General Theories Of Nationalism Sociology
General Theories Of Nationalism Sociology

General Theories Of Nationalism Sociology

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  • Pages: 7 (3414 words)
  • Published: October 8, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The research undertaking explores chiefly 2nd coevals immigrants sense of national individuality and whether there individuality is fixed or fluid i.e. is there individuality fixed and changeless or are they able to make a intercrossed Identity depending on the societal context at that place in. The survey farther explores whether and how `` British '' and what they means in modern Britain.

My research inquiries are as follows:

Primary research inquiry:

Supporting research inquiries:

The research used is primary qualitative informations collected from semi-structured interviews carried out from people of a scope of ethnically diverse backgrounds, both first and 2nd coevals persons. I used a convenience sample to achieve my participants- through people I knew from foreign backgrounds in my class, flatmates and friends of each. I aim to transport out a sum of at least 12 interviews. I will get down by researching bing literature on patriotism in order to contextualise the motivations for carry oning this research. The figure of persons immigrating into the UK is everlastingly turning and the issue of multicultarism has been cast into public argument with the recent rise in popularity for groups such as the English respect conference ( EDL ) and far right parties such as the UK independency party ( UKIP ) with this in head arguably these issues are at the head of modern society so there 's ne'er been a more of import clip to analyze them.

Chapter 1: General theories of patriotism

Upon researching into patriotism there were two general theories which seemed to be foundations in the political orien

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tation of patriotism. The first was Ernest gellner 's theory from his universe renowned 1983 publication `` states and patriotism '' . He believes patriotism to be a concept which strives excessively until the province and state ( ethnicity or race ) . He believes patriotism to hold emerged as a consequence of the displacement from agricultural to industrial societies where integrity of high civilization has been established. Critics of Gellner argue that his theory is excessively general and lacks any existent deepness. Further unfavorable judgments claim that it is hard to account for alterations in national individuality at social and single degrees. Acclaims of this theory believe that gellner was right when he claimed that instruction was a cardinal facet in the formation of national individuality.

Possibly even more celebrated is Benedict Anderson 's book `` Imagined communities '' which takes a wholly contrasting position on patriotism. The rubric of the book gives off his whole political orientation on patriotism. Anderson believes that there is no such thing as a fixed `` society '' or community.

Chapter 2: Literature reappraisal

The first piece of literature used to help the development of the research inquiry was a article by Pyke, K. & A ; Dang entitled `` FOB '' and `` Whitewashed '' : Identity and internalized racism among 2nd coevals Asiatic Americans.

This work is based on 184 interviews with first-generation progeny of Korean and Vietnamese immigrants who arrived in the U.S. after 1965. The footings `` FOB '' - `` fresh off the boat '' and `` whitewashed '' were used to depict people as `` excessivel

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cultural '' or `` excessively assimilated '' severally. Straight-line assimilation theory contends that such immigrants are seen as `` others '' unlike the white European immigrants who bit by bit merged into the white bulk. Racism displayed towards Asiatic Americans is different to that displayed towards Blacks and Hispanics. They are regarded as a theoretical account minority because of a construct that they are hard-working and intelligent, peculiarly in mathematics and scientific discipline. But they are regarded as socially dull and `` nerdy '' . Surprisingly, unlike African Americans, they are seen as unassimilable aliens. They have been considered as non-American, non-English talkers, even if English is the lone linguistic communication they know.

The derogatory footings of FOB and whitewashed were used by interviewees to depict their coethnic equals. These individualities were formed from constructs in mainstream society, which racialises Asiatic Americans as successful aliens and as a sensed menace to American security.

Research on racism has frequently focussed on open manifestations, such as force and favoritism. But there are besides elusive procedures at work, such that persons justify the subjugation of their cultural group, frequently without gaining it. Racial subsidiaries live under restraints which deny them self-identity. Osajima ( 1993 ) has compactly described this as the `` concealed hurts of race '' . He described this as `` internalised racism '' , where members of the cultural group denigrated other members harmonizing to the sensed biass of the host society. Such persons may be seen by their coethnic equals as `` excessively assimilated '' and `` holding sold out '' .

The writers accept that the names FOB and whitewashed are unstable constructs, and can non be ascribed to persons. They besides accept that there are many persons in the center of the continuum. Many claimed to belong to this group - the bicultural center. They regard racial and cultural differentiations to be changeless. FOB were frequently summarised in that many people make merriment of them, as was the instance in the dominant civilization. By contrast, there was less understanding about the usage of the term `` whitewashed '' . They were thought to be ashamed of their ethnicity. Resentment towards them was for their sensed treachery of their ethnicity.

Asiatic Americans are racialised by autochthonal American society as a homogenous entity. For assimilated and bicultural Asiatic Americans this causes struggle, and they attempt to decide this by minimizing their ain cultural background, i.e. the FOBs, perpetuating internalised racism. The construct of being `` whitewashed '' was more complex, being seen by some as credence by white society and a rejection of the negative racial stereotype of Asain Americans. By contrast, cultural diehards and biculturals saw the whitewashed term as pejorative of those who denied their cultural civilization and their high quality over the less-assimilated. The footings FOB and whitewashed were seen as acceptable within the Asian community even though they were considered derogatory. By contrast, the same community which used such footings against its coethnics, considered the usage of such footings as racialist if used by non-Asian Americans.

Following I used Sabatier, C. ( 2008 ) . Cultural and national individuality among

second-generation immigrant striplings in France: the function of societal context and household. Journal of Adolescence. 31: 185 - 205.

This survey is based on 365 second-generation striplings from a scope of different cultural groups. Cultural individuality was examined through two factors ( or orientations ) - cultural and national, which in themselves included two constituents ( avowal and geographic expedition ) . The parents consisted of 356 female parents and 292 male parents who were besides interviewed. Following natural theoretical accounts of development and socialization, multiple different contexts and their influence were analysed: socialisation with friends was the first societal context to be analysed every bit good as the cultural background of the school and friends. The following to be analysed was the perceptual experience of favoritism they felt and several different facets of parent-adolescent relationship including what the adolescent idea of their relationship with parents and both female parents ' and male parents ' studies on their ain cultural and national socialization patterns and on their parental manners. Ethnic and national avowals were found to be two independent orientations. Arrested development analysis showed that the highest account of discrepancy came from the stripling 's perceptual experience of their relationship with their parents, followed by parental socialization, and perceived favoritism. The school and peer context explained a lesser sum of discrepancy. Parents ' part to cultural individuality is non limited to the cultural orientation ; parents besides contribute in a positive manner to national individuality. The parents ' part was different in the instance of female parents and male parents. This reflects the moral force of socialization within immigrant households.

Cerulo, K.A. ( 1997 ) . Identity Construction: New Issues, New Directions. Annual Review of Sociology 23: 385 - 409.

Identity has long been studied in the subject of sociology- Introduced by the plants of Cooley and Mead it forms a critical portion of modern sociological idea. The micro sociological position dominated work published throughout the 1970 's. Sociologists focused chiefly on the formation of the `` me '' researching how interpersonal interactions ( conversations between two or more people ) affect and mould an person 's sense. More recent works tends to switch the focal point from the person to the collective.

Corporate individuality is a construct which is grounded in classical sociology. Durkheim 's theory of `` corporate scruples '' , Karl Marx 's `` category consciousness '' and Weber 's `` Verstehen '' . The thought of people organizing groups and associating to one another through the `` we-ness '' of that group is so rooted in classical and Morden idea and can about specify sociology to an extent. Early literature called these properties to be `` natural '' or `` indispensable '' characteristics- qualities emerging from physcosocial traits and psychological sensitivities. Members of these collectives we believed to `` internalise '' these qualities which suggest everyone 's starts unified with a remarkable societal experience and canvas which societal histrions construct a sense of ego.

Critics stress the jobs built-in in jointly categorizing persons into one individual unified group. The societal constructionist attack is one school of idea knocking this. Their attack

to individuality differs in the sense that they reject any class that sets frontward indispensable or nucleus characteristics as the alone belongings of a collective.

Postmodernists cite defects in the constructionist attack, claiming that the school of idea 's docket is deficient

This reappraisal of the newer literature ( up to about 1996 ) found a motion off from traditional individuality surveies which focussed on the person to an accent on Bolshevism. They found individuality to be a beginning of mobilization as opposed to an result of it. These new attacks can be productive, as with Lorber 's treatise that frames gender as a societal establishment. Neo-pragmatic positions of ego build a tripartite construct of `` I '' , `` you '' and `` me '' . The writers concludes by foregrounding macro-micro linkages, such as Bourdieu 's work on habitus, Gidden 's structuration theory, and Habermas 's theory of communicative action. These have led to the micro-processes of talk lending to the macro-structure of administration.

This article entitled `` 'Who do `` they '' cheer for? ' Cricket, diaspora, hybridity and divided truenesss amongst British Asiatics '' by Fletcher, T ( 2011 ) explores `` British Asians '' sense of nationhood, citizenship, ethnicity and how they manifest themselves in relation to athleticss fandom. Fletcher uses the illustration of Cricket and how it is used as a manner of showing `` British Identities '' . He looks to Norman Tebbit 's `` cricket trial '' to assist understand the elaboratenesss of being a British Asiatic back uping the English national cricket squad. The first subdivision looks at Tebbit 's trial and efforts to turn up its topographic point within the broad issue of multiculturalism. Subsequently the analysis focuses on the discourse of athleticss fandom and the thought of the `` place squad advantage '' puting frontward the construct that athleticss locales represent sites for the look of patriotism and cultural look due to their connexion for national history.

The article states that back uping `` anyone but England '' and hence finally rejecting ethically sole impressions of `` Englishness '' and `` brutishness '' continues to specify British Asian 's cultural individuality. The inspiration for the paper came on the 14th June 2009 when England played India at Lord 's - the `` Home '' of English cricket. Despite the fact England won comfortably the competition was overshadow by the twenty-four hours 's earlier events off the pitch. In the warm-up lucifer prior to the game it was revealed that the squad had been jeered and booed by 100s of British Asians who had come to back up the Indian squad. Following this event there was tumult within the cricket community as to British Asians featuring commitments and their British citizenship. All the informations collected was collected during fieldwork undertaken between June 2007 and January 2010 with two recreational cricket nines in south Yorkshire. One was largely white in rank, the other British Asian. The predominately white nine is known in the local country to be in-between category and had been criticized by those within the game as neglecting to travel with the times.

Those from the British Asiatic nine had either been born in Britain or had immigrated during the late 1980 's and early 1990 's. Research was based on semi-structured interviews, focal point groups interviews and participant observation. Matches, preparation Sessionss, and even societal assemblages were attended ( when possible ) . Yorkshire cricket had been known to be racist and suffer from racial inequality for a long clip. The North of England on the whole had been plagued with a figure of racially motivated civil perturbations such as the Bradford public violences ( 1995 ) and the Oldham public violences ( 2001 ) . Surprisingly, every bit late as August 2010 Bradford ( known for its big south Asiatic communities ) hosted English defense mechanism conference presentations.

Huq, R. ( 2009 ) . A immature construct in a new state: The institutionalization of the citizenship inquiry in the UK and its generational impact. Young, Nordic Journal of Youth Research 17: 443 - 455.

Sing the age of Britain as a state province its tradition of citizenship is a really recent development. This article acts as a argument instead than pulling on empirical research to analyze the developments of the past decennary that has resulted in this construct going engrained into unofficial British Structures. Citizenship is more likely to be embedded in the consciousness of younger coevalss in Britain following the debut of its learning into schools in 2002. Possibly this is partially due to the changing lineage of a batch of people populating in Britain today. Balancing viing demands from different be it generational or ethic is a world of modern-day life in the UK- particularly during the current economical downswing.

The UK is known for holding assorted long standing traditions. Citizenship is non one of those traditions. Interesting, in topographic point of citizenship, politicians tend to utilize the word `` Britishness '' as a consolidative device. Britishness is normally seen as something which is under onslaught. The celebrated 1979 statement by the so conservative politician Margaret Thatcher voiced her frights of Britain being `` swamped '' of its national character by immigrants.

Common civilization or shared values and ethical motives are implied by citizenship. It 's hard to specify this as the UK consists of four different and separate countries- England, Scotland, Wales and the other 1. Each of these states has typical histories, civilizations and traditions. Dictionary definitions of Citizenship differ normally gestating it to be a legal position connoting rights, duties and responsibilities e.g. to vote and pay revenue enhancements.

New labor came into power in 1997 and symbolised a vernal optimism following a authorities which has become discredited after two decennaries in power. Tony Blair was the youngest premier curate since 1812, his policy was so different that the celebrated sociologist Anthony Giddens developed a name for this new authorities called `` the 3rd manner '' which eschewed the traditional left/right divide. As was to hold been expected the vernal optimism of new labor did melt, Anxieties about `` British national individuality '' from Thatcher onwards had clustered around frights from external beginnings e.g. EU harmonization was portrayed by the popular

imperativeness as a coup d'etat by Brussels administrative officials. This fright of what lay beyond the boundary lines of Britain was suddenly discarded by a series of events which swayed labour into its relaxed attitude to multiculturalism, raising inquiries of citizenship and supplying the right wing imperativeness a new public enemy.

Hussain, Y. & A ; Bagguley, P. ( 2005 ) . Citizenship, ethnicity and individuality: British Pakistanis after the 2001 'Riots ' . Sociology 39: 407 - 425.

After the September 11th terrorist onslaughts there were heighted tensenesss between the West and east. There was increased tenseness between the white bulk and people of south Asiatic and Arabic descent. This article by Yasmin Hussain and Paul Bagguley looks at the thought of `` citizenship as an individuality '' . They collect quantitative informations by questioning British Pakistani 's life in Bradford after the short but intense public violences throughout Bradford, Burnley and Oldham in 2001 paying peculiar attending to Bradford where the most serious rioting took topographic point. Through their analysis of interviews with both first and 2nd coevals British Pakistanis they examined how citizenship as a specifying portion of `` individuality '' and how they frame it in relation to national individuality, Islam and ethnicity. Interestingly, the 2nd coevals have a strong sense of British individuality seeing themselves as `` British citizens '' with the `` natural rights '' of a British-born citizen. Conversely their parents ( first coevals migrators ) from Pakistan see themselves as `` inhabitants '' - Populating but non belonging in a foreign state.

In 2001, Oldham, Leeds and Burnley in May and June and most earnestly in Bradford over the weekend of 7-9 July saw 500 people involved in rioting taking to 326 constabulary officers and 14 members of the public being injured with estimations of up to 10 million lbs of harm to belongings. There is a difference among faculty members as to the root of the cause of the public violences, whereas some such as Amin ( 2002 ) argue that want, segregation and the demands of a `` new coevals '' of south Asians were the cause ; others believe that it was the long standing grudges against local manifestations of racism and the constabulary. Calendar months before there were assorted studies from the local and national media about contested claims of racially motivated offenses by south Asians against Whites ( Kalra 2002 ) . The British national party had picked up on this and used it to their advantage but increasing their public presence in the 2001 local and general election in Oldham and Burnley.

In the wake of the public violences as was to be expected many official studies were published and the focal point was on citizenship and confirming national belonging over ethic individuality but many tended to avoid an account as to why the public violences took topographic point wholly.

Jones, F.L. & A ; Smith, P. ( 2001 ) . Individual and social bases of national individuality. A comparative multi-level analysis. European Sociological Review 17: 103 - 118.

The death of patriotism and category has frequently been predicted by societal scientists,

yet inequalities based on these standards are progressing in the developed universe. From the published literature, it is hard to specify forms of national individuality in developed states, but the writers argue that there are repeating subjects about how states might differ harmonizing to their grade of development. They have developed multi-level theoretical accounts to specify paradigms of national individuality.

There are two dimensions of national individuality: one is ascriptive and resembles cultural individuality detailed in theoretical and historical literature ; the other is a `` voluntarist '' dimension similar to civic individuality. The first dimension links states of birth, extended abode and a remarkable faith, together with citizenship. The civic or voluntaristic dimension is less cardinal, incarnating regard for national establishments and eloquence in the national linguistic communication. The writers acknowledge the functions of warfare and diplomatic negotiations in the development of nationhood. They argue that forces such as post-industrialisation and globalization are strong drivers to favor voluntaristic dimensions over the restrictive ascribed dimension. Polyethnicity besides inhibits development of a consistent national individuality.

The writers preponderantly used information from the International Social Survey Program ( ISSP ) and the World Bank to make assorted steps of globalization, post-industrialism, internal cultural distinction ( lingual and sentiment-based standards ) , and militarism. They found that states still differed in the accent placed on ascribed facets of national individuality than in the civic/voluntaristic elements. Statistical analyses were based on the usage of a multi-level theoretical account which combined micro and macro degrees of analysis into a individual model.

Their empirical findings were that the higher the grade of a state 's post-industrialisation index, the greater the committedness of its population to the comparatively unfastened voluntaristic dimension of patriotism. These states had a high degree of military readiness, but where the ascribed dimension had popular support there was a history of engagement in external wars. Support for the civic individuality was greater in the more flush categories and, by extension, amongst the political elite. The writers found that immigrants besides subscribed to the civic position, as opposed to the native-born ( the bulk ) who endorse a more closed position of national individuality. Such difference in accent may be a beginning of internal struggle.

The writers province that their empirical analysis takes frontward old surveies based on theoretical hypotheses. They found that immigrants and the flush shared the unfastened civic dimension, whereas the autochthonal population were ascriptive in their attitude to patriotism. Age, instruction, faith, abode and economic category were all powerful forecasters of attitudes about civic and national belonging. Although the consequences are barely surprising, it is the first clip that an empirical analysis with statistical cogency has been conducted.

Ultimately the result of reading all these articles lead to three double stars ( or dualisms ) and one spectrum. The dualisms were as follows:

Individual vs. social patriotism

Ascriptive vs. Voluntarist individuality

Citizenship vs. British-ness

The spectrum developed was: Cosmopolitism to multicularism to assimilation