Professional Beggar Problem Essay Example
Professional Beggar Problem Essay Example

Professional Beggar Problem Essay Example

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  • Pages: 10 (2602 words)
  • Published: August 15, 2017
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Shanghai's policies published a list on 21 August 2012 of mendicants that were frequently caught on metro trains over the past four years. This led to conversations regarding "professional" beggars, with one of the top offenders being a man from Anhui province who was 22 years old and had been caught begging 308 times. A woman who was 88 years old came in second place with 292 counts. Beggary is an issue in China and other developing countries due to various reasons such as physical incapability to work or lack of opportunities after being released from prison or experiencing natural disasters. All mendicants deserve empathy because it is often their only option for shelter, although some people view begging as a profitable business and even go so far as to harm themselves or kidnap children for this purpose. Illegal organizations also train chil


dren in begging. The immature Homeless Shelter & Aid Station system provides job services for healthy individuals and train tickets to send them home along with food, water, and shelter. Therefore, what motivates people, including those with college degrees, to become professional beggars?Comparing a middle-level manager's monthly income before taxes in Beijing (around US $1440 or $65 daily) to the tax-exempt daily income of a professional beggar who begs on subway trains in Shanghai (US $130) reveals that professional beggars live better off than average working class citizens in China's bigger cities. On November 13, 2012, a male mendicant with his child was seen driving his Audi A6 saloon after finishing "work" in East China’s Shandong state. These professional beggars reject all forms of assistance from social and private charities. The root o

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this issue must be explored using the PATH model to find solutions by brainstorming and gathering background information. A major problem with professional begging is their willingness to choose it as a profitable career choice, unlike actual beggars who are unable to support themselves; news reports and social policy articles have highlighted this phenomenon. Jiaqing Zou (2003) and others have emphasized that the low self-respect of these mendicants, despite their high income, is also an essential concern addressed by our PATH model.The problem with beggary is that the beggars' refusal to change their profession not only constitutes the main issue, but also leads to other negative social problems. Without altering their values, any aid or assistance from individuals or the government would ultimately prove ineffective. As previously mentioned in our introduction, professional beggars in China's large cities reject aid despite having access to homeless shelters and aid stations (Liulu Zhang 2009). This issue affects both beggars and society at large. There are three groups directly impacted by this problem: firstly, the beggars themselves forfeit opportunities for full-time employment, adequate welfare benefits, and medical insurance because they choose this profession. Secondly, most professional beggars in China are part of a transient population. Thirdly, begging in cities presents multifaceted issues with far-reaching effects; for example, beggars may lose access to pension and other benefits in their original place of origin after a certain number of years due to being unable to obtain citizenship in the city where they are begging.Begging behaviors can result in shame for both individuals and their families, particularly when children are unable to access education due to their families' black hukou registration. Furthermore,

beggars' activities negatively impact large cities, damaging the city's image and wasting public resources while increasing crime rates such as child kidnapping and street violence. The root cause of this issue lies in the overall greed and materialism within the country. Professional beggars view begging as a means to alleviate relative poverty compared to the increasing wealth they see in big cities. Indolence may also contribute, as begging may seem like an easier option than other types of work. Children growing up in smaller towns may develop these beliefs over time. Large metropolises were once thought of as heavenly places full of riches where hard-working rules did not apply; however, generations have passed without adopting a more industrious lifestyle despite envying others' wealth. This misconception cannot be solely attributed to professional beggars but rather is influenced by family upbringing and environment (Source: Xiangyu Chen & Na Li, 2011; Daming Zhu, 2010).

The lack of parent-child interaction among migrant workers who leave their young children with elderly parents often results in apathy amongst family members. Similarly, professional beggars feel abandoned by their families and do not feel ashamed of their profession. To address these issues, cooperation is needed from professional beggars, their families, the city government, citizens, and workers at homeless shelters and aid stations. It is important for everyone to understand that sympathizing with and aiding professional beggars only perpetuates the issue in the long run. Despite existing regulations and aid measures being ineffective in discouraging begging in large cities where it is not a crime under the law, a social-psychological intervention aimed at correcting distorted values about wealth gaining could be helpful in shifting

voluntary begging behaviors towards normal lives.

In order to achieve our goal of effectively addressing the issue of professional begging, it is necessary to develop appropriate concepts and theories based on empirical data and analysis. To accomplish this, we propose conducting a PATH analysis that considers the characteristics of most professional beggars: typically healthy or self-mutilated individuals with self-sustaining abilities but a skewed perception of wealth. By identifying the factors that influence their choice to beg over working and modeling the significant pathways that lead to this decision, we can design effective interventions that address the root causes of the issue.

Our previous chapter identified several variables impacting professional mendicants' behavior, which we will now discuss in more detail and classify into three categories: predisposing factors, reinforcing factors, and enabling factors. On a larger scale, society's focus on money encourages people to pursue begging as a profession while citizens often view begging as distinct from their own lives without incentive to solve or address it. Witnessing wealth disparity drives begging behavior while family pressure reinforces it. For mendicants themselves, lack of viable alternative employment options reinforces their decision to continue begging despite efforts made towards improving social assistance systems still leaving room for improvement.It would be more advantageous to include social psychology perspectives in the system rather than just providing material and counseling support. Professional mendicants may not trust public assistance, which reinforces their decision to beg for a living. The lure of easy money from begging weakens their motivation to seek other work opportunities, but fear of poverty is the biggest factor that prevents them from quitting. However, shame may force some people to find

alternative means of self-support. Solving this problem is challenging for city authorities because stricter regulations could violate human rights while the current assistance system seems ineffective. Therefore, an approach that generates positive results with minimal waste of public resources is necessary. Five personal and external factors influence professional beggars' decision to live a self-supported life as shown on the left side of the graph below; environmental conditions and quitting begging are displayed on the right side: [movie] 2.Several domestic policy researchers have conducted surveys identifying potential reasons for beggary phenomenon.The issue of beggary stems from multiple factors, including job instability and societal attitudes towards professional mendicants. Job insecurity makes low-skilled labor jobs less appealing as workers are easily replaceable, leading to a preference for self-employment through begging. Additionally, society's lack of understanding about the challenges faced by mendicants creates doubts about social aid availability and decreases their motivation to seek self-dependency. Wealth polarization exacerbates this problem as the majority of resources are owned by a minority percentage of the population, leaving mendicants feeling undervalued and demotivated. To address these issues, theories related to emotions in decision making suggest utilizing Self Defense Mechanisms (SDM) to maintain a socially acceptable self-image despite engaging in lower-level societal work such as begging. This helps mendicants overcome shame and embarrassment associated with their profession and accept possible aid that could lead to an independent life.Naomi Ellemers' Social Comparison theory (2002) explains how people feel dissatisfied when they compare their positions to those around them and realize that they are less entitled. The Relative Deprivation Theory expands on this by stating that families have unrealistic expectations of professional beggars who lack

education and competitive skills in the job market. This leads to a need for enough money to avoid "losing face" upon returning home. Unfortunately, improving their situation is difficult as beggars often rely on begging for survival. In addition, the Mood Congruence Effect (Seo et al., 2010) plays an important role in the perception of risk and likelihood of success in this profession. Positive feelings associated with positive outcomes increase the belief that positive results are more likely. Despite having an income similar to that of a normal employee, beggars hold onto their profession due to a sense of happiness about their situation and optimism about their future prospects in begging. Ultimately, individuals' outlooks play a crucial role as society expects professional begging to disappear while both individuals and families expect higher social status and success for themselves or loved ones respectively.From a personal perspective, some individuals may leave their homes to pursue a career that will bring them pride and usefulness to society. However, if they lack the necessary skills to meet their expectations, disappointment can occur. In this situation, becoming a professional beggar becomes a lifeline as the money earned creates an illusion of having a career and compensates for lost social status. The perceived success or failure of one's choices impacts their perceived utility according to expected utility theory.

Parents often believe that their children have various ways in which they can succeed in society. For some panhandlers, the money earned serves as "proof" of success even if family members are unaware of how it is obtained. Society hopes professional panhandling is not long-term with donations and volunteering aiming to help alleviate the

issue. Monetary or material assistance offers assurance that this lifestyle can be sustained but motivation decreases if progress is not seen.

When evaluating relevant elements, two criteria should be considered: relevance and variability. Eliminating irrelevant or overlapping components is essential.Panhandlers struggle with job stability, making panhandling an attractive option for earning easy money. Understanding the challenges they face is crucial for providing genuine assistance and aligns with the concept of "sympathy." However, society tends to judge beggars negatively without exploring their underlying predicaments. Shared experiences may not always be relevant in solving this issue as some who have succeeded may resent those who were unable to do so. The acquisition of practical skills can have a significant impact on this issue, but some beggars may perceive skill learning as time-consuming and taking away from their easy money-making activities. Additionally, some may not have chosen this line of work voluntarily but were coerced into it by others acting as their "managers" and assigning tasks. Therefore, opportunities for skill learning may not be relevant in this context. As the saying goes, giving a man a fish feeds him for a day, but teaching him to fish feeds him for life - highlighting the importance of practical skill acquisition in addressing these issues.Raising awareness is crucial for addressing the issue of income manipulation and materialism. Money often plays a significant role in negotiations and success, making it difficult to change this belief globally. The ability to stop begging is influenced by various determinants such as alternative options, learning opportunities, awareness of use, self-respect, society's disbelief, easy money availability, empathy/real solicitude and family pressure. Self-respect and empathy/real solicitousness have positive

associations while family pressure and easy money have negative ones. Ultimately, the establishment of dignity and empathy/real solicitude are crucial factors in stopping begging. By integrating psychological science theory with real life experiences, solutions can be found. One factor affecting mendicants is their readiness to accept help which can be improved by gaining self-pride through societal understanding and support.The issue of demotivation can be influenced by family pressure and high expectations that may not align with actual abilities. It is important for families to prioritize individual improvement rather than just income. Another factor contributing to this issue is the allure of easy money from professional begging, which may seem more attractive than low-skilled labor. However, an individual's belief in their future potential plays a crucial role in moderating the relationship between easy money and their willingness to pursue a self-supporting lifestyle. If unexpected income is received, it can lead to positive emotions and a greater outlook towards one's chosen path. Ultimately, personal changes are necessary for improving the situation as individuals must value themselves and recognize society's genuine aid. Open communication between families, individuals, and society should also be encouraged to enhance understanding and improve the overall social situation (LI Hong-ying, 2000).The attitudes of college students towards mendicancy and its correlation with selflessness have been the subject of study by Mei-Guangyao WuXiuling Zhangfan Zhengwenyan Yexiuzhi Chenchen Hefenglan from the School Education Science of South China Norm University. The following academic articles, including and their contents, provide information on this topic: 1. "Science of Social Psychology;2006-05", 2. Checkoway, Barry's "Unanswered Questions about Public Service in the Public Research University" from SAGE Social Science Collection (1990),

3. GAO Hui's "The Governance and Successful Experiences of the Communist Party of China on Main Beggar Problems" from Central China Normal University Journal of Postgraduates (2012-01) while being associated with Marxism College at Tian Jin University in China, 4. Phebe Cramer's "Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action" published by The Guilford Press;1st edition (May 18, 2006), 5. Iain Walker and Heather J. Smith's article titled "Relative Deprivation.Specification.Development.and Integration" from 2002, 6.LIU Shu-dong’s article discussing “The Influence of Refugees' Entry into the City on Urbanization” which was featured in Journal of Hunan University of Arts and Science (Social Science Edition);(2008-06), and finally Xu Zhan-chun’s piece titled “School Politics And Law At Yichun University In Yichun: A Study On Chinese Attitudes Towards Mendicancy”.The articles "The Opening of Shanghai Port and Its Changes and Impacts on the Development of Shanghai and Region South of the Yangtze River" by YANG Ya-hua, "The Regulations of Beggars and Vagabones from the View of the Difference and Fusion of Chinese and Western Cultures" by Journal of Fujian Normal University, "Urban Studies" by TANG Xiujuan in the Journal of Nanjing Normal University (Social Science Edition), "Analysis of Urban Vagrants’ Relief Situation and Relevant Measures" by WANG Xia in the Journal of Guangzhou University (Social Science Edition) published in 2007-08, "Countermeasures on Controling Social Phenomenon of Street Begging in China" by GAO Min, ZHANG Chao-hong, and YAN Feng in the Journal of Shandong Institute of Business and Technology published in 2006-05, "MARGINAL COMMUNITY: A Position OF THE SOCIAL SPACE OF THE URBAN COMMUNITIES" by RAO Xiaojun and SHAO Xiaoguang in City Planning Review published in 2001-09, as well as M Seo and

R Ilies' examination on “The function of self-efficacy, end, and impact in dynamic motive self-regulation” in Organizational Behavior and Human Determination Procedure published in 2009 all discuss various topics related to social phenomenon.In a 2005-05 publication of the Journal of Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Li Zemin, Du Danxia, and Wang Xinhua from the Dept. of Management at Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University report on the Living Conditions of Beggars and Image of Guangzhou. Similarly, Chu Zhixia and Fang Le, Postgraduate students from the Law School of Nanjing Normal University in China discuss the Right of Begging Viewed from Sociology of Urban Studies in a 2011-02 edition of the Journal of Nanjing Normal University (Social Science Edition).

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