Fitts And Posner’s Essay Example
Fitts And Posner’s Essay Example

Fitts And Posner’s Essay Example

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  • Pages: 4 (1022 words)
  • Published: July 9, 2017
  • Type: Essay
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According to 'Fitts and Posner' (1967), the act of learning involves developing persistent alterations in conduct through practice. Their focus was on examining the nature of these changes and the stages learners experience while acquiring new abilities. These stages, classified as 'Fitts and Posner's' phases of learning (1967), are deemed mandatory for the mastery of any skill.

The initial stage of the learning process is referred to as cognitive or the 'early phase.' This stage is focused on skill acquisition, relying heavily on cognitive processes. The learner's primary focus during this phase is understanding what to do and how to do it. To achieve this understanding, the beginner must comprehend the task at hand, which often involves attaching verbal labels to their movement responses.

Before performing a physical action, such as kicking a ball in football, a player may articu


late his intended movements. This requires careful attention to detail, which is also necessary for field hockey goalkeepers, as they must take into consideration various factors when making a play.

When it comes to positioning oneself in the goal and blocking shots, it is essential to know how to move the limbs properly. Likewise, runners must pay attention to their leg and arm movements. However, there is a risk of mistakes due to the cognitive complexity involved in executing these actions, resulting in inconsistent and fluctuating performances. This is often the case with erratic and uncoordinated actions, such as a badminton player missing a hit on the shuttlecock.

Both basketball players and jugglers may experience difficulties with coordination, resulting in missed dribbles or dropped balls. Recognizing these mistakes may not be enough, however, as many performers do not know how

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to correct them. Coaches are essential for providing advice and correcting issues. They utilize helpful models to assist individuals in understanding techniques and addressing errors, providing visual demonstrations, verbal instructions, and physical guidance as necessary.

For a player to become more conscious of their flaws, they must expend significant amounts of focus. To enhance this ability, certain approaches are more appropriate for this stage. One such method is interval training, which is straightforward and beneficial for increasing the player's awareness. This training comprises alternating between specified lengths of exertion and rest for recuperation. An athlete in rugby might utilize this exercise by starting with a 25-metre sprint, having a 30-second rest, subsequently completing another 25-metre sprint, another 30-second rest, and so on. Similarly, runners and swimmers can employ this technique.

One way to improve in sports is through closed drills, which provide a low-pressure environment with consistent conditions. For example, a football player could practice shuttles or dribbling a ball around cones at a self-paced level. Similarly, a juggler may do catching drills with a partner, and a tennis player may run shuttles with a racket. Another helpful technique is observing and learning from a more skilled individual or model. In addition to close drills, athletes can improve their skills by practicing specific techniques such as 10m breast stroke sprints with 30-second rests, followed by 10m back stroke sprints with 30-second rests, and so on.

In the 'intermediate' or 'associative' phase, the learner focuses on practicing the newly acquired skill, exhibiting increased consistency and faster coordination. The phase also reflects improvements in timing and other related areas.

During this stage, learners develop basic mechanics of a skill and

draw connections to previously acquired knowledge, enabling them to transfer the skill to other sports or situations. For instance, a netball shot may serve as a basis for a basketball shot. With the help of a role model, learners can improve by comparing themselves to others. Additionally, they may start to identify and correct errors they were previously unaware of. For example, a discus thrower may miss their throw because of incorrect foot placement. However, they can recognize and address this issue to improve their performance.

The shift towards internal/kinaesthetic feedback has led to a decreased reliance on visual/verbal feedback, with detailed feedback now playing a vital role. This shift has also led to the use of video feedback. While this may result in slower feedback, it also means that this phase of training is more long lasting. Interval training is no longer necessary during this phase, and instead open skills with a realistic environment are recommended. This involves practicing previously learned skills within the natural setting of the sport, such as a cricket team practicing on a cricket pitch or volleyball doubles practicing on a volleyball court. Coaching points and subroutines should be linked to these practices.

Using the whole-part-whole method is a popular technique for improving skills. The idea is to play a game, stop play, identify errors, and then address those errors in a match situation. For instance, in football, if there is a problem with corners, the game will be paused to focus on that area and then resumed. Similarly, chaining of skills is crucial- in ice hockey, for example, saving a goal and quickly adjusting your position to clear the ball are

linked skills. Likewise, in hurdles, running and jumping are combined.

During the autonomous phase, performers are able to execute skilled actions without conscious control, resulting in smoother and more efficient movements. This allows attention to be focused on relevant cues and signals from the environment, requiring less mental capacity to execute the skill. Additionally, performers become more aware of their mistakes and are able to correct them independently. Realistic practices, including competitive games and cups, are recommended during this phase.

When it comes to sports, there are many major events such as the Olympics and commonwealth games in swimming, the six nations and world cup in rugby. In netball, it is important for players to engage in diverse practices like passing, shooting, and movement drills while receiving structured feedback with the aid of videos. Ultimately, learning occurs in various stages where one's abilities, skills, and awareness improve gradually.

To enhance your skills during the learning process, critical factors such as the utilization of videos and role models and carrying out specific drills are essential. These stages are crucial in improving and developing your capabilities.

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