The Rights and Budget of Dalit

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Budgeting for Dalits form an built-in portion of human rights and is besides recognized in Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and are farther detailed in the 1966 International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ( ICESCR ) . However, since their inclusion in these pacts, they have received small attending from provinces and human rights organisations. In fact, many are non even cognizant of the being of ESC rights and purveying to the budgetary allotment by authorities of India, believing human rights to be merely about civil and political rights. This limits the chances for systemic alterations, reduces cognition of persons and group entitlements, and reduces authorities answerability to international understandings.

Fortunately, both human rights and development organisations are easy get downing to acknowledge the importance of ESC rights and budgetary allotment. However, non all organisations have arrived at this decision, and for those that have, they have yet to travel beyond mere acknowledgment. This needs to alter. It is clip that organisations reassess their current attacks, change their perceptual experiences sing human rights and get down to utilize a comprehensive budget analysis in the human rights model to cut down human rights misdemeanor, eradicate poorness, and work for the up elevator mans of Dalits & A ; marginalised communities.

The Indian economic system is turning and beef uping really quickly in the footings of economic growing rate. What does this economic growing and development mean to the marginalized subdivisions of society, peculiarly SCs and Tribes? Is this growing reflected in their socio-economic life? Does the development step taken by the authorities truly run into the demands and demands of these subdivisions? The paper focuses on the Budget because this is the statement authorities makes every twelvemonth to the state sing their precedences and policies towards economic and societal development of the state. For the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, economic development and societal equity is to be understood in footings of conveying them out of their degraded societal position, acute poorness and barbarous development and doing them portion the economic growing.

In the undermentioned paper, we have presented the Dalit history and their economic status, how favoritism against Dalits exemplifies a state of affairs in demand of a human rights attack, International committednesss and Millennium Development Goals and Indian Government ‘s response to them, Major schemes for development of Dalits which incorporates budgetary allotment for Dalits in India.

For centuries, Dalits have been victims of gross human rights misdemeanors. This has led to their current low societal and economic position within Indian society. All of this has occurred in a state in which the authorities has non merely signed legion pacts plighting regard of human rights, but has besides incorporated human rights into its Constitution. Thus, India presents an interesting instance in which committedness is apparent on paper but is non exercised in pattern.

Dalit rights motion needs to contend lawfully and for budgetary commissariats at the same time. It is high clip we analyzed Union and State Budgets from the Dalit rights position to guarantee Human Rights of the Dalits through adequate budgetary commissariats.

Within this budget analysis, we examine how India has violated one cardinal ESC right: the rights of Dalits. To farther support this claim, we take the specific illustration of misdemeanors of the budgetary commissariats in India. We so offer recommendations aimed at bettering this peculiar state of affairs, every bit good as recommendations that address the greater job – the deficiency of full acknowledgment of Schedule Caste rights in the human rights duologue.

The paper continues as follows:

Part One presents an overview of Dalit history, their Economic status, Discrimination against Dalits, discoursing grounds for their disregard, and chances for their incorporation into a comprehensive homo rights attack.

Part Two provides an overview of Fact and Figures of Dalits ‘ place within Indian society, stressing the many economic and societal challenges they face.

Part Three focuses on MDGs and Indian Government Responses to Dalit human rights. The first subdivision provides general information on the Millennium Development Goals and Budget Allocation in India.

Separate Four focal point on Union Budget ‘s Allocation for Scheduled Castes ( SCs ) and Schedule Tribes ( STs ) . It cites specific illustrations of misdemeanors taking topographic point in India. These misdemeanors are presented in the context of the Human rights.

Part Five negotiations about Critical Gaps in policy execution of the Indian authorities sing the development policies for Dalits and the demand to utilize a human rights model that incorporates ESC rights in turn toing world-wide poorness and unfairness.

Part Six provides specific recommendations to the Indian authorities with respect to ( 1 ) the necessary alterations in development policies for Dalits and ( 2 ) how to supply sufficient budgetary allotments for over all development of the Dalit Communities and turn toing world-wide poorness and unfairness.

Historical context

The term dalit was foremost used in the 1930s as a Hindi and Marathi interlingual rendition of the term ‘Depressed Classes ‘ . This term was used by British to mention what is now called the Scheduled Castes. In 1930, a newspaper published in Pune was called Dalit Bandhu ( ‘Friend of Dalits ‘ ) . Dr B.R. Ambedkar frequently used this word in his Marathi addresss. In The Untouchables, published in 1948, Ambedkar chose the term ‘broken work forces ‘ , an English interlingual rendition of dalit, to denote the original ascendants of the Untouchables. The Dalit Panthers revitalized this term in their 1973 pronunciamento and inflated it to include the Scheduled Tribes, neo-Buddhists, the landless and hapless provincials, or all those who were being exploited politically and economically.

Anthropologists and sociologists have studied the caste system, the hierarchy that exists among different groups of people and the Hindu societal system comprehensively. In fact the survey of Dalits has become a major tendency in Indian sociology and anthropology. The favoritism and want that Dalits have faced for centuries has set off a pathetic toll on the community whereby they are placed in a really deprived state of affairs. In every development index there exists a broad spread between Dalits and the non Dalit population. Dalit sociology surveies the aspiration and battles of the marginalized multitudes for a new humanity based on the values of equality, societal justness and human self-respect.

Harmonizing to “ Caste in India ” ( 1963 ) written by anthropologist J.H. Hutton ‘the beginning of the place of the exterior castes is partially racial, partially spiritual, and partially a affair of societal usage.

The settled work forces who had lost their combat spirit needed guardians. For this they employed ‘broken work forces ‘ who constituted of defeated nomads and isolated persons and needed protection and shelter. They were kept at a distance, as they belonged to a different folk. These broken work forces were treated with discourtesy as they were similar soldier of fortunes.

Historically the junior-grade communities that have been discriminated against for eons identify themselves as Dalits. They established a new individuality by coming together with the point of view that “ Dalit is Dignified ” thereby culling the sub-human position imposed on them by the Hindu societal order. Jotirao Phule ( 1826-90 ) was the first Indian in modern India to contend for the rights of the Dalits. He wanted to retrace a societal order on the footing of societal equality, justness and ground.

One has to look back into history to understand the state of affairs of the Dalits. Based on the Hindu caste system the whole societal system is divided into hierarchies since long, where people are divided into assorted castes and cultural groups. Manusmriti which prescribes the Torahs and regulations for the Hindus, states “ There is no sacred text for the adult females and Shudras ( Dalits/untouchables ) ” . In this milieu Dalits peculiarly the Scheduled Castes ( antique Harijans ) were denied the right to belongings, right to instruction and the right to dicker for the rewards they received.

The roots of Dalit subjugation go back to the beginnings of the Caste System in Hindu faith. The doctrine of caste is contained in the Manusmriti, a sacred Hindu text dating since 2nd century BC. ‘Untouchables ‘ or the outcaste communities were out to fall in in the spiritual and societal life of the community and were confined to humble fouling undertakings such as carnal slaughter and leather-working. The debut of Islam to India from about the 13th century AD led to widespread transitions by many low-caste and ‘untouchable ‘ groups, and by the mid-nineteenth century about one one-fourth of the population was Muslim.

During the battle for Indian independency two different attacks emerged for the betterment of the state of affairs of the people now known as Dalits. The first was led by Mahatma Gandhi, who believed in raising the position of Dalit people ( or, as he preferred to name them, Harijans ) while retaining elements of the traditional caste system but taking the degrading stigma and manifestations of ‘untouchability ‘ . The other attack was led by Dr Ambedkar, a attorney and himself an ‘untouchable ‘ , who believed that merely by destructing the caste system could ‘untouchability ‘ be destroyed. Ambedkar became the head interpreter for those ‘untouchables ‘ who demanded separate legal and constitutional acknowledgment similar in position to that accorded to Muslims, Sikhs and Christians. However, this was opposed by Gandhi and Ambedkar finally gave up the demand. After rejecting Hindu values, in 1956 he converted to Buddhism and was subsequently followed by a big figure of converts.

After independency the Indian fundamental law abolished untouchability by jurisprudence. Today Dalit political relations mostly centres around dispensation of affirmatory action benefits ( in employment, instruction and electoral representation ) granted to them under the fundamental law. However, the Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955/1976 and the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled folks ( Prevention of Atrocities ) Act 1989, both derived from the fundamental law, remain mostly uneffective in their execution. Many grounds lie behind this, including a deficiency of political will on the portion of both cardinal and province authoritiess, a deficiency of committedness of upper-caste and category administrative officials to societal justness, the absence of watchfulness commissions of citizens to supervise the execution procedure, and a deficiency of statutory power on the portion of the Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe Commission ( Mandal Commission ) to straight penalize the culprits of offenses against Dalits. Affirmative authorities action, with respect to Dalits, is all directed at betterment of their economic position, without emancipating them from the dehumanising effects of caste and ‘untouchability ‘ . Caste and poorness are inseparably joined together and are at the root of the Dalit socio-economic quandary.

Dalits have been peculiarly severely affected in recent times. They are discriminated against non merely because of their caste but besides because of spiritual, societal and cultural constructions which have given them the lowest place in the societal hierarchy. The stigma of untouchability makes them particularly vulnerable victims of all sorts of favoritisms and atrociousnesss. In countries of wellness, instruction, lodging, employment and rewards, application of legal rights, decision-making and political engagement, and rural development, Dalits have been about wholly excluded from development policies and programmes. The national population policy, which is geared to population control and in the procedure targets Dalits and adult females for household planning programmes, does so on the evidences that they are the cause of the population ‘explosion ‘ and of poorness. No alteration has been made in the attitudes of society towards these adult females and they continue to be oppressed, marginalized, violated and all but forgotten. In the look used frequently in development policies and programs they are: ‘women in utmost poorness ‘ .

Politically Dalits have non been able to interrupt into mainstream arguments and treatments despite the system of reserves that works at both national and province degrees. The chief ground for this has been the co-optation of the Dalit docket into that of the mainstream political parties, which are normally led by upper-caste work forces, with a attendant disregard of the primary demands of Dalits.

About 90 per cent of Dalits live in rural countries. Economic development remains their most acute job. They are largely fringy husbandmans or landless laborers. Large Numberss migrate to metropoliss or to labour-scarce rural countries in different parts of India. Many are in debt and are obliged to work off their debts as bonded labor, despite the fact that this pattern was abolished by jurisprudence in 1976. In these instances a laborer takes a loan from a landlord or usurer and in return agrees to work for that individual until the debt has been repaid. In pattern such debts are hard to refund as involvement rates are high and poorness forces the laborer into deeper debt. The debt can so be passed on to the following coevals and it is about impossible to get away the rhythm of bondage. In some countries many high-caste landlords pay their Dalit laborers minimal rewards in hard currency or nutrient, or nil at all ; opposition is often met by force, sometimes ensuing in the decease or hurt of the victim. Mob force against Dalit communities is often reported, sometimes led by landlords, and has been particularly noticeable in state of affairss where Dalit workers have joined labour brotherhoods or made advancement in deriving instruction and economic mobility.

Many Dalit households have left rural countries to populate in slums and on the pavings of the quickly turning metropoliss. Here they besides tend to make the worst occupations for the lowest rewards. However, in some metropoliss traditional businesss such as sweepers have been organized in municipal brotherhoods and have the advantage of regular work and rewards. Many Dalits work as insouciant twenty-four hours laborers, in little mills, preies, brick kilns or on building sites, as rhythm jinrikisha pullers or in junior-grade trades. There are, nevertheless, a turning figure of Dalits are employed in comparatively unafraid occupations in countries such as public service, banking and the railroads, and sometimes in private industry. Those shacking in the metropoliss have some entree to secondary and higher instruction, and a turning in-between category has evolved within the Dalit community. As chances for instruction addition and aspirations rise, Dalits should go a strong and positive force for alteration in India in the coming decennaries, particularly if they are able to form themselves across barriers of linguistic communication and faith.


Dalits, officially known as ‘Scheduled Castes ‘ , constitute about one fifth of India ‘s population. The Dalits in India are placed in much worse state of affairss, as they are non good cognizant about their rights. Most accept a position that considers Dalits as the Scheduled Castes ( the Harijans of the yesteryear ) and the Scheduled Tribes ( the adivasis or the autochthonal people of India ) . The Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes Numberss more than 250 million in India. Out of this, harmonizing to the 2001 Census, the Scheduled Castes population Numberss 166.63 million organizing 16.2 per cent of the state ‘s entire population. Dalits are the poorest of the hapless in India. They form the largest block of poorness afflicted people of India. As against 27 per centum of all population populating below the poorness line in the rural countries in 1999-2000, 36 per centum of SC population lived below the poorness line.

Bing socially and economically marginalised, their advancement is affected by lower degree of literacy and instruction. The literacy spread between Dalits communities and other non- Dalits in 2001 reflects a big spread of approximately 14.12 % in instance of SCs and 21.71 % for STs. Withdrawal of the authorities from many sectors has affected Dalits severely. Dalits are now double disadvantaged because the emerging markets combine the dominant caste parlance with the economic liberalization. The backdown of the province and the private sector playing a major function means that everyone, including Dalits, will depend more on the private sector for land, capital, occupations, instruction, lodging and wellness services.

There are adequate groundss that Dalits ( SC ) are dawdling behind in all the kingdoms of their life due to customary regulations of the Hindu societal order and as a consequence are denied the right to societal equality, concern, instruction and employment. The caste and untouchability-based exclusion and favoritism are go oning in India from past many decennaries. If India has to be strong, people of India have to be stronger. India can non emerge stronger with weak people.

International Instruments

62 old ages have elapsed since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948. They are farther detailed in the 1966 International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ( ICESCR ) , and remain a powerful instrument which continues to exercise an tremendous consequence on people ‘s lives all over the universe. However, since their inclusion in these pacts, they have received small attending from provinces and human rights organisations. India ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ( ICESCR ) on 10th of July 1979. Economic, societal and cultural rights are besides to the full recognized by the international community and throughout international human rights jurisprudence. Economic, societal and cultural rights are designed to guarantee the protection of people as full individuals based on a position in which people can bask rights, freedoms and societal justness. In fact, many are non even cognizant of the being of ESC rights and believe that human rights merely comprises of civil and political rights. This limits the chances for systemic alterations, reduces cognition of single and group entitlements, and reduces authorities answerability to international understandings.

United Nation Millennium acme and the millenary declaration

From 6th to 8th September 2000 United Nations Millennium acme was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York to consider the function of the United Nations in the 21st century. In this meeting the caputs of 189 member provinces of the United Nations agreed to perpetrate their state to beef up planetary attempts for peace, human rights, democracy, strong administration, environment sustainability and poorness obliteration, and promote rules of human self-respect, and equity.For this intent the caputs of the state ratified the United Nations Millennium Declaration in which eight ends were promoted. United Nation Millennium acme was as a affair of fact the largest assemblage of universe leaders in history.

The Millennium Development Goals

Subsequently in 2001 the United Nation member provinces comprehended the demand to back up the destitute states more assertively. To achieve this nonsubjective eight ends were derived from the Millennium Declaration which outlined the model of advancement for developing states in a clip edge mode to be achieved by 2015.These eight development ends were called the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) . The Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) are therefore, eight international development ends that 192 United Nations member provinces and at least 23 international organisations have agreed to accomplish by the twelvemonth 2015. In the hierarchy of societal development Dalits are placed at the bottom hence any advancement of MDG ends should be looked in the footings of the Dalits.

India has failed to set into topographic point even the most basic entitlement that will be guaranting the right to survival, right to life and right to self-respect particularly in context of the marginalized community and Dalit adult females ‘s. ( Please see chapter )

Indian Legislation and Dalit Human Rights

In 1989 India enacted the SC & A ; ST ( PA ) Act to forestall and penalize province and private histrions for maltreatment against Dalits, and supply for rehabilitation alleviation of the victims. Under Article 15 no citizen shall on evidences of faith, race, caste, sex, topographic point of birth or any of them, be capable to any disablement, liability, limitation or status with respect to ( a ) entree to shops, public eating houses, hotels and topographic points of public amusement ; or ( B ) the usage of Wellss, armored combat vehicles, bathing ghats, roads and topographic points of public resort maintained entirely or partially out of State financess or dedicated to the usage of general populace. “ Untouchability ” stands abolished under Article 17 and its pattern in any signifier is out and punishable under jurisprudence. Trafficking of human existences and forced labor is prohibited under Article 23 of the Constitution of India. Particular passages have been made by the Central and State Governments to protect SC and ST from all signifiers of development. The SC and ST constitute major majority of agricultural and other types of labor and bulk of the bonded laborers besides belong to SC and ST. The Minimum Wages Act, 1948, provides for repairing minimal rewards for different types of labor and the Bonded Labour System ( Abolition ) Act, 1976, provides for abolishment of the bonded labor system and for release and rehabilitation of freed bonded laborers. There are two of import statute laws related to Article 17, viz. , The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 ( PCRA ) , and The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes ( Prevention of Atrocities ) Act, 1989 ( PAA ) . Initially the Untouchability ( Offences ) Act, 1955, had been enacted to get rid of the pattern of untouchability and societal disablements originating out of it against members of the Scheduled Castes. It was amended in 1977 and is now known as the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955. Under the revised Act the pattern of untouchability was made both knowable and non-compoundable and rigorous penalty was provided for the wrongdoers. But still, Human Rights maltreatment in their most degrading signifiers continues against Dalits.

But 60 old ages after the acceptance of a fundamental law that mandates basic human and civil rights, and equality before the jurisprudence for all citizens of India, favoritism against Dalits continues unabated. Untouchability, manual scavenging, force against persons and full community, atrociousnesss against adult females, and everyday favoritism and humiliation in mundane life are a given world for all Dalits, whether it is in the imbibing of H2O from Wellss or in coercing the community into careers that are unsuitable for human employment. Dalit workers, chiefly contract workers, carry with their bare hands excreta, carcases of dead animate beings, medical waste from infirmaries, toxic chemicals, crisp objects and refuse. It is they who keep the metropolis clean.

Marginalised and the underprivileged are far off from entree to justness. Being nescient and incognizant they still face favoritism, development in rough signifier to day of the month. Despite of several Torahs being made against offense and atrociousnesss faced, hapless are deprived of these AIDSs. In most of the provinces in India 1000000s of hapless still face development and atrociousnesss. Situation of India is worst every bit compared to the other states. They are incognizant and are incapacitated. The response of the province disposal to incidents of caste force sums to failure to guarantee equal protection under the jurisprudence and exposes a form of complicity and collusion on behalf of constabulary and local functionaries. Besides attorneies exploit the hapless for their ain opportunism and money.

The authorities of India has besides systematically refused to let relevant UN organic structures, including working groups and particular newsmans to derive entree to the state. Simultaneously, the trouble of slotting caste based maltreatments into standard classs of human rights misdemeanors, every bit good as prevalence of constitutional and legislative protections at the national degree, have allowed for these maltreatments to get away international examination.

Dalit in India:

The term Dalit means ‘oppressed ‘ , ‘broken ‘ or ‘crushed ‘ to the extent of losing original individuality. However, this name has been adopted by the people otherwise referred to as Harijans, Harijans, and has come to typify for them a motion for alteration and for the obliteration of the centuries-old subjugation under the caste system. In legal and constitutional footings, Dalits are known in India as Scheduled Castes. The Constitution requires the authorities to specify a list or agenda of the lowest castes in demand of compensatory programmes. These scheduled castes include untouchable converts to Sikhism but exclude converts to Christianity and Buddhism ; the groups that are excluded and go on to be treated as Harijans likely constitute another 2 per cent of the population.

The Scheduled Caste ( SC ) population, harmonizing to 2001 Census, is 166.6 million representing 16.23 per cent of the entire population of India. They are chiefly concentrated in Uttar Pradesh ( 35.1 million ) , West Bengal ( 18.4 million ) , Tamil Nadu ( 11.8 million ) , Andhra Pradesh ( 12.3 million ) and Bihar ( 11.3 million ) . These States account for 53.36 per cent of the entire SC population of the state. While Uttar Pradesh has the highest concentration of SC population ( 28.9 % ) in footings of absolute figure, Punjab with 28.9 per cent SC population occupies the first place in footings of per centum of SC to the State population.

Despite the fact that “ untouchability ” was abolished under India ‘s fundamental law in 1950, the pattern of “ untouchability ” -the infliction of societal disablements on individuals by ground of their birth in certain castes- remains really much a portion of rural India. “ Untouchables ” may non traverse the line spliting their portion of the small town from that occupied by higher castes. They may non utilize the same Wellss, visit the same temples, drink from the same cups in tea stables, or put claim to set down that is lawfully theirs. Dalit kids are often made to sit at the dorsum of schoolrooms, and communities as a whole are made to execute degrading rites in the name of caste. Most Dalits continue to populate in utmost poorness, without land or chances for better employment or instruction. With the exclusion of a little minority who have benefited from India ‘s policy of reserve in instruction and authorities occupations, Dalits are relegated to the most humble of undertakings, as manual scavengers, removers of human waste and dead animate beings, leather workers, street sweepers, and cobblers. Dalit kids make up the bulk of those sold into bondage to pay off debts to upper-caste creditors. Dalit work forces, adult females, and kids totaling in the 10s of 1000000s work as agricultural laborers for a few kgs of rice or Rs. 15 to Rs. 35 ( US $ 0.38 to $ 0.88 ) a twenty-four hours. Their upper-caste employers often use caste as a screen for exploitatory economic agreements: societal countenance of their position as lesser existences allows their poverty to go on.

The major occupational groups of SCs can be categorized into

Agricultural labourers- ( a ) landless, ( B ) those with junior-grade extent of agricultural land.

Marginal and little agriculturists including portion sharecrop farmers and other renters.


Traditional Artisans – ( a ) Leather workers, ( B ) Weavers, ( degree Celsius ) Other craftsmans.

Civic Sanitation workers ( scavengers and sweepers ) , and Traditional Dais.

Urban fringy labor,

The educated.

These occupational groups may be put into two wide classs, viz.

Those engaged in land based activities and

Those engaged in non-land based activities.

Stark difference of SC development indexs

All India



Infant Mortality Rate








Undernourished kids under 5




Families without entree to Health attention




Beginning: NSSO Survey, NFHS, Census 2001 and IIDS Data

The Infant Mortality Rate ( IMR ) in SC is 83 % and Child Mortality Rate ( CMR ) is 39 % which is higher than non- SC. Among non- SC IMR and CMR is 61 % and 22 % severally. 56 % of SC adult females suffer from anaemia. The morbidity among SC kids is besides high, more than 3/4th of SC kids are anaemic. More than half of the SC kids suffer from malnutrition or under nutrition. Malnutrition is by and large considered a common propagator of want that reduces opportunities of kid endurance. Harmonizing to 2001 nose count, the literacy rates for both SC/ ST were lower as compared to the non-SC/ ST. Literacy rate at all India degree is 65 % whereas for the SCs it is 55 % compared to non- SC which is 69 % . The literacy rate was peculiarly low among the SC adult females ( 41.9 % ) . School attending was approximately 10 % less among SC male childs than other male childs, while the difference among misss was approximately 5 % .

The index of undernourishment ( in term of minimal weight for age ) of the kids is much higher for SC kids – 54 per cent for SC and 44 per cent for non- SCs/ STs. Similarly, undernourishment reflected in footings of stunting ( in footings of tallness for age ) was 52 per cent for SC kids and 43 per cent non- SC/ ST kids.

In 2000, overall, an norm of about 40 % persons/ families did non hold entree to public wellness services. The per centum of persons/ families was lower among SC as compared to non- SC/ ST. The per centum for SC was 44.15 and for non-SC/ST was 53.55.

Schedule Caste Access to Resources

All India



Monthly Per Capita Outgo








Aggregate Capital Assetss








Beginning: NSSO Survey, NFHS, Census 2001 and IIDS Data

In twelvemonth 2000, at all India degree, the Monthly Per Capita Outgo for SC was Rs. 285 which is much lower than the non-SC at Rs.393. With deficiency of entree to fixed beginnings of income, low pay earning and under employment the SC suffer from high incidences of poorness. In 2000, approximately 45 % of SC in the rural countries were hapless compared to 21 % among the non SC. Compared with the non SC, the incidence of aggregative poorness was 70 % higher among SC. About 80 % of the SC live in rural countries. In 2000 out of the entire SC households merely 16.8 % of them pursued cultivation as an independent ego employed business, whereas for non-SC/ ST the per centum was more so double ( 41.11 % ) . About 28 % of SC families had acquired some entree to fixed capital assets compared to 56 % for others families. The per centum of landless families among the SCs in rural countries is about 10 % as compared to 6 % for Non- SC families. The per centum of landless and near landless among SC is approximately 75 % as compared to 54 % for the non-SC.

Gender Difference

The development of any group/ community is marked by the development of adult females within that group/ community. In 2001 about 57 % SC adult females workers in rural countries were agricultural labourers. Merely 21 % were agriculturists compared to 45 % of the non-SC who worked as agriculturists. In rural countries 2.1 % of SC adult females were unemployed as compared to 1.4 % of non-SC/ ST adult females. A big figure of SC adult females are engaged in dirty businesss such as scavenging. SC adult females who work as pay laborers faced favoritism in pay gaining peculiarly in urban countries. In 2001, the SC adult females insouciant pay laborer received day-to-day pay earning of Rs. 37 compared to Rs.56 for non-SC/ST ( Report on Working Group on the Empowerment of Scheduled Caste, Eleventh Five Year Plan ) . In 2001 the literacy rate was lower among SC adult females ( 41.9 % ) as compared to 58.2 % for the general female population. Beside low literacy rate another job of SC/ ST adult females was their high drop-out rate. SC adult females have the worst wellness indexs, such as high maternal mortality rates and low nutritionary position measured by Body Mass Index ( BMI ) . The adult females from the SC groups have poorer degree of nutrition as compared to non-SC/ ST adult females. In 1999/ 2000, among SC adult females, 42 per cent had low BMI as compared to 33 per centum of non-SC adult females. The maternal mortality rates are higher for SC adult females because of deficiency of entree to wellness services both public and private. SC adult females are subjected to constant torment and force from non-SC.

Population and Decadal Growth Rate of SC and ST from 1971-2001

Census Year


Decadal Growth







80.0 ( 14.6 % )





104.7 ( 15.3 % )





138.2 ( 16.3 % )





166.6 ( 16.2 % )



Beginning: Census, Government of India,

Sexual activity Ratio: As can be seen from the tabular array, the Sex Ratio ( females per 1000 males ) for SC has declined over the last 30 old ages. The worsening sex ratio of SC could be attributed to higher female mortality and their limited entree to wellness services. Such developments are certainly a affair of concern for gender equality within the deprived group.

Sexual activity ratio: SC and entire population


Entire Population













Beginning: Census, Government of India,

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