The Importance of History in Human Resource Management (Philippines Setting)
The importance of History in Human Resource Management History is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of Current English as “a continuous record of events. ” As such, a country’s history encapsulates all that has happened in the country, and between it and other countries. A country, at a particular point in time, is thus the result of its history. Understanding a country’s history is fundamental to understanding the country and its people. In addition to shaping cultural values, history also shapes more spontaneous behavior.
International managers are well advised to understand the history of any country where they do business. This understanding should encompass events in the distant past, as well as more recent ones. It should include the local perspective, as well as the perspective from outside of the country. Understanding a country’s history allows a manager to place local values behaviors in context. Often, this means, understanding the stresses and conflicts that exist within a country Pre-Spanish Period
The first people in the Philippines, the Negritos, are believed to have come to the islands 30,000 years ago from Borneo and Sumatra, making their way across then-existing land bridges. According to popular belief, Malays subsequently came from the south in successive waves, the earliest by land bridges and later in boats by sea. In contrast, modern archeological, linguistic, and genetic evidence strongly suggests that those successive waves of migrants came from Taiwan as the Austronesian sub-group, Malayo-Polynesians.
From Taiwan, the Austronesians first spread southward across the Philippines, then on to Indonesia, Malaysia, and as far away as Polynesia and Madagascar. The migrants settled in scattered communities, named barangays after the large outrigger boats in which they arrived, and ruled by chieftains known often as datus. Mainland Chinese merchants and traders arrived and settled in the ninth century, sometimes traveling on the ships of Arab traders, who introduced Islam in the south and extended some influence even into Luzon. The Malayo-Polynesians, however, remained the ominant group until the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Spanish Period Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the Philippines and claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, but was killed shortly after arriving when he intervened in a dispute between rival tribes. Christianity was established in the Philippines only after the arrival of the succeeding Spanish expeditionary forces (the first led by Legazpi in the early 16th century) and the Spanish Jesuits, and in the 17th and 18th centuries by the conquistadores.
Until Mexico proclaimed independence from Spain in 1810, the islands were under the administrative control of Spanish North America, and there was significant migration between North America and the Philippines. This period was the era of conversion to Roman Catholicism. A Spanish colonial social system was developed with a local government centered in Manila and with considerable clerical influence. Spanish influence was strongest in Luzon and the central Philippines but less so in Mindanao, save for certain coastal cities.
The long period of Spanish rule was marked by numerous uprisings. Towards the latter half of the 19th century, European-educated Filipinos or ilustrados (such as the Chinese Filipino national hero Jose Rizal) began to criticize the excesses of Spanish rule and instilled a new sense of national identity. This movement gave inspiration to the final revolt against Spain that began in 1896 under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo (another Chinese Filipino) and continued until the Americans defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, during the Spanish-American War.
Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. During those two period, there are no formal and permanent groups existed that would necessitate the organization of management and labor groups. The term “rights” was unheard of; much less labor management or personnel management. The utilization of human resources is primitively demonstrated in the BARTER SYSTEM & MAYORDOMO SYSTEM. ? BARTER. Wherein the exchange of goods/services occurred directly between parties. It is usually bilateral, and maybe multilateral.
Due to absence of hard currency such as money/cash, it enables a mutual benefit of exchange and the non-monetary societies operated largely along the principles of gift economics. But for barter to occur between parties, both would need to have what the other wants. In the modern scene, barter still exists but not as rampant as it used to be. May it be CORPORATE BARTER, INTERNET BARTER, BARTER MARKETS, wherein parties/participants are members of a certain organization. ? MAYORDOMO. It is a system of having a master-servant relationship.
Compared to bilateral/multilateral wherein no one is above the other, this human resource system is usually bilineal (can be multilineal but not necessarily categorical). Typically, the term refers to the highest (major) person of a household (domo) staff, one who acts on behalf of the (often absent) owner of a typically large residence. In a modern scene, similar terms include chamberlain, concierge, steward, butler. The term also refers, more informally, to someone who oversees the day-to-day responsibilities of a business enterprise.
The majordomo is responsible for the management of a household or business. Majordomos were common in Europe until the landed aristocracy weakened and no longer had the means to employ them. CIVIL CODE OF SPAIN. The Civil Code of Spain basically contains the laws and policies of persons and family relations, property ownership, business/trade. It was extended in the Philippines on December 7, 1889 primarily to exercise strict governmental control over their colonies and used them as a basis for rich commerce with the parent government.
It is an instrument to further the mercantile expansion into the country being one of Spain’s subjects. As the term “rights” were unheard of, labor/personnel management is not popular. Unpaid forced labor and the absence of labor laws resulted to the rise of the reformist. The educated few, the ones of the likes of Jose Rizal, inspired the struggle to free the workers. Eventually, it encouraged the rise up in arms for national freedom, liberty and restoration of dignity. American Period Following Admiral George Dewey’s defeat of the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, the U.
S. occupied the Philippines. Spain ceded the islands to the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (December 10, 1898) that ended the Spanish-American war. A war of resistance against U. S. rule, led by revolutionary General Aguinaldo, broke out in 1899. During this conflict fighting and disease claimed the lives of tens of thousands of Filipinos and thousands of Americans. Filipinos and an increasing number of American historians refer to these hostilities as the Philippine-American War (1899-1902), and in 1999, the U. S.
Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this term. In 1901, Aguinaldo was captured and swore allegiance to the United States, and resistance gradually died out until the conflict ended with a Peace Proclamation on July 4, 1902. Armed resistance continued sporadically until 1913, however, especially among the Muslims in Mindanao and Sulu. U. S. administration of the Philippines was always declared to be temporary and aimed to develop institutions that would permit and encourage the eventual establishment of a free and democratic government. Therefore, U. S. fficials concentrated on the creation of such practical supports for democratic government as public education, public infrastructure, and a sound legal system. The legacy of the “Thomasites”–American teachers who came to the Philippines starting in 1901 and created the tradition of a strong public education system– continues to resonate today. The first legislative assembly was elected in 1907, and a bicameral legislature, largely under Filipino control, was established. A civil service was formed and was gradually taken over by the Filipinos, who had effectively gained control by the end of World War I.
The Catholic Church was disestablished, and a considerable amount of church land was purchased and redistributed. In 1935, under the terms of the Tydings-McDuffie Act, the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel Quezon was elected president of the new government, which was designed to prepare the country for independence after a 10-year transition period. Although the labor conditions improved, it was far from being fair and just. No labor laws were passed against oppressive women and child labor conditions.
UNIONISM was introduced due to increase trade and industry and became the feeble yet growing anchor for protection. More schools were established and it raised the level of literacy and education. As the Human Resource became generally educated, the enlightened workers desired to self-organize. ? TRADE UNION, also called labor union, is an association of laborers in a particular trade, industry, or company; created for the purpose of securing improvements in pay, benefits, working conditions, or social and political status through collective bargaining.
As an organized movement, trade unionism originated in the 19th century in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States. In many countries it is synonymous with the term labor movement. The British movement favored political activism, which led to the formation of the Labor Party in 1906, while American unions pursued collective bargaining as a means of winning economic gains for their workers. Trade unionism is bound to capitalism; it has its best chances to obtain good wages when capitalism flourishes.
Modern Developments: By the end of the 20th century the globalization of the workforce had brought new challenges to the labor movement, effectively weakening collective bargaining in industries whose workers could be replaced by a cheaper labor force in a different part of the world. Thus, the narrow field of union struggle widens into the broad field of class struggle. Japanese Period At the height of independence and development, Japan attacked, however, and in May 1942, Corregidor, the last American/Filipino stronghold, fell. U. S. orces in the Philippines surrendered to the Japanese, placing the islands under Japanese control. During the occupation, thousands of Filipinos fought a running guerrilla campaign against Japanese forces. The full-scale war to regain the Philippines began when General Douglas MacArthur landed on Leyte on October 20, 1944. Filipinos and Americans fought together until the Japanese surrendered in September 1945. Much of Manila was destroyed during the final months of the fighting. In total, an estimated one million Filipinos lost their lives in the war.
Due to the Japanese occupation, the guerrilla warfare that followed, and the battles leading to liberation, the country suffered great damage and a complete organizational breakdown. Despite the shaken state of the country, the United States and the Philippines decided to move forward with plans for independence. On July 4, 1946, the Philippine Islands became the independent Republic of the Philippines, in accordance with the terms of the Tydings-McDuffie Act. In 1962, the official Philippine Independence Day was changed from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the date independence from Spain was declared by Emilio Aguinaldo in 1898.
During this period, the Filipino government leaders were co-opted by the Japanese in the governance of the land, the Japanese had their last say on policies and practices. The normal education system was deferred. The anemic union movement and labor management was smothered temporarily. Post War The early years of independence were dominated by U. S. -assisted postwar reconstruction. The communist-inspired Hukbalahap Rebellion (1945-53) complicated recovery efforts before its successful suppression under the leadership of President Ramon Magsaysay.
The succeeding administrations of Presidents Carlos P. Garcia (1957-61) and Diosdado Macapagal (1961-65) sought to expand Philippine ties to its Asian neighbors, implemented domestic reform programs, and developed and diversified the economy. During this period, significant industrial growth and development favored personnel management. The following is post-war phenomenon: ? increasing complexity of business operations ? the number of government regulations and labor laws promulgated in recent years ? growth of labor unions influx of new concepts in management General skills became handy as rehabilitation programs made people employable and busy. Private and public organizations formalized and organized departments to cater different needs of the labor force. The government created instrumentalities which aimed to assist both management and labor sectors on employment, training, security, benefits and services. The PMAP (Personnel Management Association of the Philippines) has been consulted by government on issues affecting personnel. The education system offered courses