Cytokines And Chemokines Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Cytokines And Chemokines?
Cytokines and chemokines are two types of small proteins that play an important role in the body’s immune system. Cytokines are produced by cells of the immune system and act as messengers, carrying information between cells. Chemokines are secreted by both the immune system and non-immune cells, and they regulate cell movement. Both cytokines and chemokines have been found to be involved in a wide range of diseases, including inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, diabetes, and cancer.Cytokines act on target cells by binding to specific receptors on their surface. The binding triggers a series of events inside the cell that result in changes in gene expression or other activities. For example, some cytokines may bind to receptors on white blood cells to promote their migration toward sites of infection or inflammation. Other cytokines can activate certain white blood cells directly so they can fight off infectious organisms or tumor cells more effectively. Chemokine receptors are also present on many different cell types throughout the body, including endothelial (blood vessel) cells, smooth muscle cells lining arteries and veins, neuronal (nerve) cells, fibroblasts (connective tissue), epithelial (lining) cells found in organs like the lungs or intestines as well as several types of immune system cell such as leukocytes (white bloods). Chemokine signals act on these target cell types to induce their movement towards sites where inflammation is present or where an injury has occurred so that they can help repair any damage caused by pathogens or other stressors. Additionally they also help direct certain white bloods towards areas containing tumors so that they can better identify cancerous growths for destruction by other parts of the bodies defense systems against disease. Cytokines and chemokines play an extremely important role in regulating various aspects our bodies’ responses to infection or injury; however it is important to note that when these proteins become unbalanced due to medical conditions like chronic inflammation then this can lead serious health issues such as autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or even cancer progression if unchecked for long enough periods time. Fortunately there are now treatments available which make use either natural hormones produced within us designed regulate these proteins levels better ,or medications specifically developed inhibit their activity when necessary order restore balance our body’s responses again .