The Gospel Of John Theology Religion
The Gospel of John is different from the other Gospels-Matthew, Mark, and Luke-in position of literary construction. The other Gospels except for the Gospel of John were written in the same position ; they are called ‘Synoptics. ‘ However, the Gospel of John includes several common contents in comparing to the Synoptics. However, unlike other Gospels, John reveals the intent and purpose in his Gospel as follows: But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God ; and that believing ye might hold life through his name.[ 2 ]( John 20:31 ) Therefore, for the interest of the intent, the book focuses non on chronological events like the Synoptics, but on thematic events-the events that do non follow the chronological order. Furthermore, the records of Synoptics were written for the informants of Jesus Christ so that they are really descriptive. On the other manus, John was written non merely for informants of Jesus Christ, but besides for theological intents in respects of godly nature and believing. For this ground, the Gospel of John should be dealt more carefully with harmonizing to auctorial purpose.
John intends to depict Jesus Christ as godly nature ; hence, the best informant for Jesus ‘ deity is a marvelous event that makes the Son of Man go the Son of God, since it shows the power of God that merely one of work forces can non patterns at all. In this manner, the transition John 2:1-11 shows the first marvelous event in Jesus ‘ ministry so that it is really meaningful in the whole book of John, even though it looks little. This besides includes several theological subjects. Consequently, in this exegetical paper, I will research its historical-cultural background and contexts for the writer ‘s flow of idea, and I will analyse the texts. Last, I will give some applications of the transition for modern-day audiences.
Traditionally, the Gospel of John was written by John the boy of Zebedee, the permanent living member of the apostolic set. However, this sentiment has been persistently attacked and any other hypothesis has been offered as a replacement of it.[ 3 ]However, from the Gospel itself certain facts about its writer may be educed.
The writing of John is grounded on the followers ; foremost, the Gospel was written in Greek, but it implies the fact that the writer was accustomed to Aramaic flow of idea in its content.[ 4 ]Its texts frequently contain Hebrew or Aramaic words and the writer was familiar with Judaic tradition. For illustration, the transition 1:19-28 refers to the Judaic outlook of a coming Messiah. And he besides knew the Judaic sole attitude in worship towards to Samaritans. ( 4:9 ) Second, he was a Palestinian Jew with cognition of the land and its environments, particularly like Jerusalem, Samaria, and metropoliss of Galilee.[ 5 ]Probably, his hometown might be one among them. The 3rd ground is that an eyewitness of the events he recorded implies to the writer himself. This makes him one of adherents of Jesus. Most of all, in the Gospel he is to be identified with the “ darling adherent ” who was a close associate of Peter, and who had been really near to Jesus at the last supper. ( 13:23 ) These groundss result in John as the writer.
Date and Place
The day of the month of the Fourth Gospel has been diversely estimated from A.D. 40 to A.D. 140, or even later.[ 6 ]However, the best solution seems to be that John was produced in Asia Minor, perchance in Ephesus, toward the stopping point of the first century, A.D. 90s.[ 7 ]In peculiar, 1, 2, 3 John and the book of Revelation besides stems from the same Christian circles in Asia Minor as the Fourth Gospel.[ 8 ]As a consequence, the mid-90s has been strongly proposed.
Purposes and Subjects
Apparently, John wrote his Gospel in order to do a alone part to the record of the Lord ‘s life ( “ a religious Gospel ” ) and, in portion, to be auxiliary every bit good as complementary to Matthew, Mark, and Luke.[ 9 ]and the Gospel ‘s alone features reinforce this intent: First, John supplied a big sum of alone stuff non recorded in the other Gospels. Second, he frequently supplied information that helps the apprehension of the events in the Synoptics. Third, John is the most theological of the Gospels.[ 10 ]Most of all, the primary intents of John are shown as twofold: evangelistic and excusatory. In an evangelistic position, John represents the word “ believe ” about one hundred times in this Gospel in contrast to the usage of the term less than half as much in the Synoptics.[ 11 ]On the other manus, in an excusatory position, John evidently describes Jesus ‘ individuality as God-Man nature.[ 12 ]
Sing historical and theological subjects, John has the overall message in 20:31, “ Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God. ” Therefore, the book centres on the individual and work of Christ.[ 13 ]It, in peculiar, nowadayss three prevailing words, such as marks, believe, and life.[ 14 ]It besides presents certain incompatible sub-themes that reinforce the chief subject. John uses dualism ( life and decease, visible radiation and darkness, love and hatred, from above and from below ) to convey critical information about the individual and work of Christ and the demand to believe in Him. Last, there are besides seven emphasized “ I AM ” statements that identify Jesus as God and Messiah.[ 15 ]
In the position of the subject of the Gospel, the transition clearly shows two footings marks and believe. Before the transition, Jesus called adherents as the eyewitnesses of the new Kingdom of God. After this transition, Jesus implied how he would sublimate the temple as his organic structure in order to construct the new Kingdom of God. Thus, the transition lies between two of them and it demonstrates a marvelous mark that reveals the power of God as the at hand approach of the new Kingdom of God. And his adherents saw the event as eyewitnesses. Furthermore, the transmutation of H2O into the vino in the matrimony event signifies the replacing from the Israel in the OT to the church as his bride in the NT. Dodd indicates, ‘The three chapters present the replacing of the old purifications by the vino of the land of God, the old temple by the new in the risen Lord, an expounding of new birth for new creative activity, a contrast between the H2O of Jacob ‘s well and the life H2O from Christ, and the worship of Jerusalem and Gerizim with worship “ in Spirit and in truth ” ‘[ 16 ]
Settings ( Time, Place, Characters ) : vv.1~2 – On the 3rd twenty-four hours Jesus, his female parent, and his adherents joined a nuptials at Cana in Galilee.
A job occurs: vv.3 – “ They have no more vino. ”
A hint of a solution: vv.4~5 – “ Do whatever he tells you. ” ( Faith-driven )
The world of environment: vv.6 – Nearby stood six rock H2O jars.
The water-filled jars: vv.7~8 – ” Fill the jars with H2O. ”
The resolved job: vv.9~10 -The maestro of the feast tasted the H2O that had been turned into vino and he praised, “ You have saved the best until now. ”
Decision: vv.11 -Jesus revealed his glorification by the first marvelous mark.
The Analysis of the Passage, John 2:1-11
“ The 3rd twenty-four hours ” does non mention to the 3rd twenty-four hours of the hebdomad. It is an guiltless and simple chronological mention to Jesus ‘ advancement through Galilee. For some, the “ 3rd twenty-four hours ” suggests an inevitable mention by John to the coming “ 3rd twenty-four hours ” of the Resurrection.[ 17 ]For others, from the beginning of chapter 1 they find seven yearss ( Cana occurs three yearss after the Nathanael narrative, twenty-four hours 4 ) and therefore John is describing a hebdomad of activities, much like God ‘s hebdomad of originative work in Genesis.[ 18 ]Jesus ‘ decease and Resurrection and creative activity are related to the Sabbath, so the miracle at Cana as a flood tide of the hebdomad may supply an reverberation of creation-week and death-resurrection-week.[ 19 ]
“ Cana ” may be Kefar Kanna ( over three stat mis from Nazareth ) , but most bookmans prefer Khirbet Kana ( over eight stat mis from Nazareth ) . Either site would be near adequate to Nazareth to explicate how the host knows Jesus ‘ household.[ 20 ]
In the village civilization of Palestine, nuptialss were of import events, announced good in progress and recognized by the full small town.[ 21 ]This transition might supply the imagination for messianic jubilation and joy every bit good. When Jews reflected on what Eden or the reaching of the Messiah would be like, they thought about feasts, and the nuptials feast was the first theoretical account that came to mind.[ 22 ]
The fact that Jesus, his female parent, and his adherents all attended the nuptials suggests that the nuptials may hold been for a comparative or close household friend. The adherents that accompanied him are the five mentioned in chapter 1: Andrew, Simon Peter, Philip, Nathanael, and the nameless adherent ( 1:35 ) who was certainly John, who besides witnessed this miracle.[ 23 ]At those yearss, the adherents were regarded as an learner of their maestro ; hence, even though they were non invited as relations, they could fall in the nuptials with their maestro.[ 24 ]
The vino was capable to agitation. In the ancient universe, nevertheless, to slake thirst without bring oning inebriation, vino was diluted with H2O to between one-third and one-tenth of its strength.[ 25 ]Due to the clime and fortunes, even “ new vino ” fermented rapidly and had an inebriating consequence, if non assorted ( Acts 2:13 ) . Because of a deficiency of H2O purification procedure, wine assorted with H2O was besides safer to imbibe than H2O entirely.[ 26 ]It was besides used as a medical specialty and germicide.[ 27 ]Bible condemns inebriation and excess but envisioned vino as a portion of the typical antediluvian repast.[ 28 ]Main ancient drink was H2O. Milk was besides used, but it was considered as a sort of nutrient. However, vino was particular so that it was chiefly used at particular events like nuptialss.
Jesus ‘ female parent said to Jesus, “ They had no more vino. ” This inquiry to Jesus has been heatedly disputed among bookmans. Why did Jesus ‘ female parent voiced her ailment as a invitee? Some suggested that she was simply go throughing on the sad intelligence without any outlooks at all.[ 29 ]However, this position was denied by 2:5, where Mary ‘s instructions to the retainers turn out she expected something from Jesus. At the other extreme, some argued that Mary anticipated a miracle.[ 30 ]But this subdivision besides ends by take a firm standing this is the first of Jesus ‘ miracles ( 2:11 ) . Therefore, Mary could non anticipate to do a miracle. The 3rd position was John Calvin ‘s ; Mary had non expected Jesus ‘ miracle at first, but while speaking with Jesus, she begun to believe that Jesus would uncover the glorification of God.[ 31 ]Harmonizing to Calvin, when Mary heard the deficit of vino at the climax minute of the nuptials, she worried with compassion to the debatable state of affairs and merely talked to Jesus as her boy, since Joseph his male parent had died earlier and she relied upon her first-born boy like any widow.[ 32 ]Unexpectedly, she realized that Jesus could work out this state of affairs. And she begun to believe in him, so that in religion she told the retainers to make whatever he commanded.
Jesus ‘ puzzling response invites remark on three points. First, the word Guam, nai ( gynai-NIV ‘Dear adult female ‘ ) is non needfully impolite, but it does hold the consequence of distancing Jesus from his female parent and her petition.[ 33 ]This word was used once more when Jesus addressed Mary from the cross. Therefore, it is non usually an adorable term, nor the signifier of reference preferred by a boy turn toing a much-loving female parent. Nonetheless, some suggest that the word has the exact same significance with the word ‘Ma’am ‘ in English, which expresses ‘Woman beloved. ‘ However, this is besides funny about whether the term does map as Jesus used.[ 34 ]
Second, the inquiry itself, ti, evmoi. kai. soi ( ti emoi kai soi — lit. ‘what to me and to you? ) , has generated a figure of interlingual renditions. The look was common in Semitic parlance in classical and Hellenic Greek.[ 35 ]The tone is non ill-mannered ; it is surely disconnected. However, some translators say the look means either ‘what have I to make with thee? ‘ ( RV ) or ‘what have you to make with me? ‘ ( RSV ) Thus, Wallace argues, “ This text is debatable for more grounds than the categorization of the dative. The full look is idiomatic and has been diversely rendered as ‘What do I hold to make with you? ‘ ; ‘What do we hold in common? Leave me entirely! ‘ If this building is a legitimate dative of ownership, the thought is ‘What do we hold in common? ‘ ”[ 36 ]By this position, Jesus ‘ inquiry could be translated as “ Does the job belong to you or to me? “ – ” If it belongs to me, merely I can work out it with my earthly ministry? ”
Last, the word ‘time ‘ , literally ‘hour ‘ ( hA?ra ) , besides has a hard meaning-the agony clip or the glorifying clip. Carson argues, “ the ‘hour ‘ of Jesus ‘ decease, Resurrection and ecstasy to glorification is in the first portion of this Gospel invariably said to be ‘not yet ‘ , until the reaching of the Gentiles. ”[ 37 ]On the other manus, Calvin claims the clip when Jesus began his earthly ministry.[ 38 ]In fact, if Jesus ‘s earthly ministry lies on his decease, Resurrection and ecstasy to glorification, Calvin ‘s statement is non different from Carson ‘s. As a consequence, Jesus announced the beginning of his earthly ministry to his female parent and adherents, but before the ministry he asked for her true religion.
In 2: 3 Mary attacks Jesus as his female parent, and is reproached ; in 2: 5, she responds as a truster, and her religion is honored. She still does non cognize what he would make ; but she has committed the affair to him, and trusts him. And Mary exemplifies the best sort of persisting religion, “ Do whatever he tells you! ” as the Canaanite adult female who was rebuked for her assumptive attack, but who persevered and was praised for her religion.[ 39 ]
The narrative gives us an of import hint as to its significance when we discover that six rock jars will now be the beginning of the new vino.[ 40 ]These are non simply jars for keeping H2O. The note that they are stone is a signal that they are for Judaic purification lavations. Clay jars could go ceremonially contaminated and have to be destroyed ( Lev. 11:33 ) ; but stone jars, harmonizing to rabbinic jurisprudence, could non.[ 41 ]The intent of rock jars and Judaic purification lavations provides a hint to one of the significances of the narrative: the H2O represents the old order of Judaic jurisprudence and usage, which Jesus was to replace with something better.[ 42 ]Furthermore, the figure six refers to incompleteness, one less than seven: the Judaic dispensation was uncomplete until the coming of Jesus, who performs this miracle on the 7th twenty-four hours.[ 43 ]
Westcott have justly insisted that the verb ‘draw ‘ ( antleA? , v. 8 ) is normally used for pulling H2O from a well ( californium. 4: 7, 15 ) .[ 44 ]In other words, the H2O turned into vino was newly drawn from the well after the H2O jars had been filled. The word Now might be taken to back up this position. Up to this clip the retainers had drawn H2O to make full the vass used for ceremonial lavation ; now they are to pull for the banquet that symbolizes the messianic feast.[ 45 ]Filling jars with such big capacity to the lip so indicates that the clip for ceremonial purification is wholly fulfilled ; the new order, symbolized by the vino, could non be drawn from jars so closely connected with simply ceremonial purification.[ 46 ]
The maestro of feast, to whom the retainers bring the vino, appears as a figure with authorization in the charge of the topographic point where the feast was held.[ 47 ]His visual aspect has two significances of the narrative ; foremost, he merely tasted vino as a informant with authorization in order to mean the mark. This is similar to the narrative that ten lazars were healed in the thick of traveling to see the priests. ( Lk. 17:14 ) Second, the maestro of feast symbolizes God the Father in the coming of the messianic feast or nuptials.
The H2O that had been turned into wine refers to that the H2O had non become vino until the retainers brought it to the caput steward.
John ‘s accent is on the quality of this vino and its timing ; things served before this vino are inferior.[ 48 ]As a consequence, he emphasizes that the quality of vino implies that of the new, messianic age Jesus is presenting.[ 49 ]
As Moses ‘ first mark was turning H2O into blood, Jesus ‘ first marvelous mark shows the power of God.[ 50 ]John is stating this first mark is besides primary, because it points to the new dispensation of grace and fulfillment that Jesus is kick offing. It may besides suggest at the ‘new creative activity ‘ subject.[ 51 ]Jesus revealed his glorification because his earthly ministry merely began toward to his cross, Resurrection and ecstasy to his glorification.[ 52 ]Therefore, John emphasizes that the marvelous marks are non simply shows of power, but the Godhead worlds for our religion that symbolize the presence of God.[ 53 ]
Here are five theological rules[ 54 ]:
First, those who have the eyes of faith Lashkar-e-Taiba Jesus get down to do a marvelous mark. ( The beginning of a miracle )
Second, those who do whatever Jesus tells up to the terminal experience a marvelous mark. ( The procedure of a miracle )
Third, Jesus ‘ marvelous mark gives us best of the best. ( The consequence of a miracle )
Fourth, Jesus ‘ marvelous mark for his glorification eventually strengthens our religion. ( The consequence of a miracle )
Let ‘s discourse about how the theological rules I have discovered tantrums with the remainder of Bible[ 55 ]; foremost, all Bible shows the fact that religion makes a miracle. In peculiar, Hebrews chapter 11 shows that the listed scriptural figures experienced miracles in their religion. Second, the Bible tells us the importance of doggedness in religion. Third, the bible Tells that God is good all the clip for his people and provides the best things to them. Fourth, his glorious disclosure is for our redemption by religion. As a consequence, all rules fit in Scripture.
Now, allow ‘s happen cardinal elements to use to modern-day audiences.[ 56 ]
Those who have eyes of religion ( Mary )
Those who do whatever Jesus tells ( the retainers )
Jesus ‘ marvelous mark gives us best of the best. ( the feast steward tasted the best vino )
Jesus ‘ marvelous mark for his glorification eventually strengthens our religion. ( Disciples believed in Jesus after they saw the first mark )
Last, here is an illustration contemporized by the real-world scenario for application.[ 57 ]
About ten old ages ago, I went over to the United States for the survey of Computer Science. Here I met Jesus as my Jesus and my Lord. At that clip, he called me as a curate and I changed my head to take a measure in a seminary. I was a individual and I realized that I need a married woman as my assistant. I started to pray with religion. One twenty-four hours, in reading the Bible, I found a poetry that was Exodus 2:1- ” Now a adult male of the house of Levi married a Levite adult female. ” My eyes focused on it and I was certain that the poetry was the word of the twenty-four hours God gave me. I continued to pray in religion with the poetry. Three months subsequently, God allow me run into a adult female. After one twelvemonth, I got married with her. All these things were marvelous to me in my memory. As a consequence, I became a curate as his adherent.
John clearly reveals his composing intent of the Gospel in 20:30~31- ” Jesus did many other marvelous marks in the presence of his adherents, which are non recorded in this book. But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may hold life in his name. ” In short, he signifies three elements, such as marks, believe, and life, in his Gospel. For this ground, the transition 2:1-11 shows us that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God by the first marvelous mark and it made adherents believe in him.
In my sentiment, this transition among others seems to be really of import in theological and evangelical positions, since this transition non merely includes the theological subject of the Gospel of John, but besides makes us recognize who Jesus is and what we do for redemption.