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Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and robots and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. It is “the study and design of intelligent agents” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.”
Artificial intelligence is used for logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and many other areas throughout the technology industry. The success was due to several factors: the increasing computational power of computers, a greater emphasis on solving specific subproblems, the creation of new ties between AI and other fields working on similar problems, and a new commitment by researchers to solid mathematical methods and rigorous scientific standards.
Applications of AI Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery and toys.
Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties. In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition. Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation. Creative Virtual has deployed artificial intelligence customer support systems, or automated online assistants, at E*TRADE, HSBC, Intuit and Lloyds Banking Group, to assist financial services customers with services such as checking an account balance, signing up for a new credit card or retrieving a forgotten password.
A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules, make a staff rotation, and provide medical information. Robots have become common in many industries. They are often given jobs that are considered dangerous to humans.Robots have proven effective in jobs that are very repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse in concentration and other jobs which humans may find degrading. Artificial intelligence is implemented in automated online assistants, used in answering machines of call centres, such as speech recognition software to allow computers to handle first level of customer support, text mining. BT Group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling application that provides the work schedules of 20,000 engineers.
Various tools of artificial intelligence are also being widely deployed in homeland security, speech and text recognition, data mining, and e-mail spam filtering. Applications are also being developed for gesture recognition (understanding of sign language by machines), individual voice recognition, global voice recognition (from a variety of people in a noisy room), facial expression recognition for interpretation of emotion and non verbal cues. Other applications are robot navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object recognition.