Framing analysis generally used to look how media construct the facts. Historically, the concept of framing’ first suggested by Peterson in 1955, defined as a conceptual structure or a set of beliefs to organize our point of views of politics, policy and discourse and provides standard categories to appreciate reality. Then in 1974, Irving Coffman developed its definition, as strips of behavior to help people to read the ongoing activities. (Sober, 2004). According to Coffman, frame analysis is an examination of the organization of experience’ and frame’ is a principle of organization that defines a situation.
Frames are used to analyze ‘strips’: arbitrary slices cut from the stream of ongoing activity (Manning, 1992, p. 122). The core belief from Saffron’s framing is that people always look at the social environment and use their cognitive skills to make sense of daily life. Moreover, he assumed that individuals cannot fully understand the world so that they interpret their experiences to make sense of the world around them. This individual’s process of information called “primary frameworks”. (Scuffle, 2000). There are two kinds of primary framework.
First is natural framework, defined as situation that human could not control. It helps to interpret events from nature (such as: weather) and unintentional causes. In contrast, social framework is when the situation included the human intervention. As Coffman said, that it helps to locate, perceive, identify and label all actions and events from intentional human action (Manning, 1992; Scuffle, 2000). From these frameworks, it implies that people always learning from the social environment, whether through social in...
teraction or through how media represent the event and reality.
Since Coffman, many researchers developed his idea and tried to define framing or frame, such as Antenna (1993), as cited in his work: “Framing essentially involves selection and salience. To frame is to select some aspects of perceived reality and make them more salient in the communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and/or treatment recommendation for the item described (p. 51). ” According to him, framing analysis explains the influence of information on audience’s consciousness through text, such as speech, news report, novel or symbol.
The salience of information could be increased by placement or repetition or associating them with culturally familiar symbols (Antenna, 1993). Framing is a critical activity because it helps us to construct the reality. Barman and Davis (2009) stated several strengths of frame analysis. First, it focused on individual in mass communication process. Secondly, the concept of framing is applicable to macro-level effects studies. Lastly, it is highly flexible and open-ended, in terms of definition and premises. However, framing has been criticized by the other researchers.
Antenna (1993) hardhearted framing as a “fractured” paradigm that lacks clear conceptual definitions and a comprehensive statement to apply in research (Holland, 2009). According to him, there is no consistency on frame’ or framing definitions. Thus, there should be single paradigm to explain the definitions of framing. As Barman and Davis (2009) said that the flexible and open-ended of framing, it is also one of the weaknesses because th
lack of specificity. On the other hand, Tangelo (2002) argued that there should not be a single framing theory.
The framing theories should be accumulated and encourage researchers to employ and refine the process of framing. Reese (2007) support Tangelo argumentation, said that framing is more a research program that a unified paradigm. According to him, the diversity of framing definition is beneficial to develop the understanding its process. Framing has an important implication on political communication. Politicians can frame their influence through news that Journalists write, which can make different feedback and view from audience (Antenna, 1993). Media uses political symbols or words to construct the meaning of a certain political power.
Moreover, media revised the space or time to the political figures or events. The more they have time and space, the more they gain publics attentions (Sober, 2004). Two concepts of framing that need to be specified are media frames and audience frames (Scuffle, 1999). Media frames defined as “a central organizing idea or story line that provides meaning to an unfolding strip or events. The media frame suggests what controversy is about and the essence of issue” (Samson and Mandolins, 1987, cited in Scuffle, 2000, p. 36). Media or news frame is Journalists’ routine, when they can identify and classify the information.
Audience frames in the other hand, defined as “mentally stored clusters of ideas that guide individuals’ processing of information (Antenna, 1993, p. 53). Application on Research Framing is one of concepts that broadly used in mass communication researches. Frame analysis essentially examines the selection and salience of certain aspects of an issue by exploring images, stereotypes, metaphors, actors, and messages (Matches, 2009). It gained interest from researchers since Saffron’s work and the studies mostly focused on Journalism and how news influence audience’s views of social world.
Some researches that also have an important role in field are done by Gave Dutchmen (1978) and Todd Sitting (1980). Sitting focused on news coverage of politically radical group, especially in asses. The study shows that the media representation tended to lower their action and ignore their ideas. While Dustman’s work focused on routine news production and news coverage of events. The study shows that news and events framed in ways to reinforce socially accepted and expected in a social world. The two studies imply that there is no objectivity in representing news and events in media content (Barman and Davis, 2009).
The major premise of framing theory is that an issue can be viewed from a variety of perspectives and be construed as having implications for multiple values or considerations. Framing refers to the process by which people develop a particular conceptualization of an issue or reorient their thinking about an issue (Chon and Drunkard, 2007, p. 104). In other words, events and news in media are looked in different ways, based on the framework that Journalists used. This confirms what Coffman said “the type of framework we employ provides a way of describing the event to which it is applied” (p. , in Scuffle, 2000, p. 301). As stated earlier, framing studies usually focused Journalism, how
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