Graciano Lopez Jaena Essay
Graciano Lopez Jaena Graciano Lopez Jaena was born on December 18, 1856 in Jaro, Iloilo. He came from a lowly family which has strong values in education and religion. He studied at the Seminario Tejaro and at an early age: he was placed under the care of Reverend Francisco Jayme who enhanced and developed his skills in speech. Since his ambition was to become a doctor, he tried to enroll at the University of Santo Tomas but was deprived of access due to lack of requirements. His encounter with other less fortunate Filipinos opened his eyes to the maltreatment and abuses of the Spaniards.
He campaigned to voice out the injustices and wrongdoings of the Spanish colonizers. “Fray Botod”, the story’ of a fat and corrupt priest angered the friars more, thus his life was put in danger. He flew to Spain to avoid conflict but continued his battle. He pursued his study of medicine at the University of Valencia but did not complete the course and instead shifted to journalism. Lopez Jaena, the orator and journalist was best remembered for being the founder and the. first editor of “La Solidaridad”, in Barcelona, on February 15, 1889. Along with Marcelo H. el Pilar and Jose Rizal, he was one of the pillars of the Philippine reform movement which eventually galvanized the country’s struggle for freedom during the late 19th century. He died a poor man but had he lived longer. his accomplishments would have doubtless been greater. Jaena died of tuberculosis on January 1896 in Barcelona, Spain. Jose Rizal Dr Jose Protacio Rizal was born in the town of Calamba, Laguna on 19th June 1861. The second son and the seventh among the eleven children of Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso. Rizal was a prolific writer and was anti-violence. He rather fight using his pen than his might.
Rizal’s two books “Noli Me Tangere” (Touch Me Not) which he wrote while he was in Berlin, Germany in 1887 and “El Filibusterismo” (The Rebel) in Ghent, Belgiun in 1891 exposed the cruelties of the Spanish friars in the Philippines, the defects of the Spanish administration and the vices of the clergy, these books told about the oppression of the Spanish colonial rule. These two books made Rizal as a marked man to the Spanish friars. In 1892 when Rizal returned to the Philippines, he formed La Liga Filipina ,an non violent reform society of patriotic citizen and a forum for Filipinos to xpress their hopes for reform, to promote progress through commerce, industry and agriculture and freedom from the oppressive Spanish colonial administration. In 1896, the Katipunan, a nationalist secret society launched a revolt against the Spaniards, although Jose Rizal had no connection with the organization, his enemies were able to linked him with the revolt. To avoid being involved in the move to start a revolution, he asked Governor Ramon Blanco to send him to Cuba but instead he was brought back to Manila and jailed for the second time in Fort Santiago.
Marcelo H. Del Pilar Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaytan was a celebrated figure in the Philippine Revolution and a leading propagandist for reforms in the Philippines. Popularly known as Plaridel, he was the editor and co-publisher of La Solidaridad. He tried to marshal the nationalist sentiment of the enlightened Filipino ilustrados, or bourgeoisie, against Spanish imperialism. In 1882 Del Pilar founded the newspaper Diariong Tagalog to propagate democratic liberal ideas among the farmers and peasants.
In 1888 he defended Jose Rizal’s polemical writings by issuing a pamphlet against a priest’s attack, exhibiting his deadly wit and savage ridicule of clerical follies. In 1888, fleeing from clerical persecution, Del Pilar went to Spain, leaving his family behind. In December 1889 he succeeded Graciano Lopez Jaena as editor of the Filipino reformist periodical La solidaridad in Madrid. Andres Bonifacio Andres Bonifacio (1863-1897), a Filipino revolutionary hero, founded the Katipunan, a secret society which spearheaded the uprising against the Spanish and laid the groundwork for the first Philippine Republic.
Andres Bonifacio was born in Tondo, Manila, on Nov. 30, 1863. He grew up in the slums and knew from practical experience the actual conditions of the class struggle in his society. Absorbing the teachings of classic rationalism from the works of Jose Rizal, Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables, Eugene Sue’s The Wandering Jew, books on the French Revolution, and the lives of the presidents of the United States, Bonifacio acquired an understanding of the dynamics of the sociohistorical process. This led him to join the Liga
Filipina, which Rizal organized in 1892 for the purpose of uniting and intensifying the nationalist movement for reforms. When the Liga was dissolved upon the arrest and banishment of Rizal, Bonifacio formed the Katipunan in 1892 and thus provided the rallying point for the people’s agitation for freedom, independence, and equality. Emilio Jacinto Often called the “Brains of the Katipunan”. Emilio Jacinto was the young adviser to Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Jacinto was born on December 15, 1875 in Trozo, Manila; his father was Mariano Jacinto and his mother was Josefa Dizon.
He died at the early age of 24 at his secret headquaraters in Majayjay, Laguna, where he got a virulent case of malaria. Jacinto wrote the Kartilya ng Katipunan (Primer of the Katipunan), the oath of the pledges , “Sa Mga Kababayan” and “Pahayag” and “A La Patria” ) which considered to be the best poem he wrote. He founded and edited the Kalayaan, the newspaper of the Katipunan newspaper. In Agust 30, 1896, the Katipunan launched its first attack on a Spanish garrison at San Juan del Monte.
By that time, Rizal had been sentenced to exile in Dapitan and Jacinto was assigned to rescue Rizal who was then confined aboard a Spanish warship to Cuba. Jacinto disguised himself as a Chinese coolie and succeeded in boarding the vessel. Rizal refused to the rescue for reasons that are still the subject of debates. In February 1898, he was wounded in the thigh during a skirmish with the Spanish cazadores (riflemen) in Maimpis, Laguna and was taken to the Catholic Church of Magdalena. He was taken to the Church of Santa Cruz where a Spanish surgeon kindly ministered to his wound.
To avoid capture by the Spanish military authorities, Jacinto used a pass that belonged to a Filipino spy named Florentino Reyes who was captured before the battle in Maimpis. Heeding the urgent appeal of the Katipuneros in Laguna who asked Jacinto to lead them, he established his secret headquarters in the hills of Majayjay where he died on April 16, 1899. Emilio Aguinaldo The Philippine revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) fought for independence of the Philippine Islands, first against Spain and then against the United States. Born on March 23, 1869, Emilio Aguinaldo grew up in
Kawit in Cavite Province and was educated in Manila. Appointed to a municipal position in his home province, he was also the local leader of a revolutionary society fighting Spanish rule over the Philippines. By an agreement signed with rebel leaders in January 1898, Spain agreed to institute liberal reforms and to pay a large indemnity; the rebels then went into exile. When war broke out between Spain and the United States in April 1898, Aguinaldo made arrangements with the U. S. consuls in Hong Kong and Singapore and with Commodore George Dewey to return from exile to fight against Spain.
On June 12 Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippine Islands from Spain, hoisted the national flag, introduced a national anthem, and ordered a public reading of the declaration of independence. Apolinario Mabini Apolinario Mabini (1864-1903) was a Filipino political philosopher and architect of the Philippine revolution. He formulated the principles of a democratic popular government, endowing the historical struggles of the Filipino people with a coherent ideological orientation. Apolinario Mabini was born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas, on July 22, 1864.
His parents belonged to the impoverished peasantry. In 1896 Mabini contracted an illness, probably infantile paralysis, that deprived him of the use of his legs. When the Katipunan revolt broke out late that year, the Spanish authorities arrested him. Unknown to many, Mabini was already a member of Jose Rizal’s reformist association, the Liga Filipina. And though as a pacifist reformist, he was at first skeptical of Andres Bonifacio’s armed uprising, Mabini later became convinced of the people’s almost fanatical desire for emancipation.
Subsequently, he turned out subversive manifestos appealing to all Filipinos to unite against Spain. Mabini’s chief work, La Revolution Filipina, a reasoned analysis and cogent argument concerning the ideological implications of the revolution against Spain and the resistance to the American invaders, reveals the progressive and democratic impulse behind his thinking. Julian Felipe Julian Felipe was a musician/composer who is best known for composing the “Marcha Filipina Magdalo” which later became the Philippine National Anthem.
On June 5, 1898, a week before Philippine independence would be declared, Julian Felipe arrived at the home of Maximo Inocencio, one of Cavite’s thirteen martyrs during the revolution. Upon his arrival, the leader of the revolution, General Emilio Aguinaldo, asked Felipe to play a march written by a Filipino in Hong Kong. However, Aguinaldo was not satisfied with this march. Recognizing Felipe’s skills, he asked him to compose a more soul-rousing tune that would install courage and patriotism in the hearts of every Filipino.
On June 11, the day before the declaration of independence, Felipe arrived again and played his tune to the revolutionary leaders. The leaders unanimously approved it as the national hymn. Felipe called his work the “Marcha Filipina Magdalo. ” On June 12, Felipe’s tune was played during the hoisting of the Philippine flag at the historic window at the Aguinaldo mansion. The march was renamed the “Marcha Nacional Filipina,” and immediately became the National Anthem.