Determinants Of Customer Satisfaction In Airline Industry Tourism

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Customer satisfaction has been established as a psychological construct that involves the feeling of client ‘s wellbeing and pleasance which consequences from obtaining what he or she hopes for and expects from devouring an appealing merchandise and/or service ( Florian and Maren, 2007 ; Christian, 2005 ; Abraham and Taylor, 1999 ) . While different scholarly write-ups have confirmed assortment of attacks to the account of client satisfaction/dissatisfaction in selling, in a comprehensive work done by Abraham and Taylor ( 1999 ) , they developed nine distinguishable theories of client satisfaction: viz. anticipation disconfirmation ; assimilation or cognitive disagreement ; contrast ; assimilation-contrast ; equity ; ascription ; comparison-level ; generalized negativeness ; and value-precept ( Oh and Park, 1997 ) . Customer satisfaction and service quality have besides been confirmed to be critical issues in most service industries, and are even extremely of import for Airline service suppliers that offer by and large uniform merchandises. For illustration, in the air hose industry, the chief attack to distinction and the principal agencies by which one Airline can separate itself from another is service before and after gross revenues services ( Stafford et al, 1998 ) .

Otherwise, companies will be by and large unable to distinguish their services based on market offerings because Airlines offer state-mandated standardised products/services. The recent accent on service quality and client satisfaction in the Airline industry illustrates the increased importance Airlines are puting on client quality and satisfaction ( Halil et al, 2008 ) . As such, service quality measuring and client satisfaction are progressively going of import for service houses to remain in the concern ( Parasuraman et al. 1988 ) . And these service quality measurings processes differs across different industrial spheres, because the service director will account for the alone nature of services, while different service properties in each organisations are moving as determiners of client satisfaction because of the complex interrelatedness and dependableness that exist between them ( Fochen and Robert, 2003 ) .

Customer satisfaction, one of the cardinal selling aims, is closely linked to client trueness, the likeliness of recommendation to others, cross-buying behaviour ; up-grading and lower monetary value sensitiveness ( Anderson, 1994 ; Matzler, 2005 ; Reichheld and Sasser, 1990 ; Zeithaml, 2000 ) . Literatures like Kurt et Al ( 2006 ) , have explore the dimensionality of monetary value satisfaction as a agency to find client satisfaction. In their paper, they through empirical observation find that monetary value satisfaction is a complex concept consisting of several dimensions, i.e. price-quality ratio, monetary value equity, monetary value transparence, monetary value dependability and comparative monetary value. Their analyses of these dimensions are given as therefore ; monetary value transparence is defined as increasing entree to information, entree to more options, more simplified minutess, increasing communicating between clients and a general misgiving and bitterness among clients. They argued that as a effect, clients will progressively demand unfastened, honest and complete information on merchandises and monetary values.

Therefore, monetary value transparence can be considered as an of import facet of pricing policy. They concluded that monetary value transparence exists when the client can easy acquire a clear, comprehensive, current and effortless overview about a company ‘s quoted monetary values ( Matzler et al, 2006 ) . They besides explained that price-quality ratio is when the consumers ascribe value to a merchandise or service topic to their perceptual experience of two factors: perceived monetary value and sensed quality, or, in other words, the price-quality ratio. They defined client value as a cognition-based concept that captures any benefit-sacrifice disagreement. They said if perceived quality exceeds perceived costs, client value is high, if cost exceeds quality, client value is low. In their decision, they explained that the purchasers ‘ perceptual experiences of value represent a tradeoff between the qualities of benefits they perceive in the merchandise relation to the forfeit they perceive by paying the monetary value.

1.1 Background of the survey

The history of Saudi Airline could be traced to 1945 when the so US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt gave a Douglas DC-3 plane as a nominal gift to the so Saudi Arabia King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud. This event really marked the Muslim Kingdom ‘s gradual development in the civil air power industry. The Kingdom ‘s chief bearer Saudi Arabian Airlines was founded in September 1946, which is to the full owned and controlled by Saudi authorities under the control of the Ministry of Defense.

In add-on to the above development, the air hose took excess two bringing of Boeing 720s in 1962, giving it an chance to officially register its operations on 19 February 1963. This uninterrupted development has led into set uping the Kingdom ‘s air hose as one of the taking in the industry, particularly Asia in peculiar ( ) . In fact, Saudi Airline has been confirmed as the part ‘s second-largest air hose by turnover after the elephantine Emirates air hose ( ) . This is because Saudi air hose has continuously remained larger than the Qatar Airways in footings of its gross, and besides rated larger than the current fast turning air hose popularly called Etihad ( ) . But if measured by the Numberss of traffics in the part, the Saudi Arabian air hose will still be figure three behind the Qatar Airways and the Emirates ( ) .

Part of the statements in favor of Saudi air hose is that it is strategically located at the hamlets between Africa, Asia, and Europe and besides functioning as the largest state within the Arabian Peninsula ( ) . But really of import concerns among its transit stakeholders is how to maximise this external chance in concurrence with its current population of about 28 million people that are still depending on few rail web and air travels, an issue that have been argued as a critical constituent to the economic development of Saudi Arabia ( ) .

Following this tendency was why the Kingdom ‘s authorities encouraged the thought of strategically leting the in private owned low cost air hose rivals to equal with the Saudi Arabian Airlines both in the domestic and international markets ( ) . This enterprise from the authorities was later reciprocated by the private investors foremost through the constitution of NAS air hose in February 2007, and Sama air hose in Marh, 2007 both ab initio concentrating on assorted trucks paths within the state ( ) .

1.2 Research job

Due to inordinate subsidy of the conveyance system in Saudi Arabia, both the air and land conveyance sellers are strategically challenged on best attack to use in order to expeditiously get, service and retain profitable clients both within and outside the state ( ) . This issue of subsidised fuel monetary values does non except the Saudi Arabian air hose, but practicians have continuously argued in favor of the demand to take the menu cap so that sellers can handily vie without any fright of menu limitations ( ) . This and many more are the grounds that experts believe serves as the primary cause of Saudi Arabia air hose inability to strategically vie with other international air hoses like the Emirates and the Qatar Airlines ( ) .

Sequel to the above practical issues in Saudi Arabia air hose, several writers have argued that service quality can be a strong differentiating factor for any Airline that wants to hike up their market portions and net income place ( Halil et al, 2008 ; Fochen and Robert, 2003 ; Dennis et Al, 1993 ) . Besides really recent among the scholarly write-up on Airline Customer Satisfaction is Ekiz et Al. ( 2006 ) , that developed an option to SERVQUAL and called it AIRQUAL. They emphasized that this graduated table is to get the better of the psychometrical application of bing jobs in Airline Service Quality scales, as ab initio guided by Churchill ( 1979 ) and Parasuraman et Al. ( 1985, 1988 ) .

The findings of Ekiz et Al ( 2006 ) , through their AIRQUAL identified a graduated table of five distinguishable dimensions, i.e. ( air hose tangibles, terminal tangibles, forces, empathy, and image ) as a agency to successfully pull off and mensurate the quality perceptual experiences of air hose clients.

Although, it is confirmed that they successfully developed the AIRQUAL graduated table, but groundss from other bookmans shows that their findings failed to place the impact of Airline monetary value, solution quality, and employee occupation satisfaction on client satisfaction, because these variables have been proven to be really important in finding client trueness ( Dean, 2007 ; Kau and Loh, 2006 ; Schiffman and Kanuk, 2004 ) . Sing Ekiz et Al ( 2006 ) and other writers ‘ restriction and given the importance of these dimensions to the Airline industry, this proposed survey wishes to develop on the findings of Ekiz et Al. ‘s ( 2006 ) and other related literatures on Airline service quality and client satisfaction. And surveies like this will help in finding the true behavioural purposes of air hose clients in Saudi Arabia and the universe at big. This proposed research work has develop an extra variable ( Price ) with specific mention to literatures like Kurt et Al ( 2006 ) , which has explore the dimensionality of monetary value satisfaction as a agency to find client satisfaction. In their paper, they through empirical observation find that monetary value satisfaction is a complex concept consisting of several dimensions, i.e. price-quality ratio, monetary value equity, monetary value transparence, monetary value dependability and comparative monetary value. Besides service quality and employee satisfaction, another strong factor that has a direct bearing on a client ‘s satisfaction with a service supplier is the quality of the solution that the service supplier provides for the client ‘s concern job ( Whyte, Bytheway, and Edwards, 1997 ) . To accomplish the intended intent of this proposed survey, below is a proposed conceptual model for this research:

Monetary value

Customer Loyalty


Customer Satisfaction


Service/Product Quality


Solution Quality

Employee Satisfaction






1.3 Research Questions

The undermentioned inquiries are based on the issues discussed in the research job by analysing the patterns of Airline industry in order to happen out the impact of Price, Product/Service Quality, and Solution Quality on Customer satisfaction. These research inquiries are meant to acquire a feedback from Airline clients that patronize Saudi Airline and a comparable industry leader such as Singapore Airline on what really constitute their Satisfaction and trueness.

How does Price/Fare impact Customer satisfaction in Airline Industry?

How does Product/Service Quality affect Customer satisfaction in Airline Industry?

How does Employee Job Satisfaction impact Product/Service Quality in Airline Industry?

How does Employee Job Satisfaction affect Solution Quality in Airline Industry?

How does Solution Quality affect Customer satisfaction in Airline Industry?

How does Customer satisfaction affect Customer Retention in Airline Industry?

1.4 Research Aims

This primary aim of this survey is to set up the mutuality of Price perceptual experience, Service Quality, Employee Job Satisfaction and Solution Quality on client satisfaction and client trueness. To accomplish this, this survey plans to mensurate the impact of prosodies such as Price perceptual experience, Service Quality, Employee Job Satisfaction and Solution Quality on client ‘s satisfaction and trueness in the Airline industry. Equally included in the survey aim is to prove the mediating impact of client satisfaction on client trueness, an issue the research worker believes will strong aid in better understanding the mechanism that are behind the relationships between the ancestors and result of client satisfactions within the air hose industry. The theoretical model is based on market orientation attack as a agency to researching and set uping the relationship between Efficient Airline undertakings as the independent variable and client ‘s trueness as the dependant variable.

To simplify this, the research worker has designed the following aims to capture the research job and supply replies to the research inquiries.

To prove a theoretical account that can explicate the impact of Price, Service Quality, Employee Job Satisfaction and Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty.

Research nonsubjective 2:

To find the mediating effects of Customer Satisfaction on Customer Retention/Loyalty.

1.5 Scope of the survey

The focal point of this survey is to understand what facet of Airline operations determines Customer satisfaction. This research is limited to the Airline industry, where Saudi Arabia Airline and a prima Airline such as Singapore Airline will be selected for probe with a set of trying technique to research the determiners of client satisfaction and trueness.

The focal point of this research is limited to the air hose industry, where selected clients from the air hose industry will be investigated with a set of trying technique to research their perceptual experiences of the air hose services within touristry industry as a strategic portion of touristry selling.

The theoretical background of the research is base on market orientation attack and client satisfaction theories, while air hose Tourism will be study from the position of the clients. The research worker is be aftering to construction this research survey as a triangulated exploratory probe that will incorporate both qualitative and quantitative techniques, which will be chiefly based on an in-depth interview with directors and professionals from the Saudi Arabia air hose industry.

1.6 Significance of the research

Airline Industry has been chosen as the topic of this survey because it will help in placing those variables that determine client satisfaction and trueness. To the Airline industry, this proposed research work will help in set uping industry criterion and help the faculty members in developing alternate theories and theoretical accounts that will ease the general operations of the Airline Industry ( Halil et al, 2008 ; Fochen and Robert, 2003 ; Dennis et Al, 1993 ) .

Significance to the Academicians

Very of import to the faculty members on this research is the item geographic expeditions of the linkages that are between air hose operational procedures, service quality and modern-day client satisfaction theories. Arguably, the bing literatures have implied that there exist a relationship between air hose operation procedures and client satisfaction ( ) , but till day of the month there is really small published empirical research in this country that is looking at the impact of monetary value, solution quality and employee satisfaction on client satisfaction and trueness. In add-on to this, bing theoretical spreads have indicated that there is demand for the faculty members to further explore, analyze, explain and spread out the links between client satisfaction theories and air hose operation processes.

Given the aforesaid, this research will be chiefly lending to the faculty members through its conceptualisation and through empirical observation proving the impacts of air hose operational procedures like monetary value, service/product quality, employee occupation satisfaction and solution quality on client satisfaction and trueness within the air hose industry. Through the developments of a step that can find the impact of air hose operational procedures on client satisfaction and trueness will supply the empirical methods for the faculty members in better apprehension and able to foretell the existent relationship that is bing between service quality and client satisfaction theories within the air hose industry. Measuring the impact of monetary value will supply the cognition to find if addition or lessening in the monetary values of air hose services will take to better client satisfaction and improved client relationship public presentation or non.

Significance to the Practitioners

Airline direction and directors will profit by better understanding those factors that really influence the relationships that exist between their operation procedures and client satisfaction and purpose to buy back. In peculiar, air hose troughs will profit from their apprehension of how solution quality and monetary value can impact their relationship with the client, and how cardinal properties in air hose services can be developed and supported by operational procedures.

Both the HR and Production directors will profit how employee satisfaction can be of important impact to their service quality and solution quality, specifically through their apprehension of the cardinal relationships that exist between air hose operational procedures and their client relationship public presentations. The enhanced cognition though this research would a long manner assist the air hose direction decision-making procedures when they are measuring their client relationship public presentations.

In the concluding analysis, it is deserving adverting here that service quality can non be separated from the construct of client satisfaction. This is because the nature or features of the service has besides been found to act upon the comparative importance of the drivers of client satisfaction ( Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000 ) .

1.7 Proposed Methodology and informations aggregation procedure

Though there are many methods of roll uping informations via study. In this proposed research work, primary informations for the intending statistical analysis will be collected through questionnaire design among the selected Airline clients in Saudi Arabia. The research worker is be aftering to follow a 2nd qualitative measuring to confirm research findings and aid in the interpretations of the research consequences with the aid of the Airline Experts/Managers. The Unit of Analysis is who or what that is being studied in a given research. Evidences from the societal scientific discipline research have established a unit of analysis as an organisation, an person, a societal interaction or a group of organization/individual. Associating the above into this research, the unit of analysis are the Airline clients that will be surveyed.


Chapter one introduces the research subject “ determiners of client satisfaction in air hose industry ” and argues on the grounds for utilizing monetary value, service quality and solution quality, besides included in it were statement of the research job, the research inquiries, the research aims, range and restrictions of the survey and significance of the research.

Chapter two will specify the dimensions of service quality and offer the theoretical background of air hose selling through a series of literature reappraisals on touristry selling and client satisfaction. The theoretical background upon which the research worker plans to develop a theoretical model and hypothesis in signifier of sum-up will every bit be contained in chapter two.

Chapter three will present the research methodological analysis to be employed in this research, by supplying a elaborate qualitative and quantitative attack to be applied on each instance survey ; and besides contain the processs for the choice of each instance, informations aggregation and treatment of informations quality that will help to find the cogency of the research.

Chapter four will dwell of the descriptions and analyzes of the patterns of the air hose undertakings in Saudi air hose. The results of the findings on Saudi air hose will be presented for treatment in chapter five. While chapter six will analyse, discuss and do decisions sing the research inquiries and points to the theoretical part along with the managerial deductions contained in the research. Besides to be included in chapter six are the alternate recommendations as a way for future research.

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