Song dynasty and its significance in Chinese History
In this article. I would wish to present the “Culture History” of Song dynasty. I will chiefly speak about “Literature” . which will be divided into 4 parts that are: 1 ) Poetry ; 2 ) Prose ; 3 ) Ci ( ? ) ; and 4 ) History. After presenting the Literature. I would wish to explicate Song dynasty’s significance in Chinese History.
In Zhen Zong period. Xi Kun Ti became popular among the high functionaries. The representative of the Xi Kun Ti were Yang Yi. Liu-yun. Qian Wei-yan and the similar. Besides Xi Kun Ti. there were some poets with particular manner in early-Song period. They were called “Late Tang group” . For case. Wei-ye. Lin Bu. Kou Zhun and the similar were all the representatives of “Late Tang group” . Then in the Ren Zong period. Ouyang Xiu had proceeded “Classical Prose Movement” and created created a flow of poesy new to each other theoretical account. with the aid of Mei Yao-chen and Su Shun-qin. besides mention by Han Yu. In the period of Shen Zong. Wang An-shi was active on making political verse form. He did compose verse form about political relations. in the look of a orderly manner while integrating the ancient poems poetry-Story. Another fantastic poet must be introduced is Su Shi. He created a batch of fantastic verse forms and taught many pupils. For case. all of Huang Ting-jian. Zhang Lei. Chao Bu-zhi and Qin-guan were pupils of Su Shi. Especially Huang had the greatest impact on posterity-statement gave birth to a watercourse called “Jiang Xi Shi Pai” after.
Then. to stand for the unhappiness of the lose of North China and the soapsuds of being oppressed in Gangnam were Chen Yu-yi. Ceng Ji and Lu Ben-zhong. Many verse forms of them had mentioned the unhappiness of losing land and reflected the age. Among three. Chen Yu-yi. who respected Du-fu really much. had the most similar manner with Du-fu that ever criticized the jobs of the state in his verse form. Entering into the reign of Xiao Zong. poesy celebrated the flower once more as Southern Song Dynasty gained a certain extent of stableness. The representatives of this period were Fan cheng-da. Yang wan-li and the best poet in Southern Song-Lu You. Lu You had been the top in Ke Ju. but because of Qin Xun. who was the grandson of Qin Gui. he could merely be No. 2. Until he died when he was 86. he had created 9000 verse forms which is a surprising sum.
Followed by a period of peace since the terminal of the Xiao Zong period. the figure of people read verse forms had increased significantly. “Yong Jia Si Ling” was the representative of this period and they were called “Jiang Hu Pai” . “Yong Jia Si Ling” included Xu Zhao. Xu Ji. Weng Jaun and Zhao Shi-xiu. At the Late-Southern Song period. Mongolia’s onslaught was escalating twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. And Wen Tian-xiang was the 1 who could largely depict the unhappiness and soapsuds of worrying the dynasty. “Song of sanity” was celebrated that giving a deep feeling on descendants nationalist. After the autumn of the Southern Song dynasty. people who presented themselves. as “remnants of the Song people” even became the epoch of the original weave. They reminisced about the verse form in the vocal of past yearss. The representatives in this period were Wang Yuan-liang. Xie Ao and Zheng Si-xiao.
After presenting the poesy. I would wish to present prose in Song dynasty. In the early Song. “Pian Wen” was the major signifier of poesy. However. Liu Kai. Wan Yu-cheng. Shi Jie and Fan Zhong-yan had claimed a return to the simple and Spartan manner that was used in Qin Han dynasty. Particularly the “Tai Xue Ti” created by Shi Jie was even used as the signifier for test. However. “Tai Xue Ti” was really affected by Han Yu. who was utilizing a signifier that was backbreaking to understand. In 1057. when Ouyang Xiu served as the tester. he allow some people like Su Zhe and Ceng Gong passed but failed the reply of “Tai Xue Ti” .
As a consequence. the signifier of Ouyang Xiu and other people who had same believing with him like Su Xin. Su Zhe. Su Shi. Wang An-shi and Ceng Gong. that means “Tang Song Ba Da Jia” became the major signifier. Even in the same class of Guwen. Ouyang Xiu’s guwen was described as “Yin Rou” while Han Yu’s was described as “Yang Gang” . Although Ou was deficiency of inflexion. his authorship was obviously. clear and easy to understand. Therefore. even in Southern Song period. the signifier of guwen fundamentally still followed Ou’s signifier. Therefore. we can state that Ou Yang-shiu should be the most momentous individual of prose in Song dynasty.
Then. I would wish to present Ci. Northern Song Ci prosperity was mostly taken over five coevalss. Ren Zong period and its after was the true prosperity period. The representatives of this period were Yan Shu. Ouyang Xiu. Zhang Xian. Liu Yong and the similar. Particularly the last two had opened a new field of Ci. Ci included everyday things since Zhang wrote day-to-day things in Ci. Besides. after Liu Yong. a signifier called “Slow Ci” besides became celebrated non merely among civilians but besides the literati. The most of import individual in the Shen Zong period was Su Shi. Su Shi formed a friendly relationship with Zhang when he was appointed to Hangzhou as go throughing judgement. and was greatly affected by Zhang. Su Shi mastermind did non halt at that place. but picked a subject. such as the Battle of Red Cliff in “Three Kingdoms” . which was a subject that did non look in the traditional Ci. By this. he opened a new frontier of Ci. In the Hui Zong period. Zhou Bang-yan had done the apogee of the Ci. Zhou was good at music. so was ordered to put up the music departments “Da Cheng Fu” . Zhou had highly big consequence that Zhou derived about all of Southern Song Ci authors. The manner of Zhou’s Ci was described as “Hun Hou He Ya” . Another individual should be mentioned is Fifty-one Qing-zhao. who was a female Ci author.
She intensived conversational look. emotional look was besides characterized by delicate feminine. In the Southern Song dynasty. Ci had alteration a batch by come ining into the Old Southern country. which was a topographic point Ci was being celebrated. The representatives of this period should be Xin Qi-ji and Jiang Kui. As Xin supported happening war against Jin. he was unfortunate for spicy. His Ci was similar to Su Shi and both of them were called “Hao Fang Pai” and besides “Su Xin” . which is a simplified name by taking their family names. On the contrary. Jiang Kui inherited the manner of Zhou Bang-yan that his Ci was really elegant. Although Jiang did non desire to be official. he could still organize relationships with many functionaries by his Ci. Finally. in the late Southern Song period. Chinese Sanqu poesy had been the major alternatively of Ci as many Ci had been changed to something about the doomed of land. It was better to sing with tune but non merely by reading words. Therefore. Ci started being long forgotten since the autumn of Song dynasty.
The last thing I would wish to present is History of Song dynasty. The most representative history book written in Song period must be “Zizhi Tongjian” . which is a pioneering mention work in Chinese historiography. published in 1084. in the signifier of a history. by Sima Guang. Besides “Zizhi Tongjian” . there were besides other historical books like “Bo Gu Tu” by Lu Da-lin and “Xuan He Bo Gu Tu Lu” by Hui Zong. It should besides be mentioned that epigraphy. which is the survey of letterings or epigraphs as authorship ; it is the scientific discipline of placing characters. clear uping their significances. sorting their utilizations harmonizing to day of the months and cultural contexts. and pulling decisions about the authorship and the authors. was started by Ouyang Xiu. Ouyang Xiu collected all the epigraphs and editd them as “Ji Gu Lu” . Therefore. history was besides a singular point of Song civilization history.
Last but non least. the significance of Song dynasty in Chinese History will be talked about in the follows. First I would wish to speak about the significance of Song civilization in Chinese History. About the Song Ci. Ci had established music literature. or we would state that Chinese music was started by Ci. Many literati had participated in the authorship of the word and they were even called “Hao Fang Pai” . From a literary point of position. “Hao Fang Pai” had created a new sort of Ci. Xin Qi-ji besides engaged in the authorship of the loyal words ; but from the musical point of position. Ci written by “Hao Fang Pai” caused the divergence of Ci.
Because the tonss of Ci was by and large “Qian Zhen Di Chang” and “Chou Mou Wan Zhuan” . such as “Nian Nu Jiao” . it expressed the good humor of cocottes by music. However. this sort of music was evidently different with Su Shi’s creative activity “Da Jian Dong Qu” by utilizing the Cipai. Unfortunately. Ci tonss now had fundamentally lost. but the Ci had created an of import manner of music. had a important impact on the development of play. From the Yuan Dynasty to Modern Peking Opera and local opera. the basic manner was to compose Ci by fixed tonss. Peoples frequently called Ci as “Song Ci” . of class. it means people have marked the Song as the highest degree of Ci of this literary genre.
Then about prose. after the beginning of Song Dynasty. prose became popular and about been handed down till now. For case. “Tang Song Ba Da Jia” included 6 people of Song Dynasty. As Chinese characters seem like square. the most suited genre to show the beauty of words should approximately be Parallel Prose. antediluvian verse forms and pairs. Parallel Prose should non be wholly rejected. but the Guwen was doubtless more freely and to the full express thoughts and depicted on the analysis things comparing to Parallel Prose. Overall. Song prose accomplishment was greater than the Tang Dynasty.
About History. Song Dynasty was the flower of Chinese History. Many history books were edited by the functionary. Some history new genre was created. In dependence. the kingdom of history expanded from the compilation of geographics and histories to epigraphy. The epigraphy pioneered by Song was the precursor of modern archaeology. All these. and besides the great drawn-out books. historians accomplishments of Song was great and it is adequate to overrule the Han and Tang Dynasties. even can be chesty to the Ming and Qing.
Then I would wish to present other significance of Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty formated a new societal category construction. The old societal category construction in mid-steps of the Tang Dynasty like Gentry Clans and Jun Tian families. slaves capacity. rabble. Fan Carpenter and slaves changed to the Song Dynasty bureaucratic landlord and Tian Ke of. above and under group of small town. poor-employed Carpenter. and employed Carpenter. homo and adult females to do a new societal category construction. This is a major alteration of the internal category dealingss of ancient Chinese society. This is an accommodation of the societal dealingss of production. This alteration bit by bit affirmed by the jurisprudence. After the down of late Tang emperor and the entire prostration of the Shi Zhu civil order. the Song Dynasty established the Centralization. Autonomy. This really already pointed out that the position of the Song Dynasty in Chinese history. which means it was a continue to develop the new period following the center of the Tang Dynasty.
Yuan. Ming and Qing dynasties. non merely the societal and economic development was on the footing of the conventionality of the Song Dynasty. their political system and some of its iconic outstanding societal phenomenon was besides emerging every bit early as the Song Dynasty. For case. Chu Rui-xi indicated that Ming and Qing eight-legged essay paradigm was started from Song. Besides. Li Hong-qi thought that Ming Qing Ju Ren’s benefits and privileges has existed in the Song Dynasty. These phenomenas are still many. merely because we can’t research the all. Such as the state of abode of the Ming and Qing dynasties and celebrity. who are highly similar to the functionary and on behalf of the local forces. but really they are merely normal people. had been appeared in Northern Song Dynasty and in the Southern Song Dynasty. the figure was even greater.
Taixue in Song dynasty and local counties. colleges of roar. Among them. College influence in peculiar. In Shen Zong period. Taixue ternary attention jurisprudence. that is. places on residential attention places and rounded down and upgrade system. which is the first in the history of China and even the whole universe instruction. in fact. innovator of modern instruction categorization system. Northern Song dynasty on the previous-generation’s Education Division has been developed. in add-on to Taixue. set uping soldierly humanistic disciplines. jurisprudence. medical specialty. programme. every bit good as penmanship. picture. although non adequate attending to other topics. but is doubtless higher instruction subdivision of green shoots.
Thankss to the development of publishing. such as the Chinese family names. of the 1000 character authoritative spelling book series of popular instruction larger than the former was popular in the Song dynasty. there have been many urban and rural countries dedicated instructors. many territories use twelvemonth forming winter survey. Educational accomplishment in the vocal at the same clip. should besides be noted that. get downing from the Northern Song dynasty. completed the survey of imperial scrutiny. instruction and Trinity together. therefore instruction characteristics merely. narrowly linked to career. which gave birth to Chinese instruction towards backward factors.
The aureate age of Chinese ancient scientific discipline and engineering development was the Song dynasty. Known in the four great innovations of ancient China. compass. printing and gunpowder was the three chief application and development of the Song dynasty. Shen Kuo is the chief representative figures of scientific discipline and engineering in the Song dynasty. His scientific accomplishments are manyremarkable. Northern Song dynasty had two celebrated Supernova records in the history of uranology. The astronomical clock tower and armillary domains were great. Others such as Agronomy. agricultural engineering. architecture besides had noteworthy accomplishments. Get downing of the Northern Song dynasty. people about build a big pontoon span across the Yangtze River. history of span enterprise.
The position was expressed that study the history of scientific discipline. must concentrate on the continuity of scientific development. which means people invariably added to the predecessors on the footing of consequences. merely as it is in the history of scientific discipline. From this point of position. the ancient Chinese scientific discipline could be chiefly divided to mathematics and medical specialty. which has connexion to the fact that there were medical school in Song dynasty. Mathematics accomplishment was great in the Song dynasty. but had no impact on modern mathematics. Unique theoretical system of traditional Chinese medical specialty is good received by the influence of antediluvian doctrine.
Medical theories had new development in the Song and Jin dynasties period. and forensic books even occurred. Medical Branch at the clip of the Northern Song dynasty was already similar to the subdivisions of modern medical specialty. The Jin people did non cognize medical. so medicine of Jin should be the continuance of the Northern Song dynasty medical specialty and development. The acme of the organic structure mechanisms and Qi Gong was the oriental of import scientific enterprise. even though so far we haven’t been able to decide modern exact scientific disciplines. Making bronze and correlated with stylostixis and moxibustion in Song dynasty medical books was a landmark advancement of stylostixis and moxibustion. Different from ancient mathematics. Chinese traditional medical specialty is still profiting the Chinese state. and do a greater part to human wellness.
Therefore. we can state that the Song Culture History is an of import and momentous page of Chinese History. Although Song may non be a perfect dynasty. it still has its significance among the 2000 old ages Chinese History.
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