Impact of Suburbanisation Essay Example
Impact of Suburbanisation Essay Example

Impact of Suburbanisation Essay Example

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  • Pages: 7 (1787 words)
  • Published: October 4, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
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Suburbanisation, the expansion of suburbs and suburban areas on the outskirts of cities, occurs due to natural population growth or migration. It contributes to urban conurbation and can be seen in different countries at various stages of development. Each instance of suburbanisation may have different causes, including push factors from urban areas and pull factors from suburban areas. Push factors are reasons that drive individuals to leave an area, such as congestion and high population density in city centers.

Suburbanisation has multiple causes and impacts on surrounding areas and within a city. Suburbs are residential areas located on the outskirts of towns or cities, as shown in the . They typically occupy the outermost ring of this model and primarily house wealthier upper-class households. Businesses also relocate to the outskirts of cities due to various push and pull factors.

Push factors include


outdated factories, limited space in inner-city locations, road congestion hindering transportation, high rental costs for land and services, and a shortage of skilled workers. On the other hand, pull factors involve cheaper land options for future expansion with greater availability.

The significance of visual representation in comprehending the topic is emphasized by like . The trade name new edifices have improved car parking facilities and advanced technology along with skilled workers.They also provide access to newly constructed roads, airports, and rail networks. Suburbanisation can occur due to push and pull factors as well as decentralization and deindustrialization. Decentralization involves moving jobs from the CBD to the suburbs for lower land prices. Deindustrialization refers to the decline of manufacturing jobs in urban areas, leaving workers without skills for service sector employment. Los Angeles

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and London are examples of this phenomenon.

Technological advancements allow individuals to live on the outskirts of cities or smaller market towns like St Ives in Cambridgeshire. St Ives is conveniently located along a coach route that connects it directly to London, making commuting easier for residents working there. Technological progress, such as the internet, has given people more freedom in choosing their location as remote work becomes more feasible.

Suburbanisation is widespread in different countries at various stages of development. In economically advanced countries (MEDCs) like the UK, suburbanisation affects all parts of a city, including the inner city. Changes occurring in rural areas of an MEDC such as London, England involve factors such as an aging population.Many elderly individuals choose to retire to the suburbs for access to open spaces and green areas.Additionally, small towns experience closures of services like schools, stores,and coach services due to reduced usageDemographic changes resulting from suburbanisation in MEDCs also include an aging population and depopulation in rural regions. There is also an increased use of second homes. Economic changes involve a decline in traditional agriculture and a rise in hobby farming and non-agricultural land usage within primary sectors. Suburbanisation within MEDCs leads to significant polarization among people based on wealth, social categories, ethnicity, employment groups, and other societal divisions. As a result, the inner city becomes primarily inhabited by less affluent individuals; however, some wealthy residents may still choose expensive flats and penthouses located in the central business district (CBD), similar to London's situation.

In LEDCs like Brazil, the effects of suburbanization are comparable but differ somewhat. One notable consequence can be observed in Sao Paulo's housing situation which will

be further explored. As it stands now, approximately 75% of people residing in MEDCs live within urban areas.

"From 1950 to 1980, there was a significant migration of UK city-dwellers, with approximately 30% moving to the outskirts. This relocation was driven by the desire for a better lifestyle, including cleaner and more environmentally friendly surroundings as well as a stronger community spirit. Additionally, many self-employed young entrepreneurs also took part in this movement. As economically developed countries underwent suburbanization,
towns and cities became decentralized."During the transition, some properties were privatized, but council estates remained available for those from urban areas. This resulted in an increase in societal segregation. The patterns of this can be seen in suburban towns like St Ives and East Keswick in the UK, as well as major cities such as London, Los Angeles, and Birmingham. In fact, Birmingham saw its first suburbs develop in the early 19th century with large detached and semi-detached houses being built in Edgbaston. As people recognized the connection between living standards and health, high-density housing developments were constructed on the outskirts. Bournville is a suburb located on the southern border of Birmingham known for its tree-lined streets and picturesque housing with spacious gardens. Most residents here are workers employed by Cadbury. Over time, Bournville has expanded gradually, resulting in slightly higher housing densities after the establishment of the Bourneville small town trust in 1900. Between World War I and II, local governments built large estates consisting of terraced and semi-detached houses specifically for working-class individuals; however, there was limited focus on developing services commonly found in suburban areas like corner shops. The growth of these suburbs was

restricted by laws such as the Restriction of Ribbon Development Act (1935) and Green Belt Policy.
Although urban sprawl is restricted in the United Kingdom, these policies are not present in other More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs). Consequently, housing densities have increased within Birmingham's suburbs, resulting in smaller homes and a rise in affluence among younger residents. In order to increase housing density, infilling has been implemented; however, this has led to a diverse mix of estates due to varying housing styles compared to existing houses. Additionally, the addition of property extensions and car bays to semi-detached houses has also contributed to the density increase. These changes notably highlight how Birmingham experiences fluctuations in outward expansion and suburbanization—a characteristic often associated with this city.

In the southwest area of Birmingham, peripheral belts with low-density housing have been developed. These belts are defined by parks, golf courses, and institutional buildings. They emerged as land prices dropped, making it feasible to create recreational spaces such as parks and golf courses.

On the contrary, Los Angeles is renowned for being California's most populous city and the second most populous city in the United States after New York. It is famous for its association with movie stars, Hollywood glamour, and consistently sunny weather. Nevertheless, LA offers more than just glitz and glamor to certain individuals.The growth of Los Angeles can be attributed to various factors. Advancements in transportation, such as the arrival of the transcontinental railroad in 1876, led to a migration of half a million people to the city over 40 years. Additionally, the discovery of oil and Ford establishing a car factory during the twentieth century contributed significantly to job

creation and suburbanization trends within Los Angeles. The expansion in the aircraft industry also played a part in this growth.

Furthermore, Hollywood's development during the 1920s-1930s solidified LA's status as a global movie capital while enhancing its glamorous image. By 2010, Los Angeles had become home to one of the world's busiest airports.

Moreover, an increase in wealth and disposable income during the 1960s led to a significant influx of tourists visiting iconic amusement parks like Disneyland and Universal Studios. This boost in tourism further fueled employment opportunities within Los Angeles.

The rise in affluence also provided individuals with more choices when deciding where to live. Many people moved to California's Sun Belt region, particularly Los Angeles, in the 1960s and 1970s to escape cold winters experienced on the East Coast.During this period, Los Angeles saw significant growth for multiple reasons. These included its vast land area, minimal planning restrictions, high average incomes, and personal mobility. The availability of affordable fuel and substantial investment in transportation networks also contributed to this growth.

Various factors influenced suburbanization in Los Angeles, such as inadequate schools, safety concerns, large shopping centers, and convenient access. However, there were drawbacks associated with living in the suburbs. While commuting became easier with suburbanization, it resulted in less time for family and friends due to increased transportation times. Some communities only thrived at night as residence hall colonies.

Moreover, escaping inner city pollution led to congestion on main roads and subsequent air and noise pollution problems. Suburbanization also led to the migration of people and businesses into newer and larger buildings located in the suburbs. This phenomenon resulted from the closure of long-standing automotive, steel, and aircraft

mills in LA which caused the loss of valuable farming land - giving rise to what is known as a "donut city" phenomenon. Mechanization and new technology in suburban areas played a role in this as well.

Furthermore, concerns about space limitations along with rising land costs and taxes prompted people to move out of the central area.The growth of modern industries like aerospace and light manufacturing has led to an increased demand for large spaces with parking for employees. This demand has contributed to the development of a "donut city" in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Since 1987, the urban population in Sao Paulo has significantly increased. The city covers over 1000km? and is expanding at a rate of more than 60km? per year. However, despite its population exceeding 18 million, there are over 3 million people residing in slums on steep valley slopes on the outskirts of the city.

In an attempt to combat favela growth, all favelas in the central part were demolished in the 1970s and replaced with expensive high-rise apartments and urban parks. Additionally, some low-cost government-funded housing was built nearby. Unfortunately, this did not solve Sao Paulo's housing issue as shanty towns began forming for its expanding suburban population.

The favelas in Sao Paulo lack basic comforts and services that are often taken for granted in more economically developed countries (MEDCs). Furthermore, pollution from industrial and urban waste has severely affected the two main rivers in Sao Paulo, leaving them devoid of life.

Despite these challenges, affluent estates have recently emerged on the outskirts of the city along major routes.Typically, the further one moves away from the central business district (CBD), there is a decline

in socio-economic status among the population. This explains why most slums are located on the periphery. These favelas are found on steep slopes near river valleys and close to industrial plants, making them vulnerable to mudslides and landslides. Suburbanization is a global phenomenon with various causes and impacts on towns and cities worldwide. In conclusion, I have observed that these effects and impacts are often more noticeable in less economically developed countries (LEDCs) like Sao Paulo, Brazil. Changes to infrastructure and industries as well as increased social diversity are significant consequences of suburbanization. While both positive aspects and negative side effects come with these impacts, they are gaining greater importance in modern city planning and revitalization efforts.

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