The United States Supreme Court Sociology Essay Example
The United States Supreme Court Sociology Essay Example

The United States Supreme Court Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 8 (2094 words)
  • Published: August 4, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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In 1967, Virginia's anti-miscegenation laws were deemed inconsistent with the state constitution, thereby removing legal barriers to interracial marriages (Erin M.W, 2005). Consequently, there has been a notable rise in mixed-race unions within the United States (Lewis; Yancey, 1997), and the number of interracial couples has multiplied every decade since 1960 (Killian, 2002).

In the United States, there are currently approximately 3 million interracial marriages, making up about 5% of all marriages. Moreover, an estimated 2.5 million dating couples consist of individuals from different racial backgrounds. These interracial marriages can involve various combinations of White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, and other groups. However, when discussing relationships between individuals from different races, the focus is often on partnerships between black and white individuals. It is important to note that the number of interracial marriages is steadily rising.

The dynamics of interracial relationships


between Blacks and Whites have experienced ongoing transformations, particularly after Emancipation. The occurrence of black and white interracial partnerships increased, reached its highest point in 1900, and then decreased until 1940. However, this specific type of union continues to be the least common among mixed race partnerships (Davidson, 1992), despite the increasing number of marriages between Black and White individuals since the 90's (Tucker and Mitchell-Kernan, 1990). Numerous factors contribute to the notable growth in diverse forms of interracial marriages.

Interracial relationships have increased due to various factors, including the 1967 Supreme Court ruling that declared anti-crossbreeding laws unconstitutional (Kalmijn, 1993). This ruling played a crucial role in reducing disparities in education, occupation, and income between Black and White individuals (Kalmijn, 1993). Furthermore, data from the National Center for Health Statistics indicates a decline in discrimination by White

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against Blacks (Kalmijn, 1993).

The rise in interracial marriage can also be attributed to advancements made by the Civil Rights movement and increased opportunities for Black individuals. Additionally, greater social interaction among racial groups has contributed to this trend (Davidson, 1992). The purpose of this research is to explore the historical background of interracial relationships encompassing dating and marriage while examining the various factors influencing these relationships. Moreover, it aims to collect opinions from young people regarding interracial relationships throughout the 21st century.

This study aims to analyze the attitudes and experiences of young individuals, specifically foreign pre-Masters students at ICRGU, towards interracial relationships, including both marriage and casual dating. It is important to examine various forms of relationships as some individuals prefer casual dating instead of serious commitments leading to marriage. Along with exploring preferences for interracial relationships, this study will also investigate potential factors that influence individuals to enter such relationships, such as personality traits and compatibility. The research questions are:

1) What are the attitudes of young individuals towards interracial relationships?
2) What factors may influence someone's decision to enter an interracial relationship?

Previous research on interracial marriages has indicated that those who engage in such unions tend to be younger and more likely to have been married before. They often reside in developed environments like cities or towns and have a larger age difference with their partners compared to those who marry within their own race (Erin M.W., 2005). Additionally, studies suggest that there are differences in the likelihood of marrying someone outside their racial group between males and females within a specific racial group (Erin M.W., 2005).

According to the text, Black males, Nipponese and Native

American women have higher rates of interracial marriages compared to their respective counterparts. In the United States, the West has the highest prevalence of interracial marriages while the southern region has the lowest. However, Hawaii is an exception due to its diverse racial composition and significant percentage of interracial marriages.

According to Tucker and Mitchellkernan (1990), interracial couples often choose to travel to more accepting regions within a country. Multiple theories have attempted to explain why individuals marry someone of a different race and the long-term success of such marriages. The structural theory suggests that areas with community support and acceptance for interracial unions, as well as increased individual awareness about personal decisions in these relationships, have higher rates of interracial marriages. The media's focus on interracial marriage, its portrayal in popular literature, and the growing diversity in living and working environments all contribute to greater acceptance of mixed relationships (Hibbler; Shinew, 2002). Additionally, the social exchange theory is often cited as an explanation for why people opt to marry outside their race.

The societal exchange theory explains that in Black-White interracial marriages, White women exchange the prestige of their skin color for the higher economic status of their Black husbands. This theory is supported by various studies (Davidson, 1992; Kalmijn, 1993; Lewis & Yancey, 1997). However, it has been found that Black women tend to marry partners of lower economic status in both interracial and same race unions. This suggests that Black-White interracial marriage is more complex than a simple exchange of status (Foeman & Nance, 1999).

Another theory that seeks to explain interracial unions is the racial motivation theory (Kouri and Lasswell, 1993). According to this

theory, many individuals enter into interracial marriages because of racial differences, not despite them. It suggests that curiosity about race differences can lead to increased sexual interest or attraction towards someone of a different race. Additionally, the theory proposes that those who intermarry may be rebelling against societal norms of racial intermarriage and using marriage as a means to assert their independence (Kouri & Lasswell, 1993).

The social status of interracial marriages has changed, with less societal pressure for racially homogeneous relationships today compared to the past (Lewis & Yancey, 1997). Recent studies specifically examine Black-White interracial unions, particularly the negative perception surrounding Black male-White female relationships (Norment, 1994). Extensive research has documented the historical discrimination against these unions. Presently, relationships between Blacks and Whites are viewed differently than those involving other minorities.

In America, discussions about race relations often center around the conflict between Black and White individuals (Killian, 2002; Wright et. al, 2003). Despite an increase in Black-White marriages, they still encounter more resistance compared to other interracial marriages in America (Wade, 1991) and are considered a taboo subject by some (Harris & Kalbfleisch, 2000). A survey of 270 interracial couples revealed that nearly half of them faced difficulties due to marrying outside their race, and approximately two-thirds reported parental objections to their marriage (Fears and Deane, 2001).

Despite growing acceptance of interracial couples, challenges and lack of support continue to be present for Black-White interracial marriages (Dainton, 1999). Many Black-White interracial couples face discrimination from their own racial group; European Americans may perceive them as "too Black," while African Americans may consider them as "not Black enough" (Orbe, 1999). Furthermore, family also plays a role

in contributing to discrimination against individuals in interracial marriages, with the majority reporting serious concern or disapproval from one or both parents regarding their choice to marry interracially.

Expressing disapproval towards interracial relationships often involves verbal disapproval, with family members choosing to show their disagreement in this way. Some even go as far as skipping important events such as weddings, holiday celebrations, family reunions, or legal proceedings. In extreme cases, close family members have completely cut off contact for many years.

It is important to note that in interracial marriages, one partner tends to be more accepting than the other. However, studies indicate a significant increase in acceptance of these unions. As a result, more interracial couples now experience open acceptance from their families and feel comfortable discussing their relationship openly in public settings.

According to Datzman and Gardner (2000), attitudes towards interracial relationships differ based on race, age, and gender. In their survey of individuals aged 21-40, it was found that men generally hold more positive views on interracial relationships compared to women. Furthermore, younger individuals tend to have more favorable attitudes towards such relationships.

Datzman and Gardner's study also discovered that the families of Black partners in interracial relationships are frequently more accepting and supportive than the families of White partners (Hibbler and Shinew, 2002).

In another survey, 86% of Black respondents reported that they would welcome a White individual into their household, while only 55% of White respondents said the same for welcoming a Black individual (Fears; A; Deane, 2001).

This research not only focuses on interracial relationships between Blacks and Whites but also aims to encompass all forms of interracial relationships and various types of relationships, from

casual dating to marriages. It additionally seeks to explore the opinions of young people regarding interracial relationships in the 21st century.


Each participant was interviewed to investigate their attitudes towards interracial relationships. Qualitative data was collected through follow-up interviews with the study's participants. The interviews followed a semi-structured format that included general questions and specific sets of questions for individuals who have family members or friends involved in interracial relationships or know someone who is.

The article explores inquiries into attitudes towards interracial relationships and overall opinions on the subject. Numerous studies have been conducted, uncovering controversies surrounding such relationships. This research specifically examines the viewpoints of young people and highlights a growing awareness among them compared to previous years. Table 1 presents data on the number of participants, their gender, and their perspectives regarding entering a relationship with someone from a different racial background.

Approximately 60% of participants are willing to engage in interracial relationships, while about 20% disagree. Another 20% express a desire but face obstacles like lack of family acceptance or cultural barriers. Table 2 shows the attitudes towards interracial marriages across different geographic regions. Figures 2.1 and 2.2 depict the percentages of males and females with positive views on interracial marriages. Figure 2.1 demonstrates that around 60% are open to marrying someone from a different race, while approximately 40% would prefer not to do so. Figure 2.2 reveals that roughly 90% have no issue with interracial marriages, while about 10% do not consider them ideal.

Despite the inevitable difficulties in interracial relationships, it is impossible to prevent them. According to Mr. John, with the rapid progress of travel and communication technology in today's globalized world,

interracial marriages will persist regardless of familial, cultural, or social opposition. However, he acknowledges that such marriages are not seen as ideal for upholding cultural traditions.

According to Miss Ama, cultural or belief systems do not affect marriage. For a successful union, love and understanding between the partners should be enough without any complications. Miss Ama acknowledges that obstacles may arise in marriages; however, overcoming them can actually strengthen the bond between couples. Overall, research suggests that individuals perceive interracial relationships as a personal decision based on emotions.

According to Miss Beauty, she believes that choosing to enter into interracial relationships is a personal decision. She also emphasizes that as long as there is respect and happiness, being in an interracial relationship is not inherently wrong. Miss Ama further affirms that feelings are subjective and unaffected by factors like color, culture, or religion; they simply occur naturally. When these feelings arise and one believes the person is right for them, they should pursue the relationship. However, it's important to note that a limitation of this research is the time constraint. The allotted time for this study does not allow for gathering enough samples to thoroughly analyze the topic.

The study was limited to a small number of participants in order to allow enough time to execute the research objective. However, previous research on related topics supported the research objective. Another limitation was the availability of participants from different geographical regions. In the pre-Masters category of ICRGU where the study took place, most students are currently from three regions.

, Africa, Asia, and Western Europe. The consequence of this is that, there were restrictions to cultural behaviours and believes sing

the subject was by and large on sentiment of the young persons in the 21th century, and merely 3 parts were available for the study.


An interracial relationship is where there is matrimony, sexual or romantic dealingss between persons of different races. In the yesteryear, interracial matrimonies were in fact tabu in some parts of the universe, but with globalisation there has been a alteration in political orientation about interracial relationship. From the consequence of the study, it suggests that there is addition in the consciousness of interracial relationships.

The text suggests that there is an increase in the acceptance of entering a relationship with someone of a different race. However, there are still some beliefs that interracial relationships, especially marriage if promoted, could lead to cultures being eradicated. In this perspective, very few individuals would support such unity in order to preserve civilization. The findings in the studies also indicate that around 90% of the participants believe there is nothing wrong with engaging in interracial relationships, as long as both parties love each other and have reasons to pursue such relationships. They should also be able to resolve their differences.

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