Discussion about stigma Essay
This chapter will analyze the term stigma and discourse the negative attitudes that the public clasp towards mental wellness and mental unwellness and suggest why they may hold adopted these positions and attitudes. It will besides turn to the media ‘s function in portraying these positions and prolonging these attitudes towards mental unwellness. An tremendous figure of persons are affected by mental illness worldwide: the World Health Organization ( WHO ) ( 2001 ) has estimated that 1 in 5 individuals will endure from a mental unwellness each twelvemonth. A inquiry that could be asked if mental unwellness is a dominant and prevailing issue within society today why do people still hold these negative positions and attitudes within society? Finally the chapter will reason by doing some recommendations for pattern, ways that stigma can be reduced and how mental wellness and mental unwellness can be portrayed in a more positive visible radiation.
To to the full appreciate the positions and attitudes towards mental unwellness it is of import to understand the construct of stigma. Stigma is derived from the Greek for a grade branded on a slave or condemnable ( White, 1998 ) . Goffman ‘s ( 1963 ) seminal work on stigmatisation has, over the old ages, stimulated a great assortment of educational treatment on the nature, beginnings, and effects of stigma ( Link and Phelan, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Goffman ( 1963 ) stigma is a physical or psychological grade of shame that makes an single base out from society. Three types of stigmatising Markss identified by Goffman include,
‘Abominations of the organic structure, tribal stigma, and defects of single character ‘ ( Goffman, 1963, pg 14 ) .
Peoples who encompass these physical or psychological Markss are frequently devalued and dehumanised which accordingly leads to their place within society being corrupted by the straitening effects of stigmatisation ( Goffman, 1963 ) . A definition that can be seen to embrace all facets alongside Goffman is offered by Miles ( 1981 ) cited in Brunton ( 1997 ) who says,
‘Societal reaction which singles out certain properties evaluates them as an unwanted and devalues the individuals who possess them. ‘ ( p. 892 )
The agony and loss of chances that seems to ever come manus in manus with a diagnosing of mental unwellness can be seen to be connected to the psychiatric symptoms that can be observed e.g. speaking to voices, the lessening in day-to-day operation, and the dip in a individuals societal operation in society ( Corrigan and Wassel, 2008 ) . However, the loss of chances and the individual with a mental unwellness devaluating their ain ego worth take topographic point for the ground of the stigma that surrounds mental unwellness ( Corrigan and Kleinlein, 2005 ) .
For the intents of this thesis ‘negative ‘ attitudes refers to discriminatory attitudes that are based on bias, stereotypes or inaccurate information. Stereotypes are steadfastly set opinions that are learnt throughout life and held steadfastly in our head ( Stier and Hinshaw, 2007 ) . They are know aparting positions or images related to members of peculiar groups ( Corrigan and Wassel, 2008 ) . Prejudice effects persons in an emotional mode ( Stier and Hinshaw, 2007 ) and occurs when people within society have the same sentiment about a peculiar stereotype and stick on this to a group of people doing negative intensions towards that peculiar group ( Corrigan and Wassel, 2008 ) . Then once more, Corrigan and Wassel ( 2008 ) province that discriminatory behavior can be seen as a direct consequence of bias. This involves a specific group being treated in a dissimilar manner taking to that group non being able to entree chances available to them or their rights being restricted ( Stier and Hinshaw, 2007 ) . Negative attitudes towards people with mental hurt may be manifested by physical and verbal maltreatment, jobs in the workplace or favoritism from people who provide services to people with a mental unwellness ( Mind, 2010 ) .
Negative attitudes are partially constructed in the linguistic communication we use to depict mental unwellness. Peoples with mental hurt are frequently being described in derogatory footings. For illustration, culprits of Acts of the Apostless of force are frequently described as ‘Lunatics, huffy individual ‘ ( Tudor, 1996 ) , ‘schizos, wackos, psychos, monsters, monsters and lunatic ‘ ( Twomley, 2007 ) . This makes a clear nexus between force and mental hurt, it must be acknowledged though that non everyone who is violent needfully has a mental unwellness. Angermeyer and Schulze ( 2001 ) suggest the general public position people with mental unwellness as eccentric, fear-provoking, unprompted, violent and lack self-discipline. From this, hence, it could be suggested that people who have a mental unwellness are perverts or have deviant behavior.
Becker ( 1963 ) defines aberrance as ‘any trait or behavior that was unnatural when compared to the mean population ‘ ( pg. ) . If mental unwellness is classed as pervert so how bad does person hold to move or act to be classed as pervert. This demonstrates that societal regulations that are made allow people to judge others as different or in this instance pervert ( Becker, 1963 ) . This is farther supported by Baumann ( 2007 ) who suggest that the person ‘s image of the universe is created by relatively changeless norms, rules and outlooks.
Angermeyer and Matschinger ( 2005 ) suggests a diagnosing of schizophrenic disorder has, peculiarly, been found to be stigmatising and linked with negative stereotypes such as force and dangerousness. This shows that by mental wellness being medicalised it is deeply unhelpful due to the diagnostic footings such as psychosis which can ‘shackle ‘ people to the mental wellness system ( Watkins, 2007 ) . In contrast Shepherd et Al ( 2008 ) depict the recovery theoretical account as taking ownership and duty for an unwellness and what can and ca n’t be done, concentrating on the strengths and issues instead than a diagnosing. This is a dependable beginning provided by the Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health. The recovery theoretical account will be discussed more in-depth in chapter three.
There is no uncertainty that the media plays a portion in reenforcing the attitudes towards mental wellness and mental unwellness. In mundane life the public come into contact with the media by newspapers, Television and wireless on a day-to-day footing. The manner people with a mental unwellness are viewed as unsafe can be seen to be fuelled by tabloid media promotion about ‘psycho-killers ‘ ( Tudor, 1996 ) . Examples of this are included in the appendix.
The study, Screening for lunacy, by Byrne ( 2009 ) reveals that films representations of people with experience of mental wellness jobs have become more harmful, he suggests that,
‘Mental wellness stereotypes have non changed over a century of film. If anything, the comedy is crueler and the crazed psycho killer even more diabolic. ‘ ( pg. 4 )
‘One flew over the Cuckoo ‘s Nest ‘ can be seen as the movie most remembered for picturing person with a mental unwellness moving queerly or violently ( mention ) . Even though this was released 35 old ages ago it shows the influence of film stereotypes on attitudes and how these can last coevalss. This is besides demonstrated with the recent movie ‘Batman-the Dark Knight ‘ picturing mental unwellness with force which more or less is based around the mental unwellness schizophrenic disorder ( Byrne, 2009 ) . This would propose that ignorance and deficiency of apprehension of mental unwellness are still really outstanding in society today.
It must be acknowledged there are some exclusions to this, of more recent movies that have portrayed a less sensational and more insightful image of mental unwellness. For case, ‘A Beautiful Mind ‘ , in 2002, depicted the true narrative of a maths mastermind who had a diagnosing of schizophrenic disorder, while ‘Shine ‘ , in 1996, was the narrative of a superb piano player who had a diagnosing of bipolar upset. Nevertheless, the more positive portraitures can stand for mental hurt as ‘exotic ‘ , ‘dramatic ‘ or ‘romantic ‘ in ways that bear small resemblance to real-life experience s ( Lott, 2006 ) .
Similarly, media portraitures of mental wellness have been far from blandishing and mostly sensationalized. A study undertaken in 2000 by MIND found that 73 % of people with mental wellness jobs felt that the coverage of mental wellness issues were unfair, biased and pessimistic ( MIND, 2000 cited in Rethink, 2006 ) .
In add-on a survey by Chopra and Doody ( 1997 ) looked at 98 newspaper articles and found there was no important difference in the portraiture of schizophrenic disorder. They did happen overall that 36.1 % of articles were negative in tone, 56.7 % were impersonal and 7.2 % were positive. The word ‘schizophrenic ‘ is frequently used in tabloid narratives in concurrence with violent events, someway proposing that the diagnosing can warrant why the force happened in the first topographic point ( Twomey, 2007 ) . In world, the individual who happens to hold a diagnosing of schizophrenic disorder may hold acted in such a manner due to taking illegal drugs or may hold a violent personality, we need to look at all facet of what led to a violent state of affairs go oning and non merely that person was mentally sick.
The media can frequently be seen to be responsible for stigmatising stereotypes of mental unwellness ( Byrne, 1997 ) , nevertheless, if the media was used to its possible it can dispute bias, enlighten and instigate treatments, assisting to cut down the stigma that is so frequently experienced by people with a mental unwellness ( Salter and Byrne, 2000 ) . It is still apparent through describing on mental wellness that a diagnosing of a mental unwellness is linked to force. There is nevertheless, some grounds of positive alteration where The Sun newspaper was made to take a headline of ‘Bonkers Bruno locked up ‘ which was describing on the sectioning of the pugilist frank Bruno under the Mental Health Act ( MIND, 2010 ) . In 2006, the Press Complaints Commission ( PCC ) published a codification of pattern, which banned the usage of stigmatizing linguistic communication around mental unwellness which reduced the usage of the footings such as ‘schizo ‘ and ‘nutter ‘ ( PCC, 2006 ) . This gives an illustration of merely how much the media has moved on over the old ages and that there are some schemes to forestall injury being done to people with mental wellness jobs.
Becker ( 1963 ) concludes that people who are mentally sick are blamed for things that happen in society therefore you would believe they would be punished or persecuted. It must be acknowledged that there are extended resources devoted to the benevolent attention and support of those with an digesting mental unwellness. Even though this is an old beginning it is relevant even today and evident how services are developing for people with mental wellness jobs. However, people enduring from a mental unwellness are still feared and excluded from society ( Becker, 1963 and Watkins, 2007 ) . When people have acute mental wellness jobs they can look to the populace to be scaring and exhibit odd behaviors which can frequently take to patrol engagement ( Taylor, 2008 ) . At such times they can perpetrate condemnable Acts of the Apostless, frequently get awaying prosecution due to their mental unwellness at the clip ( Arbors, 1998 ; Taylor, 2008 ) . Therefore, it could be argued that the public clasp these positions due to such illustrations where people are excused from their actions on the footing of some ‘supposed unwellness ‘ . It could be suggested that they should be held accountable for their actions as anyone else would be ( Bowers, 1998 ) . It can be argued that these attitudes towards mental unwellness can be seen in a direct analogue to racism ( Bowers, 1998 ) . So why do people go on demoing negative attitudes and positions towards mental wellness as much work has been done in assisting to battle racism, can the same non be done for people with mental unwellness.
Negative attitudes towards persons with mental unwellness is widespread and can be capable of making a important barrier to intervention ( Piner and Kahle, 1984 ) . It has been established that negative attitudes can be separately the most important obstructor to integrating of people with a mental unwellness in to society ( Piner and Kahle, 1984 ) . Negative attitudes towards mental wellness can act upon the way and consequence of their mental unwellness ( Bowers, 1998 ) . This can besides take to self-stigma which occurs when an person with a mental wellness unwellness internalizes the stigma and believes they are of less value ( Halter, 2004 ; Corrigan, 2007 ) . This may ensue in low self-worth, loss of self-respect, and lead to feelings of hopelessness ( Campbell and Deacon, 2006 ) . Peoples who experience a mental unwellness frequently see no potency for them to set about full clip employment due to internalising these negative attitudes that are held about the psychiatric system ( Watkins, 2007 ) . If we do n’t assist people retrieve from mental unwellnesss it is inevitable that it may go an abiding unwellness. An analogy given compares it to holding a broken leg ; if you do n’t rest it so it wo n’t mend decently, the same could be said for the head. Possibly if people were more positive towards mental wellness and mental unwellness so people with mental wellness jobs would be encouraged to boom in the community and non be seen as pervert. This is supported by Sayce ( 2000 ) who suggests that being portion of the societal foundations of the community is necessary for our psychological well being.
By and large most people would wish to believe they are compassionate and have inclusive attitudes towards people who experience a dislocation in their mental wellness ( Ross and Read, 2004 ) . Except, favoritism is still communicated in mundane societal state of affairss in subtly distancing, condescending exchanges, light-minded mentalities or obvious ill will go forthing people experiencing socially isolated ( Watkins, 2007 ) . This could be due to the fact that mental unwellness shows how delicate human nature is hence people’s/societies anxiousnesss and frights about mental wellness may be due to seeing the possible that any one of us could develop a mental wellness upset ( Becker, 1963 ) .
From my pattern to day of the month the undermentioned illustration truly brought place to me the degree of stigma and negative attitudes people have towards mental unwellness. When listening to an history from a service user it made me gain how public attitudes towards people with mental wellness troubles is still a large issue and a existent challenge for wellness attention professionals. Mary explained that when taking a cab to give a talk to pupils about life with mental unwellness she got speaking to the cab driver. At first he thought she was a lector but when she explained what she was traveling to make he became really quiet and stopped conversation with her. She found this a really nescient and closed manner of covering with the state of affairs and became rather upset about it.
Having examined the constructs of stigma, discussed the negative attitudes that the public clasp towards mental wellness and mental unwellness, suggested why they may hold adopted these positions and attitudes and addressed the media ‘s function in portraying these positions and prolonging these attitudes towards mental unwellness. It is now of import to pull some recommendations and challenges that can assist cut down the stigma of mental unwellness and advance a more positive image to members of the populace. These recommendations include instruction and public contact.
First, instruction of the public both at school and after ( Murphy et al 1993 ; Penn et Al 1994 ) about mental wellness and its prevalence among every one of us is truly of import. Education is widely approved for act uponing bias and favoritism ( Corrigan and Wassel, 2008 ) . Corrigan and Wassel ( 2008 ) inquire the of import inquiry,
‘If people had the right cognition or effectual job work outing accomplishments, would they be able to give up public stigma and manage associated concerns more straight? ‘ ( pg. 45 )
Education can bring forth little effects on attitudes ; unluckily, this sort of alteration in attitude is seen to non be maintained over clip ( Corrigan et al, 2001 ) . This demonstrates the demand to continually re-educate people to reenforce the message. Challenging the populace is most effectual when it targets people who often interact with persons with mental unwellness: landlords, employers, GPs, constabulary officers etc ( Corrigan and Wassel, 2008 ) .
Second, most significantly the media needs to follow with their codification of pattern ( 2006 ) . If something does look in the media that appears stigmatizing people should protest against it non accept it and repeat that it wo n’t be tolerated. As nurses we need to promote that positive things environing mental wellness of mental wellness are promoted in the media.
Last, the public need more contact with people who are sing mental wellness troubles. This type of contact can supply the most healthy and positive findings toward altering public stigma ( Penn et al,1994 ; Pettigrew and Tropp, 2000 ) . It can be something every bit little as person talking about their mental unwellness in a group state of affairs to colleagues larning of person get bying with a mental unwellness. The effectivity of using contact can be improved when the individual with a mental unwellness is seen by society as in the same societal category as them ( Gaertner et al, 1996 ) . In Link and Cullen ‘s ( 1986 ) survey they found people who had contact with person who had a mental unwellness showed much lower anxiousness around danger compared to those who had no contact. Murphy et Al ‘s ( 1993 ) survey contradicted this as they found holding contact with person with a mental unwellness did non impact on their attitude. However, they did set up that people who spoke of holding cognition of mental unwellness showed a reduced anxiousness and fright of mental unwellness.
Finally, the prevalence of mental unwellness in society can non be underestimated. As antecedently alluded to with 1 in 5 people enduring from a mental unwellness ( WHO, 2001 ) we can non afford to disregard the impact of stigma, all wellness attention professionals particularly nurses need to recommend for clients and work with others to advance and protect the wellness and well-being of those in their attention, their households and carers, and the wider community ( Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2008 ) .
Having discussed the positions and attitudes that the public clasp towards mental unwellness and those sing mental wellness troubles it is now of import, in the following chapter, to analyze the positions and attitudes of general nurses. Many will come into contact with people with mental wellness jobs peculiarly in accident and exigency ( a and vitamin E ) and a medical scene.