Cross Cultural Communication – College
Cross Cultural Communication – College

Cross Cultural Communication – College

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1. Executive Summary
This study will dwell of the parts which are:
Critically analyse and measure the theoretical account of Hall’s High context civilization and Low context civilization and present the chief characteristics of them. Explain two states falling into High context civilization and Low context civilization. Analyse the AUDI’s functionary web site of concern communicating severally in South Korea and China which belongs to High context civilization. in Sweden and Canada which is portion of Low context civilization and demonstrates the public presentation of company. The information is provided in this study which came from academic diaries. newspapers. text editions and dependable web sites. Harmonizing to the analysis of Hall’s theoretical account. this study considers that this theoretical account is helpful for the cross-cultural communicating of different states. And based on the theoretical account. it provides some illustrations such as South Korea and China ( high context civilization ) and Sweden and Canada ( low context civilization ) to show the different look manner in different states which can lend to the cultural communicating of each state and do the characteristics of theoretical account more clearly. Then. this study proposes the AUDI as the instance to present the communicating manners of company in high and low context civilization and analyse detailedly the public presentations of its official web site in four states which are South Korea. China. Sweden and Canada. The successful development of AUDI in these four states besides certifies the effectivity and part of Hall’s theoretical account.

2. Introduction
2. 1 Aims

Critically evaluate and analyse the chief featur


es of high context and low context civilization theoretical account of Hall ( 1990 ) . Propose four states that two high-context civilization states ( China and South Korea ) and two low-context civilization states ( Sweden and Canada ) to analyze Hall’s high and low context civilization theoretical account ( 1990 ) . Show the illustration of concern communicating about Hall’s ( 1990 ) high context and low context civilization theoretical account. And illustrate the different communicating manners of AUDI’s functionary web sites severally in high context civilization state of South Korea and China and in low context civilization state of Sweden and Canada. Make the decision harmonizing to the above contents.

2. 2 High and low context theoretical account of civilization of Hall ( 1990 )

The celebrated American anthropologist Hall. harmonizing to truth and lucidity of people’s information transmittal and receiving in the procedure of communicating. puts frontward the analysis model of high and low context civilization. Hall ( 1976 ) thinks that “Context” is surrounded by the information of an event. and the “events” is to show the contents of communicating. the combination between them reflects the features of a civilization. Harmonizing to the different combination of “Context” and “Content” . the civilization can be divided into high context civilization and low context civilization.

3. Main Findingss

With the rapid development of economic globalisation. the nexus between states become more and more closely. Because different states have different cultural context. the cross-cultural communicating are emerging. which besides have some issues in the communicating ( Koeszegi. 2004 ) . Many bookmans have do some researc

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and analysis on the different civilization in the universe. this portion will present the Hall’s theoretical account of high and low cultural context detailedly and give some instances of different context civilization as below. 3. 1 Analyse the theoretical account of high and low cultural context of Hall

3. 1. 1
The Definition and Features of the High and Low cultural context theoretical account ( Hall. 1990 ) Hall ( 1976 ) thinks that the human communicating. including linguistic communication communicating will be affected by the context. Hall ( 1976. pp. 81-83 ) decidedly pointed out without context. symbols are uncomplete. because it merely contains a portion of the information. context does non hold the specific significance. but the significance of communicating frequently depends on the context. and significance is inextricably linked to context. Hall ( 1976 ) divided the context into high context and low context. The type of context determines all facets of the communicative activities. the usage of linguistic communication is no exclusion. It means that. in low context communicating. people more and more depend on usage linguistic communication to accomplish communicative intents. While in high context communicating. the function of linguistic communication usage may be much smaller. people are comparatively sensitive to the intimations of elusive environment. Most Asiatic civilizations such as: Chinese civilization. and civilization of South Korea and Africa civilization can be regarded every bit high context civilization. And the United States. Canada. Sweden and most Nordic civilization belongs to low context civilization ( Hall and Hall. 1990 ) .

In these two sorts of different civilizations. the function of the transportation significance on context and linguistic communication which is non the same. therefore the place and position of communicating is different. The characteristics of high context civilization are that in the procedure of communicating. after merely a few information is encoded by clearly conveying. people attaches great importance to the “context” instead than the “content” . and pay more attending to the constitution of the societal trust and extremely measure the relationship and friendly relationship. which can prolong a long relationship ( Moran. et Al. 2007 ) . Besides. communicating is inexplicit. people is really sensitive to these inexplicit information and early learns to accurately explicate the inexplicit information. The two sorts of communicating and information have certain advantages: high context civilization can break inherit the oriental righteousness and the humanistic spirit of the love with China as a representative. It is favourable to the harmoniousness of society and the stableness of direction ( Dozier. et Al. 1998 ) . Whilst low context civilization through the system the rigidness look achieve the standardisation of the order and direction better. The comparing of this two context culture’s characteristics is as follows in Table 1. Table 1: The comparing of the HC and LC Culture’s characteristics ( Lustig and Koester. 1999 )

High Context Culture

Low Context Culture
Implicit and Veiled Communication Way
Explicit and Direct Communication Way
Code Information
Clear Information
Some Differences between Internal and External
The Flexible Relationship between Internal and External
More Gestural Code
Detailed Verbal Code
High Committedness
Low Committedness
Strong Interpersonal Relationships
Estranged Interpersonal Relationships
Less Demonstrative Response
Demonstrative Response
Highly Flexible of Time
Highly Structured of Time
The above analysis

shows that the feature of HC and LC have big differences on civilization and communicating. Lustig and Koester ( 2001 ) points out HC civilization chiefly depends on the predetermined plan of people’s thought to convey information. such as many unwritten traditions. mute values and society by and large accepted forms of behaviour. And yet LC civilization. it emphasizes the ground and logic. which is on the footing of reason to infer with the decision to utilize the logical method. reassign information clearly through linguistic communication. and see the inexplicit look manner as ill-defined thought or deficiency of niceness. In the existent endeavor and societal direction. the two civilizations should be common incursion and merger. and complement each other. which help the endeavor to make the harmonious and efficient direction mechanism. and advance the harmonious development of society ( Ahmed. et Al. . 2009 ) .

3. 2 The compared analysis between South Korea. China and Sweden. Canada falling into each class

Each civilization is organizing in the long-run historical development procedure of accretion. And every civilization has its ain potency and unique. viz. the recessionary civilization. the recessionary civilization has the intangible influence to people. so to the success of cross-cultural communicating has more baleful ( Chua and Gudykunst. 1987 ) . The differentiation between high and low context civilization of Hall that is the overall sum-up to the features of different civilizations. particularly the characteristics of recessionary civilization. and to research their historical beginning and understand their features which is the necessary topic of cross-cultural communicating. Harmonizing to the research of Hall. South Korea and China belong to the high context civilization. while Sweden and Canada are biased towards the low context civilization.

3. 2. 1 The High Context Culture of South Korea

South Korea belongs to high context civilization state. because Kim. et Al. ( 1998 ) suggest that South Korea is influenced by traditional Chinese Confucianism. after many old ages of accretion of civilization. it has a similar background of China. and has formed a certain values. beliefs and codification of behavior. etc. . this is a long-run accretion of life. which has comparative stableness. Therefore. in the procedure of communicating of people in South Korea. a batch of information already contains the background information. and do non necessitate to explicitly expressed. they can to the full understand. this creates the more concealed interpersonal communicating in South Korea. In South Korea. people particularly pay attending to courtesy. and avoid naming name of each other straight in the communicating. In concern communicating. Avruch ( 2004 ) suggests that South Koreans prefer to utilize the un-opposite and indirect attitude. and linguistic communication scheme. the true significance of look frequently need to through concluding to understand. even if they do non hold with each other’s sentiments. they will non state “no” and seldom straight refuse or refute. sometimes they will besides utilize silence alternatively of rejection. Language is polite and veiled. which avoid clash straight. Due to the high context civilization. the unwritten look of the wooden people will acquire more trust in South Korea.

3. 2. 2 The High Context Culture of China


of tradition and history. China has become a typical high context civilization. Peoples live in a fixed topographic point for a long clip. the gait of life is orderly. In the long term. societal alteration is slow and amplitude is little. people’s life experience and web are really simple ( Kim. et Al. . 1998 ) .
The Chinese linguistic communication look is fuzzed and suggestive. much information is in the cultural intension. most of the information is non clearly expressed. which ever use the indirect and traffic circle look. the significance of the words normally exist in linguistic communication. this communicating manner both leave wriggle room for each other. and besides avoid loss of face. In add-on. the linguistic communication need non be the chief channels of information in the China. the gestures. infinite distance and even silence can besides convey thoughts and pass on the feelings. Therefore. Chinese people are more sensitive to the things around and environment. make non through linguistic communication can besides show their feelings. As Hall ( 1976 ) pointed out: “high context civilization is more dependent on and familiar with gestural communicating. ” In high context civilization. through the surrounding environment. people can derive a batch of information. there is no demand to uncover everything. In China. for illustration. such as the sentence of “I love you” which show the word of like. they rarely speak out straight. because this information has transmitted from the context.

3. 2. 3 The Low Context Culture of Sweden

While the civilization of Sweden is the antonym. which is a portion of low context civilization. They do non like Chinese and Koreans in order to take into consideration the feelings of others. to show their thoughts euphemistically. They will straight demo their attitude ( Niemeier et al. 1998 ) . In Sweden. people are articulate and normally good at verbal look that will more popular. In the procedure of concern communicating. the struggle does non intend that their dissatisfaction. which will reflects their ain ideas. they think when face the dissension. clearly tell their thoughts can be better for work outing the job. In add-on. dialogues between companies in Sweden. they will straight into the subject. and complete the scheduled docket rapidly. which hope to divide work and play to the full. accomplish the trade every bit shortly as possible ( Jarvenpaa. et Al. . 1999 ) . And the Swede is a representative of the additive construct of clip. who pursue the velocity and efficiency. they asked to make anything in conformity with the agenda purely. their work wonts are that to transport out the dialogues in order. and after make certain the involved issues clearly. so measure by measure to work out. the first footings does non wholly solve they will non negociate the 2nd. While in same meeting negotiates a few issues in China which is really normal. which reflect the differences between high context and low context civilization.

3. 2. 4 The Low Context Culture of Canada

Canada besides belongs to moo context civilization. which emphasize straightforward. and come heterosexual to the inquiry when they are in procedure

of communicating. all the information demand to be conveyed with the clear and easy words by linguistic communication. and frequently have no concealed significance between the lines of words. the Canadians willing to bluffly show their positions ( Hall and Hall. 1990 ) . In the procedure of concern communicating. Canadians normally energetic and surpassing. who like the direct honorable manner of dialogues. the look has evidently transactional and economic. In the procedure of dialogue. they sought to clear up their ain point of position. who utilize the simple and clear linguistic communication to show the thought. they think that statement is non merely the rights of showing the single sentiment. but besides can work out the job. but this sort of pattern for states that have high context civilization is difficult to accept. which think Canadians are really aggressive. In the eyes of Canadians. they believe that silence is impolite behaviour ( Salleh. 2005 ) . 3. 3 The failings of Hall’s high and low context theoretical account of civilization ( 1990 ) However. though the theoretical account of Hall’s high context and low context civilization has made great accomplishment on the analysis of national civilization. and besides provides mention for many bookmans to assist them to research the universe civilization. It still has some failings in this theoretical account. Hall merely proposes that the construct and characteristics of high and low context civilization. which does non supply the incorporate system and detailed informations to show his statement. and he does non sort all the states. therefore doing the fuzzed categorization of some states. Some bookmans such as Hofstede’s ( 2008 ) Individualism vs. Collectivism Dimension. Trompenaars’s ( 1998 ) Seven Dimensions of Culture. GLOBE writers ( House et Al. . 2004 ) . etc. which will hold more groundss to reason the high and low context civilization. which prove the disadvantages of Hall’s theoretical account. Kramsch ( 1993 ) proposes that high context civilization frequently has excessively much accent on the human feelings. by regulation of people alternatively of the legal system. which frequently lack of efficiency on operation. While low context civilization stress on the reason. and autumn into the mechanical and stiff in the procedure of executing.

3. 4 The Cases of Business Communication on High Context Culture and Low Context Culture of Hall

Harmonizing to the above analysis and critically measure of Hall’s high and low context theoretical account. this study will supply the illustration of concern communicating such as AUDI’s functionary web site in different states which are South Korea and China ( high context civilization ) and Sweden and Canada ( low context civilization ) as below. AUDI is the universe celebrated luxury auto trade name. and is besides one of the world’s most successful trade names in Germany which sells all over the universe. As following. this study will exemplify the different public presentation of AUDI’s functionary web site in different states of high and low context civilization.

3. 4. 1 AUDI in China

When opening the official web site of AUDI in China as show in Appendix of Figure 1. on the background of ruddy

leap into the position of consumers. because this is the Chinese Spring Festival late. the ruddy represents the good luck and the best wants. which brings the Chinese clients to the impact on the vision. The signifiers of image is rendered on dynamic and the 2nd image ( see Appendix of Figure 2 ) reflects the activity of valentine’s twenty-four hours which is to purchase a auto to show the epicurean gift. the text on the image is that ‘ their vacation is a twenty-four hours. every twenty-four hours of your vacation is youth ‘ . the company uses the reserved words to show that AUDI’s supply the activity of showing the gifts when the clients purchase the auto. instead than straight show the activity content ( AUDI. n. d. ) . Because Chinese people can happen deeper significance in the procedure of watching images. and it besides embodies that the communicating type of AUDI in high context civilization of China. In add-on. the AUDI in China’s functionary web site usage more gorgeous and colourful images. which besides reflects the Chinese wage attending to the ocular enjoyment and feeling in the procedure of cultural communicating.

3. 4. 2 AUDI in Sweden

Compared with the concern communicating of AUDI in China. Sweden as the low context civilization state. the official web site of AUDI provides more compact words and individual colour of image ( AUDI. n. d. ) . which do non like the image in China web site which has the ruddy background. it chiefly has the colour of black and white ( see the Figure 3 in Appendix ) . Each image has the nexus to reassign another page which has long paragraph to present the auto in item ( see the Figure 4 in Appendix ) . This besides reflects that the AUDI harmonizing to the low context civilization of Sweden to implement the particular concern communicating. It is different from South Korea and China. the place page of AUDI in Sweden use the simple words and individual colour images to show the clear information about the public presentation and type of auto. which satisfy the demand of low context civilization in Sweden because in the concern communicating. Swedish prefers to take the direct information of auto to assist them to happen the new merchandise.

3. 4. 3 AUDI in South Korea

The official web site of AUDI in South Korea is similar with the design manner of AUDI in China. Because South Korea besides belongs to the high context civilization. the manner of web site is simple and crisp. there are small words to adorn the images. When unfastened the AUDI’s functionary web site in South Korea. it is the advertisement picture about “The New Audi A3 Sedan” . advertisement is non straight show the car’s public presentation and engineering. merely utilizing the vivid images and inexplicit text which is “it alterations everything” to do the metaphor of the perfect public presentation of the auto. and will allow the client to love it ( AUDI. n. d. ) . Because South Koreans are besides high context civilization. Korean clients can easy

understand the significance of advertizement. Besides. while shoping the web. the client will happen that every image below has the button which can be straight connected to Facebook. Twitter and YouTube ( see Figure 5 in Appendix ) . It is convenient for clients to seek and portion the interesting picture content. it besides can assist company for indirect propaganda and increase the pleasance of Korean consumers ( Wurtz. 2005 ) . All design of website nowadayss a fantastic and elaborate content. this is because the Korean tends to show their ain information to the others in the procedure of communicating. and they besides hope that to hold on more information easy through their ain apprehension. which reflects the characteristics of high context civilization.

3. 4. 4 AUDI in Canada

When shoping the place page of AUDI in Canada. the design of web page is simple and clear. ( see the Figure 6 in Appendix ) . Although there are four turn overing images in automatic replacing. but the contents on the image are besides really compact ( AUDI. n. d. ) . Equally good as to present the AUDI’s new auto which is “The New AUDI A3 Sedan” . on the South Korea web site is an advertisement movie and suggestive words to show. while in Canada web site which is the promotion images of the auto and compose the sentence straight on the image which is “The all – New 2015 A3 Sedan is coming “ . ( see the Figure 7 in Appendix ) . This is associated with the civilization of Canada. because Canada is portion of low context civilization state. when they make concern communicating. Canadians prefer straightforward manner to show their sentiments. that is the ground why the website information of AUDI in Canada is merely about the direct debut. The colour of the website design is really individual ( AUDI. n. d. ) . but each propaganda of image has a nexus to analyze the item about the information of merchandise. which to assist clients to understand the public presentation of the auto better. It conforms the simple and direct cultural factors of Canada.

4. Decisions

This study is as the purpose of cross-cultural communicating to discourse the high context civilization and low context civilization theoretical account of Hall. First. this study defines and explains the Hall’s high and low context civilization and its characteristics. Then. based on the traits of theoretical account. it gives some instances of states such as South Korea and China which belongs to high context civilization and Sweden and Canada which are the representative of low context civilization and besides introduce their communicating manner that prove the practicableness of Hall’s theoretical account. Furthermore. although the theoretical account has more part to the research of cross-cultural communicating. on the footing of the research of some bookmans. some failings of this theoretical account will be reported. In order to recognize different concern communicating in different states. this study provides the public presentations of AUDI’s functionary web site in South Korea. China. Sweden and Canada. which severally belongs to high context civilization and low context

civilization. In AUDI’s functionary web site. it clearly shows that in South Korea and China. the website reflects the high context civilization which utilizes more the peal images and the simple words to demo the important activities of company which can reflect the AUDI’s excellent services. While in Sweden and Canada. the communicating manner of AUDI’s functionary web site is simple and brief. and straight put the public presentation of autos on the images. which embody the concern communicating of AUDI in low context civilization state. The success of AUDI incarnates the handiness of Hall’s theoretical account.

5. Mentions
Ahmed. T. . et Al. ( 2009 ) Website design guidelines: High power distance and high-context civilization. International Journal of Cyber Society and Education. 2 ( 1 ) . 47-60. AUDI. ( n. vitamin D ) AUDI in China. [ WWW ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. audi. cn/cn/brand/zh. hypertext markup language. [ Accessed 15/02/2014 ] . AUDI. ( n. vitamin D ) AUDI in Canada. [ WWW ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. audi. ca/ca/brand/en. hypertext markup language. [ Accessed 15/02/2014 ] . AUDI. ( n. vitamin D ) AUDI in South Korea. [ WWW ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. audi. co. kr/kr/brand/kn. hypertext markup language. [ Accessed 15/02/2014 ] . AUDI. ( n. vitamin D ) AUDI in Sweden [ WWW ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. audi. se/se/brand/sv. hypertext markup language. [ Accessed 15/02/2014 ] . Avruch. K. ( 2004 ) . Culture as context. civilization as communicating: Considerations for human-centered negotiants. Harv. Negot. L. Rev. . 9. 391. Chua. E. G. and Gudykunst. W. B. ( 1987 ) Conflict declaration manners in low-and high-context civilizations. Communication Research Reports. 4 ( 1 ) . Dozier. J. B. . et Al. ( 1998 ) Need for blessing in low-context and high-context civilizations: A communications attack to cross-cultural moralss. Teaching Business Ethical motives. 2 ( 2 ) . 111-125. Hall. E. ( 1976 ) Beyond civilization. New York: Doubleday. 1976. p. 101. Hall. E. . & A ; Hall. M. ( 1990 ) Understanding cultural differences: Germans. Gallic and Americans. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press. Hofstede. G. ( 2008 ) Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Valuess. Behaviors. Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks. California. House. R. . et Al. ( 2004 ) Culture. Leadership. and Organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Jarvenpaa. S. L. . et Al. ( 1999 ) Consumer trust in an Internet shop: A cross?cultural proof. Journal of Computer?Mediated Communication. 5 ( 2 ) . 0-0. Kim. D. . et Al. ( 1998 ) High?versus low?Context civilization: A comparing of Chinese. Korean. and American civilizations. Psychology & A ; Marketing. 15 ( 6 ) . 507-521. Kramsch. C. ( 1993 ) Context and civilization in linguistic communication instruction. Oxford University Press. Koeszegi. S. . et Al. ( 2004 ) National cultural differences in the usage and perceptual experience of internet-based NSS: does high or low context affair? . International Negotiation. 9 ( 1 ) . 79-109. Lustig. M. W. and Koester. J. ( 1999 ) Interpersonal competency: Interpersonal communications across civilizations. Moran. R. T. . et Al.

( 2007 ) Pull offing cultural differences. Routledge. Niemeier. S. . etc. ( 1998 ) The cultural
context in concern communicating. John Benjamins Publishing. Salleh. L. M. ( 2005 ) . High/low context communicating: the Malayan Malay manner. In Proceedings of the 2005 Association for Business Communication Annual Convention ( pp. 1-11 ) . Association for Business Communication. Trompenaars. F. ( 1998 ) Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diverseness in Global Business. McGraw Hill. New York. 1998.

Wurtz. E. ( 2005 ) . A cross-cultural analysis of web sites from high-context civilizations and low-context civilizations. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 11 ( 1 ) . article-13.

6. Appendix
Figure 1: AUDI China

Figure 2: AUDI China

Figure 3: AUDI Sweden

Figure4: AUDI Sweden

Figure 5: AUDI South Korea

Figure 6: AUDI Canada

Figure 7: AUDI Canada