Volunteer Tourism In The US National Parks System

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Volunteer touristry has been increasing in the recent yesteryear and many persons are choosing to prosecuting in this from of touristry and many of these persons are motivated bay assorted factors including selfless benefits and deducing a alone satisfying experience coupe with new accomplishment every bit good as profiting the host communities in one manner or the other. Volunteer touristry is vied as an alterative of touristry that provides a more mutual from of travel that ensures that both the voluntaries every bit good as the host communities benefit from the experience. This research intend to demo that take parting in voluntary touristry is as consequence of assorted actuating factors that are specific to a group of persons which are directed towards gaining of experiences both on civilization of the host communities and the environment.

This range paper besides targets at deriving a deeper apprehension on the benefits that volunteer touristry output to the stakeholders that are involved in the activities of voluntourism while at same clip seeking to cognize whether the activity is a sustainable signifier of touristry or non. The survey will utilize questionnaires, interviews and secondary beginnings in garnering the needed information for the survey. The information obtained will so be analyzed utilizing logical arrested development and statistical bundle for societal surveies. The consequences will be presented utilizing tabular arraies, figures and graphs.


Volunteer touristry is going an progressively popular activity affecting combination of travel with voluntary work. The activity attracts persons who seek a tourer experience which is reciprocally good lending non merely to personal development but besides contribute straight and positively to the societal, natural and economic environments they participate in. hence unpaid touristry is viewed to supply a more in return good signifier of going that ensures that both the voluntary and the host community additions from the experience.

It could be easy assumed that the increasing popularity of the voluntary touristry may stand for a displacement towards a more responsible signifier of touristry every bit good a contemplation of an increasing from of planetary people and harmonizing to Wearing ( 2004 ) volunteer touristry can be seen as the best pattern in touristry a sits sustainable and focuses on tourer part to the host communities. It potentially helps convey support and enthusiastic labour and thoughts every bit good as accomplishments to of import undertakings in the host communities. Therefore volunteer touristry leads to improved transverse cultural apprehension, increased environmental consciousness and improved common apprehension while giving the tourer an chance to hold an reliable experience of the host communities therefore deriving valuable accomplishments and development their sense of ego bettering the future employment chances.

However on the other manus there has been turning concerns both in the academe and the media refering the negative impacts on the stakeholders involved in voluntary touristry is such activity is non carefully developed, planned and managed. Benefits are derived from carefully developed, planned and managed plans without which a questionable abilities of such activities to truly lending to the voluntaries and the host communities. Most attempts have been targeted at advancing benefits for the voluntary but small has been done to heightening benefits to the host communities therefore ensuing to highlighted jobs environing voluntary touristry.

This research paper will therefore behavior a research to place assorted factors that motivate single to take parting in voluntary touristry. In add-on to that the survey will besides place assorted benefits that the host communities gain from prosecuting in voluntary touristry and eventually place factors that can be used to find whether the activity is sustainable house of touristry or non. Therefore this survey is intended in giving an in-depth analysis on the incentives of voluntary touristry, benefit sot the host community and eventually on its sustainability.

Research Questions

This research paper will be expected to give elaborate replies sing the motivation factors that encourages volunteer tourer to take portion in voluntary touristry, the benefits that the host communities of voluntary touristry get from the activity and eventually if the activities carried out by voluntary touristry are sustainable in nature. The research inquiries are:

What are the actuating factors that make voluntary tourers to acquire engaged in voluntary touristry?

What the chief benefits that the host communities derive from the activities ensuing from voluntary touristry?

Is unpaid touristry sustainable?

Statement of the Hypothesis

The hypotheses of the research are:

Holmium: Specific factors motivate persons to prosecute in voluntourism.

Holmium: Volunteer touristry benefits the host communities.

Holmium: Voluntourism is sustainable signifier of touristry.

Literature Review

Volunteer touristry is a signifier of travel that includes volunteering of both clip and attempt that is directed for a charitable cause. Harmonizing to Kristen Lamoureux it ‘s frequently a good manner for advancing intercultural communicating as a consequence of its direct interaction between the tourers and the local community. In unpaid touristry voluntary for redevelopment undertakings that helps better the lives of other people everyplace and the voluntary activities range from assisting patients in infirmaries to learning music ( Brown & A ; Lehto, 2005 ) .

This phenomenon of touristry has been turning quickly and people are going more involved in developing states where they spend most of their holidaies in doing some important parts to the deprived people in the society. This has given birth to volunteer touristry in which tourers harmonizing to Voluntism.org hold the purpose of holding a holistic experience that incorporates voluntary service i.e. giving back to the tourer finishs good as its occupants in some manner and the traditional elements of touristry and travel.

Volunteer touristry is besides termed as voluntourism and harmonizing to surveies is turning quickly. Most advocates of this sort of touristry argue that any individual from any walks of life can literary be involved in voluntary touristry and that more than 50 five million Americans have participated in voluntary touristry at some degree I their lives. Harmonizing to Travel Association of America sturdy carried out in 2007 proves such figures to be amazing as it found out that when over hundred million more people said that they would be interested in prosecuting in such sort of touristry activity and the bulk were interested in volunteering and going ( Daniels, Bowen, & A ; Norman, 2008 ) .

There are several grounds or motives that research as yielded refering why people engage in voluntary touristry. Harmonizing to Wearing ( 2001 ) there are several grounds that are frequently widely cited as motives for voluntary based travel and the include selflessness, travel and escapade, personal growing, cultural exchange and acquisition, professional development, right clip and topographic point and eventually the single scheduling. In add-on to intertwine the travel industry association of America ( 2007 ) besides found and array of grounds why persons participate in volunteerism but the largely often cited incentive cited around a desire to ‘doing something good ‘ . Brown and Lehto ( 2005 ) argue that the selfless image of the voluntary touristry is amore complicated procedure which is frequently mediated by marketing messages ( The Voluntourism Forum, 2007 ) .

Harmonizing to their research they identify two types of voluntary tourers which include the ‘volunteer minded ‘ tourers and the ‘vacation minded ‘ tourers. The class of voluntary tourers falling under the ‘volunteer minded, tourer normally seeks out chances that tend to back up their selfless inclinations while those travellers who fall under the 2nd class of ‘vacation minded ‘ tourers chose their volunteering locations establishing on advertisement every bit good as promotional stuffs ( Simpson, 2005 ) . The two mentalities of volunteerism must be kept in head any research worker as the motivations, values every bit good as determinations doing attacks of each class. In add-on to that forehead and Lehto besides recommend stat more significant research is needed to be conducted in the declared country particularly in seeking to understanding the dimensions of motives every bit good as the profiting factors of the voluntary touristry and the interplay of mass touristry motivations and the voluntary motivations ( Bowen, 2008 ) .

Most of the recent tendencies indicates that there has been an outgrowth of a more witting class of tourers who cab be best described as holding consideration when it comes to environmental issues particularly when doing travel related determinations. Most of the witting tourers seek experiences with lesser environmental impact and chances to lend work every bit good s clip to environmental attempts. Volunteer touristry as I the recent academic literature been identified as distinguishable Castor of touristry that has experienced a rapid growing with a sum of 1.6 million voluntary tourers lending to 1.6 to 2.6 billion dollars ( Simpson, 2007 ) . The rapid growing in the sector of voluntary touristry has made it a focal point for most research plans in the recent yesteryear.

Volunteer tourers are chiefly motivated by the selfless component but by and large tourist satisfaction depends on the presence of the undermentioned elements: holding merriment, sing new things, the chance for cognition /skill and lending to worthwhile undertakings.

In the yesteryear it has been realized that the activities of voluntary tourers have a considerable impacts on the tourer finishs non merely in footings of the fees paid but besides sing the fact that most tourers spend much of their clip and big sums of money in support of their entire travel programs ( Wearing, 2004 ) .

Harmonizing to voluntourism.org the voluntary touristry seeks attempts in supplying resources that are frequently directed towards the community every bit good as the demands that are identified as important for development and includes thoughts, values every bit good as aspirations intended to chief the universe a better topographic point. Therefore such signifier of touristry concerns itself with actioning the touristry activities in back uping and heightening the local community ( Wearing, 2001 ) . Volunteer touristry ahs been identified to supply several benefits to the tourer finish and some of these benefits include the followers: first is the enabling and geographic expedition of ways that promote sustainability of touristry while extinguishing the negative effects.

Another benefit is the alliance of its activities with the broad scope of values and behaviors as compared to mainstream touristry hence can be seen as an attack to touristry that move beyond the mainstream type and deeper into thoughts that supports general volunteering and engages in undertakings that serve to profiting the host community every bit good as the planetary community ( Zahra, & A ; McIntosh, 2006 ) .

Finally unpaid touristry as been found to assisting in heightening the supportive facets of voluntary touristry while relieving the negative 1s particularly through careful analysis, organisational planning which is normally based upon the alone local communities which vary with different host communities and tourer finishs.

On the other manus there are some emerging ethical concerns as it regard to impacts of voluntary touristry on the tourer finishs. Some groups suggest that the activity can ensue to more injury than good particularly when one considers the ways in which voluntary work can be misdirected and organized more to benefits the untrained travellers instead the receivers of the attempts ( Jacobsen, 2000 ) . Therefore the recommendations of careful and luxuriant direction sing development, planning and rating of voluntary plans such that sustainable from of voluntary touristry is promoted that is able to at the same time run into the demands of the voluntary tourer, the host communities every bit good as the voluntary tourer organisations and bureaus.

Methods and Methodology

The research will be fundamentally seeking replies that answer the inquiry on the motivation factors that encourages assorted persons to take portion in the voluntary touristry or travel. The survey will seek to happen out what truly motivates the voluntourism in assorted tourer finishs. In add-on to that it will besides seek to set up whether the activities of voluntourism benefit those who take portion in it or non ( Wearing, 2001 ) . Finally it besides tries to come up with decision sing the sustainability of the voluntourism in the tourer finishs.

The research will use assorted methods of informations aggregation that are expected to give the necessary information that will enable a successful research procedure. The methods to be used in the research will be selected based on the nature of the survey to be conducted.

The survey will integrate two chief methodological analysiss of research i.e. the qualitative research methodological analysis every bit good as the quantitative methodological analysis that will follow a figure of informations aggregation techniques intended to guarantee that the needed informations and information is captured good. The informations obtained should be able to be used in a successful devising of dependable illations, recommendations and decisions from the research. The information obtained and analyzed from the research will so be presented utilizing tabular arraies, charts every bit good as graphs. The analysis of the informations will be done utilizing the non parametric statistics.

Research Design

The design of the research will affect a survey based on the usage of both the qualitative and the quantitative research attacks which harmonizing to Yu & A ; Cooper, ( 1983 ) will enable the research to be broader in nature of coverage therefore guaranting that all the demands of the research subject are covered comprehensibly. The design to be used in the survey is the controlled randomised design that will guarantee that specific interviewees from different tourer finishs are studied and that diversified information sing the incentives of the voluntourism for the tourers and if the host communities benefits from the activity is obtained. This design is the best 1 because if good executed it will be capable of giving a great trade of informations that is required in doing the research successful in turn toing all the research inquiries and the accurate testing of the research hypotheses.

Population Study

The population to be studied during the research includes voluntourists in the host communities every bit good as the community members shacking in countries sing services offered by the voluntourists. The population of involvement is the tourers that are presently involved in voluntourism and civic leaders of the host community who can be trusted to give dependable information sing the impacts of the voluntourism in their several communities.

Sampling Design

Sampling schemes that will be used to obtain the sample population includes the followers: random trying graded random sampling and careful biased trying. Use of random trying scheme ensures that a group of the full population of people engaged in voluntourism is selected as representative the full population in the research survey that is being conducted.

Careful biased sampling will besides be used to guarantee that specific persons particularly active voluntourists and civic leaders who have been in office for more than a twelvemonth are identified to assist supply certain information that can non be adequately provided by rest member of the host community. Graded random sampling will be used to subdivide or separate between persons who have either straight or indirectly been involved in voluntourism.

Data Collection Methods

The information required for an in-depth position of the issue of the actuating factors of voluntary touristry and the benefits it has in the host communities will be obtained through the perusing of both the secondary and the primary beginnings of informations.

Primary Beginnings

The primary beginnings of informations aggregation to be used in the research depending on where they will be most applicable includes: interviews, observations and questionnaires. Interviews are chosen because when the research is conducted it provides a direct contact with the interviewee hence chances of obtaining first manus information is high. In this method both the interviewer and the interviewee are in a place to clear up on issues refering the research being undertaken hence, research worker is able to obtain information which is good elaborated and dependable. The method is besides a flexible information aggregation tool as inquiries that are non clearly understood by the by the interviewee will be rephrased by the interviewer to heighten communicating procedure. In add-on to that utilizing the interview as a tool for informations aggregation allows the interviewer a opportunity to larn about things and facts that can non be observed straight in the field and eventually it offers the internal point of views of the issue hence complementing the outward behaviours of the interviewee.

Despite the advantages of the interview tool mentioned above, harmonizing to Cohen & A ; Manion, ( 1996 ) it ‘s a slow method because the procedure calls for interview of one individual at a clip, can non to the full trace events and tendencies that occurred in the past concerning instability in the part this is attributed to the fact that the respondents ‘ memory and keeping is deemed to be selective, in that those incidences that tend to revoke bad tend to be forgotten and non mentioned lest remorsefulness arises. It is besides an expensive tool that is capable to respondent and interviewer prejudice ( Benson, 1946 ) .

Questionnaires will besides be used to roll up the relevant information. Questionnaires are distributed to the respondents in the field sooner in the in working countries and to be collected subsequently at an in agreement day of the month. Harmonizing to Beiske, ( 2002 ) questionnaire covers a big population at clip as they would be distributed to different participants at a clip and be collected subsequently or at the same twenty-four hours depending on the willingness of the responded, due to it being standardized they are more nonsubjective, informations collected from questionnaire are easy to analyse, due to acquaintance with the tool, responded will non be discerning, it is besides really cost effectual tool of roll uping informations every bit compared to the face to confront interviews, the tool besides reduces prejudice ( Patton, 2002 ) .

Harmonizing to Cohen & A ; Manion, ( 1996 ) the major job with this tool is the inclination of respondents to bury critical information, respondents may reply the inquiries superficially particularly the long 1s therefore to counter this short inquiries are developed for the survey. A short but really inclusive questionnaire due to standardization provides no room for account incase respondents misinterpret or make non understand the inquiries. Observation tool was besides used to roll up informations in the field.

Secondary Beginnings

Materials from the library, cyberspace and related research studies will be used to supply the needed informations and information during the survey. Internal beginnings to be kind after include information compiled by the assorted organisations, governmental every bit good as academic establishments sing the voluntourism, actuating factors, sustainability and the impacts on the tourer finishs. External information beginnings to be used include: the authorities beginnings, old research surveies from academic establishments like colleges and universities.

Data Analysis and Presentation

Data will be analyzed utilizing non parametric statistics. The gathered information will be filtered to clean it, patterning and transmutation will be done in a manner that will expose utile information that will assist in drawing of decisions and recommendations, and so codification follows. Descriptive statistics will besides be employed in analysing the information. T-test will be used to prove the research hypothesis and the research inquiries ( Patton, 2002 ) .

To happen out the important issues in the survey ; ranking of the issues i.e. from the most important one to the less important one will be done establishing them on their significance in replying the research inquiries. A principle constituent analysis will be carried out on the informations obtained from the field. Logical arrested development and correlativity analysis will besides be done to see the relationship between the benefits and negative effects of voluntourism on the stakeholders involved. The consequence of the survey will so be presented utilizing tabular arraies, graphs and charts.

Questionnaire Guide

The paper develops a questionnaire and interview usher to assist roll up informations for my thesis subject, “ Volunteer Tourism in the US National Parks system ” . These Questionnaire usher

will guarantee that I am ever on path, helps in guaranting that the of import issues are addressed, the usher besides gives a model and a systematic mode for inquiring inquiries, eventually, it help in care of consistence although the procedure with assorted interviewees ( Patton, 2002 ) .


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Male Female

Are you

Employed Unemployed Student Self employed

In your sentiment, how popular is unpaid touristry in your community?

Highly popular

Reasonably popular


Ill popular

How good is the voluntary touristry in your community?

Very good Beneficial Not good

Are you cognizant of the voluntary touristry in your community?

Yes No

If yes how did you acquire to cognize about it?

From the tourers

From friends

From media

From relations

On the footing of your response in inquiry 6, do you cognize what actuate single to prosecute in voluntary touristry?

Yes No

Mention the assorted factors that you think actuate voluntary touristry?

Have you of all time engaged yourself in voluntary touristry activities?

Yes No

If yes in inquiry 11, within which clip span was it done?

The last 2 hebdomads

The last 1 month

The last 6 months

The last 1 twelvemonth

The last 2+ old ages

Establishing on your demands, have the voluntary touristry benefited you in nay manner?

Yes No

From your response in inquiry 13, provide possible benefits.

From your ain sentiment, what do you state about the voluntary touristry in your community, is it sustainable or non?

Provide possible grounds why you take yes or no in inquiry 14 above.

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