Psychological Characteristics Of Shg Sociology Essay Example
Psychological Characteristics Of Shg Sociology Essay Example

Psychological Characteristics Of Shg Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 17 (4465 words)
  • Published: September 4, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The following text presents the research survey results, which have been divided into five subcategories. Section I examines the socio-demographic and psychological characteristics of SHG respondents, while Section II focuses on the findings related to economic empowerment.

Throughout countless centuries, women in India have faced subordination and social oppression from men. The various religious practices and personal laws in India consistently place women in an inferior position compared to men. However, self-help groups are leading a silent revolution by empowering women.

Self-help groups are crucial for empowering rural women, helping them improve their socioeconomic status and gain ownership of small financial assets. This study examined factors such as age, religion, caste, education level, marital status, housing type, family type and size, land ownership, and involvement in training, social participation, community outreach, media contacts, decision-making wi


thin the family and community. It also looked at attitudes towards self-employment and creditors' orientation as well as perceptions about self-help groups themselves. Additionally, the study explored self-esteem levels and cosmopolitanism among 400 respondents selected from Madanapalle block in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh and Ottapalam block in Palakkad district of Kerala.

The sample comprises of Self-Help Group (SHG) adult females from DWCRA-SGSY and DWCUA-SJSRY groups in rural and urban areas.

Revealings and Interpretations of the Tables and Graphs Given Below

The majority of the sample is below 35 years old, educated, married, residing in nuclear and joint families, with 2 children. Both husbands and wives are members of SHGs. They earn less than Rs 25000 to 30000 per year and have actively participated in SHG activities for more than two years. Because of their strong interest, participation, and involvement in utilizing their time effectively, the

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can enjoy their leisure time by listening to the radio, watching TV, visiting friends and relatives nearby, as well as engaging in other activities.

  • The majority of households do not have any farmland.
  • They have acquired necessary working skills after becoming members of SHGs.
  • They work up to 9 hours per day.
  • They regularly participate in SHG activities.
  • Their financial status and conditions have significantly improved due to the influence of SHGs, which were established by NGO staff and group members.

All female respondents in both Andhra Pradesh and Kerala agree that self-help groups (SHGs) have helped improve their financial situation. Both SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala agreed that financial decisions were made by their husbands. All respondents from both states believe that their living conditions have improved since joining the SHGs. The majority of respondents in both states save between Rs.50-100 per month. The majority of respondents in Andhra SHGs and Kerala SHGs reported experiencing additional employment opportunities for more than 200 days per year after joining the self-help groups.

The income levels of respondents in both urban groups of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were significantly influenced by self-help groups (SHGs). A substantial number of SHGs in Andhra and Kerala had average scores in terms of economic motivation. SHG women who worked for less than 100 days per year were able to find higher employment opportunities. Women who were primarily engaged in agriculture before joining DWCRA shifted to other main occupations

such as dairy, weaving, canteens, readymade units, orientation and embellishment, handicrafts, etc. However, this occupational shift was in line with their domestic roles.

The economic motives have had a significant impact on members of the Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in both states. Women, constituting half of the population, play a crucial role in household and state socio-economic development. However, historically their contribution has been acknowledged only within domestic realms and not recognized in terms of the overall economy. In India, many women rely on land-based support instead of depending on men. Nevertheless, they face limited access to land ownership, other properties, credit facilities, income-generating programs, and live in poverty. Dr. [Last Name] has effectively defined the concept of human poverty.

Amartya Sen defines economic inadequacy as the lack of certain capabilities and skills, as well as political and economic exclusion. Economic independence is crucial for empowering women in all areas. The emergence of the micro-credit system is seen as an effective tool for empowering women. To address the lack of financial resources in the lower levels of the rural economy, the formal sector has taken steps to establish supplementary credit delivery mechanisms through non-traditional institutional arrangements. Micro-credit stands out from other poverty relief schemes.

This is a construct of economic authorization of adult females through the formation and nurturing of Self-help Groups (SHGs) of the mark population. Micro-credit and Micro-finance is emerging as a powerful instrument for poorness relief in the new economic system. In India, the micro-finance scene is dominated by the SHG-Bank Linkage programme aimed at supplying a cost effectual mechanism for supplying fiscal services to the 'Unreached Poor'. The SHG programme has been successful in non

merely run intoing curious demands of the rural hapless, but besides in beef uping corporate self-help capacities of the hapless at the local degree taking to their authorization. Authorization is a procedure of alteration by which persons or groups gain power and ability to take control over their lives. It involves increased wellbeing, entree to resources*increased assurance, self-esteem and respect, increased engagement in determination devising and increased control over benefits, resources and ain life.

Micro-credit or micro-finance is a well-known approach to alleviate poverty and empower economically disadvantaged women. In India, various factors like economic instability, lack of support, inflation, limited access to natural resources, and natural disasters contribute to the vulnerability of the impoverished. Thus, it is essential to facilitate effective access and utilization of development resources for empowering the poor. Even in present times, many women in certain regions of India encounter difficulties such as illiteracy, poverty, absence of basic amenities, and the added burden of providing for their families.

In India, self-help groups (SHGs) and micro-enterprises are playing a significant role in promoting women's development. Families are actively forming SHGs to enhance their income through different income-generating activities. These self-help groups focus on rural and urban households below the poverty line, distinguishing themselves from traditional poverty alleviation efforts. Through micro-credit programs, they provide employment and income opportunities that empower impoverished women to break free from exploitative lenders with the aid of microsaving initiatives.

In addition, nest eggs can also be reinvested into the common fund. Micro recognition through self-help groups assists impoverished women in developing their skills and abilities and provides access to funds without requiring collateral, empowering them both economically and socially. In essence,

a Self-Help Group is a sustainable organizational structure that provides micro-credit to disadvantaged women and encourages their involvement in entrepreneurial endeavors.

Women's self-help groups across our state have successfully integrated themselves into decision-making processes. These groups are a source of inspiration and a practical means for achieving the goal of socio-economic development for women, as they are involved in all development programs. In Andhra Pradesh, the DRDA has formed approximately 650,000 SHGs under the IKP (IndirakranthiPadam) program. The SHG bank linkage program covers all districts, including Chittoor, which is a leading territory in this regard. The SHGs are also commonly known as IKP groups. The survey area boasts a remarkable 50,000 SHGs, playing a significant role in reducing poverty and empowering women.

The State of Kerala has also made significant progress in microfinance. The success of Kudumbasree and the wide promotion of Self-Help Group (SHG) scheme have attracted several other organizations. Formal organizations such as District Collectorate, Primary Agricultural Credit Societies, Department of Industries, Development of Agriculture, and various other government agencies are actively promoting SHGs in Kerala to effectively utilize their funds. The role of NABARD in the growth of SHGs in Kerala is worth mentioning. Kerala ranks third in the country, behind only Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, in terms of the number of linked groups. In 1999, Kerala accounted for 13 percent of the total linked groups in India (Kerala Status focal point paper, NABARD 2000). The number of self-help groups increased from 352 in 1994-95 to 2434 in 1999-2000, representing a sevenfold growth over five years.

The largest number of groups was found in Alappuzha territory (996), and the amount of bank loan distributed was

also the highest in the territory (Rs. 131.09 thousand). In INDIA state, various schemes and development programs have been implemented over the past five decades to improve the status of women. The importance of addressing women's needs in the development process and empowering them has been emphasized. Andhra Pradesh and Kerala states have witnessed significant progress in empowering women through microcredit.

However, not all SHGs are equally successful. Hence, conducting research on the factors that contribute to the success of SHGs would assist those unsuccessful SHGs in their economic endeavors. Examining these aspects through research studies is always necessary to comprehend the respondents and assess the responses of SHG beneficiaries for analysis purposes.

Scoring and Analysis

The agendas were scored by assigning appropriate weightages to derive numerical values for the various measured variables. The overall scores achieved by the 512 respondents for all the variables were calculated.

The information was carefully analyzed using statistical techniques such as chi-square, V trial, and 'F' ratio to assess the impact of independent variables on dependent variables. The significant findings of the study are presented in the following chapter.


Among the different poverty alleviation programs, Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) stands out as a comprehensive, feasible, and bold initiative. Its aim, strategy, methodology, and sustainability make it particularly noteworthy.

The SGSY dressed ores on group attack by organizing the hapless into SHGs through societal mobilization. The group attack stems from the thought that the hapless will assist themselves, the administration will assist themselves for their authorization. Though the SGSY recorded a sulky growing, the public presentation of SHGs in Tamil Nadu has been sporadic. Tamil Nadu has a record worth adverting. The rural and urban

hapless in Tamil Nadu brought about a paradigm displacement in development scheme and created employment chances with the formation of SHGs. SHGs screen all facets of self-employment such as organizing the hapless into SHGs, developing recognition, engineering, substructure and selling.

The SGSY focuses on using group intervention to empower the underprivileged by forming Self Help Groups (SHGs) through community mobilization. The concept behind this approach is that the underprivileged individuals will help themselves, and the government will support their efforts for empowerment. Although the SGSY has experienced slow growth, the performance of SHGs in Tamil Nadu has been inconsistent. However, Tamil Nadu has a noteworthy track record. SHGs formed by the rural and urban poor in Tamil Nadu have brought about a significant shift in development strategy and created opportunities for employment. SHGs encompass various aspects of self-employment, including organizing the underprivileged into SHGs, developing finance, technology, infrastructure, and marketing skills.

The objective of this procedure is to strengthen the corporate bargaining power and socio-economic empowerment of adult females. A recent survey was conducted specifically on the impact of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in empowering women in Eraiyur Village. The survey results revealed that out of 112 respondents who were SHG members, 55 members (49.1%) had a moderate level of involvement with various SHGs for one to two years. The percentage of young members was 37.5%, while old members accounted for 13.4%. Among all the respondents, 35.7% were illiterate, whereas only 4.5% gained literacy through non-formal education.

Among all three classes of rank, the nonreader respondents were found in the majority, although their percentage was lowest among the young class. It is worth mentioning that 40% of

older members had received education up to high school level. Regarding religious composition, Hindus constituted the largest community among older SHG members, representing 92%. Muslims made up the second largest religious group, accounting for 7.1% of the respondents.

56.3% of the respondents were classified as Backward, while 21.4% and 17.9% belonged to the MBC and SC/ST communities respectively. In terms of age groups, BC individuals were more common in the younger and middle-aged categories, comprising only 26.7% of the older group.

It should be noted that among the participants, 80.4% were married, with no unmarried or single individuals included in the study. Additionally, there were 19 participants who were widowed (17%). The Divorced or Separate category had a small representation within the younger group.

The research shows that 17% of households were single-member households, indicating a small size. These households sought support from SHG for protection, particularly widows. Moreover, the majority (58%) of respondents' households had 2 to 4 members.

When comparing different age groups, it was found that older and middle members had larger household sizes than younger members. The data reveals that 91.9% of families had at least one male member, while the remaining 8.1% had no males. Interestingly, the majority of families (39.2%) consisted of only one male member, with families having two, three, and four male members accounting for 37.3%, 19.6%, and 3.9% respectively.

On the other hand, almost all families (99.1%) included at least one female member in their households. However, it is worth noting that nearly half (45.9%) of respondents' families had only one female member.

The percentages of families with two, three and four female members were 39.6%, 12.6% and 1.8% respectively. The

main implications are as follows:

  1. 61.5% of the older members had two male members in their household, while a majority of the younger and middle-aged members had only one male member in their family.
  2. 93.4% of the families of older members had fewer than three female members in their household, and none of them had more than three female members.

Regarding the schooling of the respondents' children, 80% of the older members had single school-going kids. Middle-aged members had a higher number of school-going children. It is inferred that 83% of the respondents earned an income less than Rs.3500 per month.

42.9% of the families of the immature members earned less than RS.1500 per month, while it was 23.6% for the medium members and 13.4% for the old members. This indicates that the economic position of the families improved as a result of their association with the SHGs. It was found that 5.6% of the families incurred an outgo of less than Rs.2000, while 22.3% of families incurred outgo of Rs.3500 or higher. It was observed that the families of immature members had the highest outgo of Rs.3500 and above. The main reason for this is that they spend more on repaying old loans. Overall, the families of old members were able to manage their expenses based on their income.

Only 10.7% of the respondents were regular newspaper readers. Among the three categories of respondents, those in the medium age range had a higher percentage of newspaper readers (12.7%) compared to the young and old members. Listening to the radio was not a

popular habit among these respondents, with over 42% of them not listening to radio. It was observed that a higher percentage of listeners belonged to the young and middle-aged groups, compared to the elderly.

Television was the preferred medium for the majority of respondents, with approximately 70% stating they regularly watch TV. Additionally, a significant number of respondents, over 70%, reported frequently traveling outside their small town. However, it is worth noting that older members, who are primarily from Pollachi Town, had fewer visits compared to the rest of the respondents.

All of the trips were not solely due to SHG activities, but they were also influenced by the nature of their business and the respondent's environment within the family. It is evident from the intentions that 55.4% of the respondents joined the SHGs with the purpose of forming a group and benefiting from the advantages of such formation. However, 44.6% of the respondents joined the SHGs primarily for their personal benefit. What is important to note is that the respondents did not seem to consider generating a regular income as a significant objective of SHGs. It is clear that not many respondents expected the SHG movement to fulfill this aspect for them.

According to the survey, all the respondents from the older group agreed that their financial position had improved since joining the SHGs. In comparison, only 87.3% of the medium members and 76.2% of the younger members reported the same. On the other hand, 19% of the younger members and 9.1% of the medium members stated that their financial situation remained unchanged. This data clearly demonstrates that the SHGs have significantly improved the financial status of

their members. It is worth noting that older members expressed a relatively lower level of confidence and comfort. This paradox can be attributed to the fact that younger members had higher levels of education compared to medium and older members. However, the difference in the degree of confidence was minimal.

The SHGs have a significant impact on the comfort and assurance levels of their members. Survey results show that 50% of the respondents contribute 10 to 15% of their household income. Only 12% of the respondents contribute less than 10% of the entire household income, and none of them are older individuals. Furthermore, 58.3% of older members contribute between 10 and 50% of the household income, while 41.7% contribute between 50 and 100%.

It is interesting to note that 57.1% of older member families had at least one non-earning member, while younger and average member families had a higher number of non-earning members. The ownership of houses, many of which are passed down through generations, may not change as a result of women's involvement in SHGs. Of the older members, 60% own their house either by themselves or with their husband, but one-third or 33.3% live in rented houses. However, 11.9% and 20.0% of respondents in younger and average member families respectively live in a house owned by someone else. The percentage of respondents living in rented houses is lowest among younger members, but relatively higher among medium and older member families.

The important point is that certain members lived in urban areas such as town. The ownership of residential land was low for all social classes. However, older members had a higher percentage (33.3%) of

owning residential land compared to younger (19%) and average members (18.2%). It is worth noting that over 80% of the respondents did not own any farmland.

Furthermore, it was found that the older members, who originated from town and urban countries, were actually weaker in comparison to the newer members. By analyzing the survey results, it was observed that the medium members were the most active participants in the SHG meetings compared to the immature and old members. However, it is worth noting that all groups attended more than 80 per cent of the meetings. Interestingly, only 2.7 per cent of the respondents stated that they had never attended any SHG meetings in the past year. It is important to highlight that all respondents in this category belonged to the medium group of members.

The results reveal that only 36.6% of the respondents regularly attended bank meetings. Among the older group of members, more than half (53.3%) attended bank meetings on a regular basis. However, the younger group attended fewer meetings and indicated that they never had a role in the decision-making process of the banks. Interestingly, approximately 60% of the respondents participated in small village Panchayat meetings. In comparison, 73.3% of the older group members attended Panchayat meetings, while the percentages for the medium and younger groups were 61.8% and 52.4% respectively. Only 11.9% and 5.5% of the younger and medium group members respectively never attended Panchayat meetings, whereas all members of the older group did attend these meetings.


  • It is advisable to provide external aid to groups in their early stages.
  • Involving a large group in deliberations requires more efforts from the energizer.

Many energizers contribute voluntarily to the group. Therefore, there should be a minimum and maximum number of members, ranging from 5 to 15.

  • Objective criteria must be used to allow the facilitator to form or promote groups. The facilitator should have a proven track record of at least 2 years.
  • If a group has the opportunity to operate under SGSY, its members should not be given another chance if they are found to be defaulters.
  • Fiscal aid should be based on ability and entrepreneurship.
  • All members of an SHG should be aware of its rules and regulations. The group's operation should be based on consensus, without allowing an individual's opinion to dominate.
  • The most successful SHG in each Village should be encouraged with more incentives. The success story of that particular SHG should be shared with members of other SHGs.
  • The government administration and individuals should be encouraged to promote the ideas of SHGs.
    • Andhra Pradesh and Kerala

      A high percentage of the rural and urban Self Help Groups (SHG) in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala belonged to the age group of 31-50 years.

    • A large proportion of the rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala belonged to the Hindu faith.

    • The majority of the rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala belonged to backward castes.

    About one-quarter of the rural SHGs and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh had education above high school level. Among Kerala SHGs, more than half of the rural SHGs and urban SHGs had education above high school level.

  • A high proportion of the rural and urban SHG respondents in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were married.

  • About three-quarters of the rural SHGs and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were living in tiled houses.

  • More than half of the rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and more than three-fourths of the rural and urban SHGs in Kerala belonged to atomic households.

  • More than half of the rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala had less than four members in their household.

  • A greater proportion of respondents in the rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh owned less than 5 cents of land, as did those in the rural and urban SHGs in Kerala.

    • More than half of rural Self-help Groups (SHGs) in Andhra Pradesh were engaged in non-agricultural labor, while urban SHGs were involved in various activities. Among Kerala SHGs, rural groups primarily focused on farming, while urban

    groups engaged in non-agricultural labor.

  • A higher proportion of rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala reported an annual income of rupees 10,000-25,000.
  • About half of rural SHGs and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh participated in three or more training programs. Similarly, rural and urban SHGs in Kerala attended three or more preparation programs.
  • All rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were members of one organization.
  • In terms of socio-psychological variables, there were significant differences between rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh. These differences were observed in dimensions such as extension engagement, mass media contact, attitude towards self-employment, decision making in household and community, and self-esteem. Among Kerala SHGs, significant differences were found in the dimensions of extension engagement and mass media contact.
  • All respondents from both Andhra Pradesh and Kerala agreed that joining Self-help groups has led to an increase in women's earning capacity and improved financial status of households.
  • Kerala self-help groups had significant differences with respect to authorization constituents, such as achievement motive, risk-taking ability, and assurance.
  • Age plays a significant role in mass media exposure, decision-making in the family and community, and recognition orientation among Kerala self-help groups.
  • Education affects variables such as mass media exposure, decision-making in the family and community, and attitude towards self-employment among Andhra SHGs. In Kerala SHGs, there are significant differences in decision-making in the family and community.
  • Education has an impact on empowerment constituents for Andhra SHGs, particularly in areas of achievement motivation, risk-taking ability, and self-assurance.
  • The majority of respondents in both states reported improved living conditions after joining
  • SHGs.

  • 100% of respondents in both states have monthly savings of Rs.50 to 100.
  • More than three fourths of Andhra Pradesh SHGs generate over 200 days of employment annually, while Kerala SHGs generate employment for more than 200 days per year.
  • Urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh show significant differences in income levels before and after joining self-help groups.
  • There is a significant difference in the increase in income between rural and urban self-help groups in Kerala, both before and after joining the groups.
  • The economic motivations of rural and urban self-help groups in Andhra Pradesh differ significantly.
  • The components of empowerment, such as achievement motivation, risk-taking ability, decision-making ability, management orientation, and initiative, show significant differences between rural and urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh.
  • A comparative analysis of group variables between urban SHGs in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala reveals significant differences in variables such as group interaction, group motivation, need satisfaction, group goal achievement, transparency, interpersonal communication, group leadership, interpersonal trust, and accountability.
  • Suggestions

    • To improve the performance of self-help group members and integrate women into development instead of isolating their activities, the following suggestions are proposed:
    • Considering that most self-help group members are illiterate, it is important to provide them with education by establishing non-formal education centers in each area for basic education and continuing education.
    • - Periodic time-to-time acquisition is essential for the self-help groups to update their knowledge and skills, and also to develop a positive attitude. This can be facilitated by individuals who are explorers and early adopters, thus serving as a valuable resource.
      - The

    preparation programmes and meetings should be conducted in the residential areas of the group members, to increase the likelihood of female participation.
    - Extension services and equal supply of resources should support the training, even after its completion. The training establishment should maintain close contacts with the trainees to assess their performance and address any issues that arise.
    - The government should provide special training in handcrafts for self-help group members, as it can help improve the quality of their products and enhance their standard of living.
    - Government officials should collaborate with group leaders and members to ensure successful implementation of strategies.
    - Some self-help group recipients may lack understanding of thrift and loans, hence educational efforts are needed to create awareness about these processes.
    - Awareness programs should be organized for group members on topics such as health, education, and environmental conditions.

  • The group should make efforts to ensure consistent and compatible quality of their manufactured products.
  • The amount allocated under the program is often insufficient for the economic viability of the group. Therefore, it should be increased to a feasible level.
  • Transportation facilities should be provided to self-help groups' women for marketing their products.
  • The grassroots level officials responsible for implementing the program should be given incentives to motivate the groups for better performance.
  • The government establishment should be required to purchase the necessary items only from self-help groups, depending on their availability. This would greatly solve the market problems.
  • NGOs should assist SHG women in starting new business ventures such as photo lamination, paper machines, sericulture, basket weaving, mat weaving, safety match making, fireworks manual activity,
  • candle making.

  • Providing them with orientation, initiation training and introducing them to the objectives and some of the principles of working in groups and in the community would greatly contribute to their success.
  • Rural female workforce is a diverse group. Some of the groups have hidden potential and skills. Therefore, while women were brought un
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