Homelessness is a social construct based upon the central idea that poor socioeconomic factors drive the individual to homelessness. Although, it is correct, not only is it caused by economic and social factors, but also by substance abuse and poor mental health. These factors are effects of low socioeconomic environments; thus, lack of resources – healthcare, welfare, education, and mass incarceration. Consequently, being a ‘product’ of the environment that individual resided in. Additionally, being a minority within these upbringings worsens the situation due to the injustices within not only the healthcare system, but the judicial system as well.
Growing within a desolate environment drives some to the point of no return, inhibiting substance abuse habits and developing mental disorders – or worsening them. Now, the idea that solely socioeconomic status drives one to homelessness is curtailed; in fact, the consequences of poor environments are worse than the actual living situation. According to Nicolas Badre and Mari Janowsky, in their article on “Is homelessness a criterion for mental health treatment,” Homelessness presents significant challenges when contextualized in terms of symptoms of mental illness (Nicolas Badre and Mari Janowsky, p4). For example, within the interview, one of the conducted questions was “Do homeless people have enough resources?” John Doe – an anonymous source – mentioned the lack of resources for his community. “We aren’t able to go to the hospital as easily as the rest of the community and we are exposed to more crime than the regular population. Things like these drive us to crime related activity and decrease our chances for jobs. We are walled-up against a corner” (Doe, John. Personal Interview.) Due to the lack of resources, mental illnesses within that community skyrocket. In fact, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, roughly one-fourth of the homeless population suffers from severe forms of mental illness. Meanwhile, only 6% of the Americans suffer from these severe mental illnesses (National Institute of Mental Health, 2009). In addition to the lack of resources for the homeless there is also a lack of funding. These factors are pivotal to the upsurge in mental illnesses as a result of homelessness.
Furthermore, this misfortune within the homeless community along with the flawed and expensive healthcare system makes it nearly impossible for the needy to seek aid. In fact, mental health services tend to be difficult to access and poorly integrated with primary care (Trude S, Stoddard JJ, 18). Another crucial factor contributing to the steady decline in mental health within these lower socioeconomic populations is the exposure to homelessness and substance use disorders. Additionally, the study examined the utilization of the ER for patients within a 6 year period – using primary health diagnosis across California. The study hypothesized that patients with mental illness covered by Medicare or Medi-Cal (the state’s Medicaid insurance program), those who were concurrent substance users, and homeless patients would be more likely to have high ED utilization (EM, Jannsen). Due to the fact that studies are rely on retrospective data and are exposed to a set of limitations such as misclassification and other forms of bias, this study covered the entire state of California and is dependent on diagnosis codes. Ultimately, the substantial evidence supports the claims that patients with substance abuse diagnoses, homeless patients, and those covered by Medi-Cal, or the states Medicaid, are more likely to be frequent users of the emergency departments for mental illnesses. Therefore, this implies that substance abuse, housing, and socioeconomic conditions are crucial factors to consider in patients with high ED use for mental health necessities.
In addition to the extreme form of disadvantages adults face when being exposed to homeless, as do children. Homeless children often experience mental and physical health complications. For instance, being victims of abuse, – whether it be physical or mental – victimization, etc. and – much like adults – struggle to receive access to adequate health care and keep up with their education. Factors like those contribute to the incline in substance abuse and mental illnesses; these are all consequences of poor socioeconomic status. While it may be evident that economic and social expenditures of adolescent and adult homelessness are persistent, it is likely that adolescent homelessness is greater given the key investments during children’s formative years (GT Wodtke, 736).
. Consequently, linking these pathways of homelessness and employment outcomes within the adolescent’s adulthood. According to Deborah A. Cobb Clark and Anna Zhu, in their research on Childhood homelessness and Adult employment, “…we cannot completely rule out the possibility that the estimates underling our analysis of educational attainment, incarceration, and welfare dependence are confounded by omitted time varying factors, such as health shocks or maternal psychological well-being, related to childhood homelessness.” Therefore, regarding this as a descriptive exercise similar to the standard analysis typically conducted within labor and economics. In fact, being homeless throughout your adolescent life appears to play an important role in becoming part of the U.S justice system within your adulthood (PM Miller, 18). Consequently, decreasing the chances of employment for these children entering adulthood, leading them right back to the point in which they started; it is a cycle.
Moreover, there are disparities and stigmatized identities associated with homelessness and race. According to Diane M. Quinn and Carolyn Weisz’s study, racial and ethnic homeless groups of adults are studied to examine the relationship between homelessness and psychological distress, physical health, avoidance of services, and its link with race. For instance, conspicuous racial disparities in homelessness make these burdens of social and judicial institutionalization and imperatives more evident. Stigma is a broad concept encompassing negative stereotypes, labeling, antipathy, avoidance, discrimination, dehumanization, exploitation, and harm directed toward persons based on devalued personal or social characteristics (Goffman, 67). For instance, in the U.S the Department of Housing and Urban Development has recorded a large and persistent increase of racial minorities, specifically African Americans and Native Americans, among people who are homeless. Roughly 1.5 million people in the United States who used shelters or transitional housing over the course of a year, 41.4% were African American (compared with about 13% of the total U.S. population) and 2.7% were American Indian or Alaska Native (Penner, 47). The experience of discrimination and Black-White health Evidently, these disparities showcase the stigma and association within race, ethnicity, economic status and homelessness.
The social construct of homelessness is directly affected by ones social and economic factors. But, it also includes ones mental health, substance abuse – for whom it may apply to – childhood development, incarceration, welfare, physical health and race. The contribution of these poor environments in an individual’s life shapes the aftermath; it makes them a “product of their environment.” Due to the lack of resources and mental health issues homeless people face within their life, these numbers increase. The lack of medical attention and aid to these people further affects them. Consequently, leading them to higher exposure levels of criminal activity, etc. Additionally, levels of education and childhood development contribute to these factors as well. Ultimately, while these disparities are present, the judicial and healthcare system requires a reform in order to decrease these numbers of homeless people within the U.S. Institutionalized racism and ethnic disparities contribute to the statistics as well. There are so many factors that come in to homelessness. For the humans who want these factors to improve or even disappear, All the can do is hope that as a community everyone rises and does the best they can to create better opportunities and help improve many people’s lives.
Introduction Typically I only see men on the streets begging; however the number of homeless women is increasing, especially homeless women with children. In this paper I will focus on homeless women by defining this issue and discussing the demographics of the women. I will address the types of interventions that have been implemented to […]
Homelessness is defined as “An Individual who lacks a fixed regular and adequate nighttime residence”, (Burt, 1989, p. 17). Have you ever stopped to wonder how many people are Homeless? Who are most at risk to fall into this situation? I highly doubt it. While most people really do not care and ignore homeless people, […]
Each country in the world is faced with various social issues that attract the interest of numerous stakeholders. And when society is faced with such social issues the general citizenly come together and try to resolve whatever issue is at hand. In certain social issue society generally feel like it is their responsibility to assist […]
America displays their citizens as equal, but these reports published by the authors suggest otherwise by explaining the unequal lifestyles of the high, middle, and low class of America. There are many struggles people endure during their life, some of which none they can control. Struggles such as being homeless, being born in a poor […]
For the most part, the human race has a natural Instinct to want to help those In need but acting on this instinct Is often easier said than done. In today’s society people tend to lead lives with a heavy focus on materialistic gain, personal appearance and perceived social standings. In trying to attain these […]
Throughout the entire history of human collocation, the prevalence of homelessness has been a challenge to every nation. It might be depressing to learn that no countries today have eradicated homelessness, but the human race has never stopped from trying harder than before to tackle this prolonged issue. Homelessness refers to the people who live […]
According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 20 to 25% of the homeless population in the United States suffers from some form of severe mental illness. In comparison, only 6% of Americans are severely mentally ill (National Institute of Mental Health, 2009). In a 2008 survey performed by the U.S. Conference of […]
Reduced access to communications , such as telephones or the internet. Violent crimes against the homeless: There have been many violent crimes committed against the homeless population. A study was done in 2007 on crime rate and it showed that crime has increase at a stagnate rate. Assistance and resources available to the homeless Most […]
Austin in shelters FEMA insisted apartments was available in the Houston/Galveston area. The few apartment vacancies in existence were too expensive for people to pay. The majority of the homeless left in these shelter were elderly people, women, and children having only a fixed or limited income. Galveston Mayor, Lyda Ann Thomas, pleaded with FEMA […]
Right away after heavy rainfall; it may take days, weeks, or even months before a landslide take place (Bryant, 2005, p. 262). Living in a region with a monsoonal climate has particular implications, and especially with a fast growing and dense population, as in the case of India. According to the World Population Data Sheet, […]
Ian, the protagonist of the story, is a fifteen year old student from a well-off family. Working at “The Club” as a volunteer sounds like fun to him, he chose this community as his immersion project as a requirement to pass his civics class. Until he arrived at what turned out to be a soup […]
Many people’s views on beggars are: get rid of them, throw them all in jail, some extremists even say kill them. You may say they plague your streets and Tony Parsons even said they make England seem like a third world country; but if they annoy you that much then why don’t you get them […]
Policy impact survey – Theimpact of a scope of policy enterprises on Rough Sleepers. Historically, when observers spoke of the most disadvantaged groups in society they spoke ofpoverty, more late, some observers speak of the most disadvantaged groups associally excluded. Social exclusion refers to more than the resources to obtaincommodities, it is, instead, a procedure […]
There is an understanding that approximately 2. 8 % of the US grownup population suffers from terrible mental unwellness. The most badly handicapped have been forgotten non merely by society. but by most mental wellness advocators. policy experts and attention suppliers. Deinstitutionalization is the name given to the policy of traveling badly mentally sick patients […]
The documentary film Dark Days, conceived and filmed by Marc Singer, is one of the modern classics of the genre. The film presents little known darker realities of the most prosperous city in the world New York. The usage of rudimentary cinematic devices and techniques is consistent with the central theme of the film. The […]
The Pursuit of Happyness was a commercially successful film whose main appeal is its ‘feel-good’ ending. It treads the much worn path of the rags-to-riches narrative, albeit with some variations in plot, characterization and context. This paper would argue that despite the commercial success of the film, it fails as a social instrument. In other […]
The article ‘Sun Vampires’ appeared in The Big Issue in May 1997. The Big Issue is aimed at a wide audience, including the younger generation, and is an effective way to reach the youth through a magazine, including young adults using tanning beds. The Big Issue is sold by the homeless on the street and […]
Reconstruct four steps taken by Mayor Schell to reengineer the program in order to fit the new objectives. Analyze four reasons for the importance of conducting assessments prior to new program implementation. Research at least four peer-reviewed academic sources. This case study discusses Mayor Paul Schell’s pledge for homeless families in Seattle, Washington. Being that […]
The book Ironweed is a very complex and, quite frankly, depressing book. It is about a man named Francis Phelan. He was once a major league baseball player, but now is a street bum. He has been without a home for 22 years now. There are many issues that lead to Francis being in his […]
Homelessness is a prime concern of some major policies. Broad range of definitions has been used to classify the people in homeless category under relative categorization of poverty. Change in classification criteria has increased the number of people who are viewed as homeless. This requires reassessment of criteria to define the people who need to […]
In ‘The Simple Gift’ and sense of belonging for Billy and Caitlin is found through their relationship (1st person narrative we learn of the significance of their belonging) Caitlin finds acceptance which she didn’t have with her family while Billy finds friendship (Old Bill) and love (Caitlin) which he hasn’t experienced before as well. Billy’s […]
The national figure for homelessness is a staggering 169000 people, 80000 of them in London alone. Tony Parsons and John Pilger are two men with different views on this crisis. Tony Parsons strictly believes that the beggars are worthless individuals who beg for no acceptable reason whereas John Pilger is far more sympathetic and believes […]