect.

One could

reason that Terry is the maestro of his ain fate, that he has free pick and that he has chosen his life to be as it is. There can be small disagreement nevertheless, that his up-bringing and the ways in which he has been socialised and taught him how to act hold a major portion to play in his reactions to society. Furthermore it is impossible to deny that society is a dominant force in all our lives and once more, gives us regulations and norms in which we are required to follow with.

There are many factors that have a portion to play within the state of affairs Terry and his parents find themselves in. As societal workers, it would be an idealistic position that it is possible to reunite Terry with his parents and ease the rebuilding of their relationship. This would be the holistic attack, handling the household as a whole. However, we must non simplify the multi faceted nature of personality, whether it is developed through nature or raising. We must at all times be led by the wants of our service users and esteem their positions. We must be non- judgemental and non reprobate the Williams household, if they feel that relationships can non be built. We must appreciate at all times their perceptual experiences of the state of affairs are existent and understand that all societal workers can make, is be the facilitators of alteration and growing, even if that alteration and growing is non our ideal.


  1. Giddens H. Sociology 6th Edition. 2009. Polity Press. Cambridge
  2. Gross, R. Psychology The Study of Mind and Behaviour. 2005. Hodder Arnold. London
  3. Haralambos M and Holborn M. Sociology Themes and Perspectives. Seventh Edition. 2008. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd. London
  4. Howe, D. Attachment Theory for Social Work Practice 2005. Palgrave. Basingstoke
  5. Howe, D Brandon, M et Al. Attachment Theory, Child Maltreatment and Family Support. 1999. Palgrave MacMillan. Basingstoke
  6. Accessed 01.05.10

Appendix 1

The Williams Family

The Williams household consist of Terry aged 26, and his two parents. Both parents are university alumnuss and are still involved in the learning profession although one suffers from depression and `` nervousnesss '' . They had hoped that Terry would besides prosecute a university instruction followed by a `` respectable professional calling. '' There were hence defeated when he decided to drop out of his surveies at University after merely a short period of clip for no ground that was obvious or specific in his parent 's eyes. Terry really enjoyed his clip at University which he saw as something of a resort area. He dressed colourfully, spent his clip partying and adopting extremist and popular protest causes.

After University, Terry began to take drugs as he made new familiarities. As clip went by he bit by bit became withdrawn, argumentative and slipped into estranging himself from most of his former friends. He began to see himself as an foreigner, a Rebel and at odds with the dominant values of wider society particularly the sturdy consumerism, individuality and competition.

As this stage continued, Terry started to direct his choler and sense of disaffection and hopelessness at his

parents and accused them of holding 'sold out ' on their socialist and human-centered beliefs. He besides accused them of surrounding and over protecting him ; denying him the opportunity to truly detect himself and what he truly wanted to go in life.

Because of Terry 's life manner, his individuality issues, his attitude about work and extremist beliefs, he managed to acquire into serious debt assuming that his parents would bail him out as they had done on old occasions in the yesteryear. Terry refused to acquire a occupation and, as he saw it, `` feed the capitalist machine '' with his labor. `` What 's the point of it all? ``, he would state.

Terry started to do intrusive demands of his parents for more money and became opprobrious to them and their friends. Finally, after stealing from his parents and interrupting into a neighbor 's place, he received a short prison sentence following by supervising in the community.

Terry is now leasing a room in a big house in Suffolk. He spends much of his twenty-four hours entirely. Co-residents find him puzzling, stray and difficult to make aˆ¦

Appendix 2

Issue to turn to Action to be taken

The result you are trusting to accomplish from this action

  1. Terry 's ' isolation and backdown from society. Refer to mental wellness services in order to determine mental wellness of Terry. If Terry has some signifier of mental wellness issue so this could be addressed with either medicine and/ or guidance
  2. Ascertain Terry 's yesteryear and current drug usage Refer to drugs support service including his parents if possible and agreeable to Terry. To supply support and advice to Terry and so halting a return to drug use.
  3. What are Terrys motives. Speak to all household members to obtain a history. Hopefully place trends/ patterns/ grounds for behavior, such as insecure fond regard.
  4. Terry 's ' deficiency of employment and/or chances Speak to Terry sing the possibility of re-entering education/ preparation. Collect information sing preparation classs at local colleges etc and leave with him. To assist Terry re-enter the universe of employment. Build assurance and ego esteem every bit good as supplying societal relationships as Terry is isolated
  5.  Alienation from household. Family systems therapy for the whole household. To open the lines of communicating between Terry and his parents easing affinity support for him if possible or to supply closing for those concerned.
  6. Terry 's choler issues. Refer Terry to anger direction guidance.  To supply Terry with schemes in order to get by with his defeat alternatively of being aggressive