The Elements of Class Conflict in Pakistan Essay Example
The Elements of Class Conflict in Pakistan Essay Example

The Elements of Class Conflict in Pakistan Essay Example

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  • Pages: 14 (3606 words)
  • Published: July 19, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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Overview of the Topic

Income distribution, also known as frequency distribution, involves categorizing individuals, taxpayers, or families according to their income levels. The unequal distribution of income is a major concern in many countries, particularly those experiencing development challenges. Pakistan has been grappling with this issue since its establishment.

Class conflict arises from the divisions within a population caused by increasing inequality in distribution, which stems from differences in income sources, types of employment, salaries, resources (symbolic or material), social status, and other factors. In Pakistan, the disparities between rural and urban areas in terms of lifestyle, salaries, and employment opportunities contribute to this conflict as individuals residing in different locations belong to distinct income groups. Feudal culture is one of the significant causes of this class conflict.

In our country, landlords have established


monopolies that exacerbate disparities among socio-economic classes, resulting in a rise in crime and violence. Regrettably, the government has been ineffective in addressing income inequality as they benefit from the existing class divide. This ongoing battle has been intensifying over the past year and will ultimately lead to a significant conflict.

The population of Pakistan is divided into various groups, resulting in increased societal divisions and a preference for associating with individuals of similar social status. This presents a major challenge for authorities as it is caused by the unequal distribution of income by those in power. In recent years, there has been an uneven trend in income distribution in Pakistan, leading to a growing gap between the wealthy and the poor. Consequently, conflicts between different social classes have arisen. Additionally, corruption significantly contributes to this unequal income distribution, impacting not only higher levels bu

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also the lowest levels of society.

Background Information

Since its establishment, Pakistan has grappled with issues related to income distribution. Partition resulted in many people losing their lands, properties, valuables, and other financial assets.

The current income disparity can be traced back to the partition of India and Pakistan when feudalism was widespread. This system allowed powerful feudal lords to forcefully take land from vulnerable individuals, resulting in concentrated wealth. Today, remnants of this feudal system still exist and continue to impact our society. In Pakistan, influential individuals like politicians and local feudal lords hold significant control over the majority of income, leading to extreme poverty. Over time, there has been an uneven pattern in income distribution with no clear trend of improvement or decline.

The population of Pakistan was initially undivided in terms of income inequalities. However, over time, uneven income distribution has divided the population into upper, middle, and lower categories based on employment forms, pay rates, family backgrounds, social status, and limited resources. This division has led to wider societal gaps and the exclusion of individuals from different categories. Throughout history, it has been observed that people belonging to the same group or stratum tend to socialize more due to shared resources, whether they are symbolic or material in nature.

The changing beliefs and ideals among different classes of the general population have sparked a struggle, which has intensified into a class struggle based on income disparity in Pakistan. This issue is widespread globally, affecting countries with varying economic strengths. Developing nations are particularly affected by this problem, as it leads to numerous other issues that stem from income inequality. One such issue is the class

struggle that emerges within the general population.

During World War II, the situation in East and West Germany highlighted the significance of this job. West Germany was under the control of the Allies, while East Germany was governed by the Soviets. The Berlin Wall famously separated these two countries. Due to their robust corporate and industrial capabilities at that time, the Allies made substantial investments in West Germany's economy, resulting in improved living conditions and increased employment prospects for its population.

The occupations and standards of living in East Germany were notably lower than those in other societies globally, resulting in ongoing unrest that eventually escalated into a significant class conflict. In numerous societies, the elite or ruling class holds most of the economic power, leaving the lower classes with limited or no financial resources. This unequal distribution of wealth worsens class conflicts and negatively impacts entire nations. Various factors, including inflation, foreign direct investment, remittances, trade, corruption, and feudal systems, play roles in shaping wealth concentration across nearly all societies worldwide.

The survey's significance cannot be denied globally. The study's importance in relation to Pakistan is also vital. Since the country's establishment, the population has been burdened with the persistent problem of income distribution. The severity of this issue cannot be disregarded as it has been the root cause of constant societal unrest and continual protests. In simpler terms, we find ourselves trapped in an ongoing deadlock, as there is no significant trend of increasing or decreasing income distribution in Pakistan. Consequently, this unequal trend is leading to the creation of undesirable hybrid classes based on income inequality.

The introduction of these categories has caused a surge of

bias, favoritism, and most troubling, the exclusion of a significant portion of people from the core of society. It has also resulted in the creation of different social levels among the population. Over time, this detrimental social exclusion, inequality, and discrimination have evolved into a divisive class struggle among the people we observe in Pakistan today. The mere existence of various categories based on unfair distribution of wealth is proof of its presence.

The problem of income distribution in Pakistan is fueled by the increasing societal divide, lack of communication, and prevailing feudal culture. One major contributor to the unequal distribution of resources is the concentration of power and wealth among influential individuals, particularly politicians who are responsible for addressing this issue. Additionally, inflation further decreases the purchasing power of lower income groups, causing conflict within the general population as it disproportionately affects them compared to the elite class.

The control over foreign investing and remittals is primarily held by the upper or elite class, causing a restricted flow of money in the economy that only benefits a small group of influential individuals. Meanwhile, the majority of the population is deprived of even basic necessities for survival.

Research Question

This research aims to analyze the aspects of class conflict in Pakistan, which arise from growing disparities among different segments of society. The existence of diverse social classes directly stems from income inequality experienced by the people.

Therefore, there is a clear and present struggle between the categories in our society.


The evaluation of existing literature in the current study area of the income distribution forms and the

class struggle in Pakistan will assist in assessing additional information on the subject matter and aid in establishing a better understanding of the research that is to be undertaken. Hasan ( 2002 ) conducted a study on the emerging trends of Pakistan's upper or elite class which is under heavy influence of the West. The post Bhutto era changed all the previous trends that the ruling class observed.

The elite category has distinguished itself from the center and lower categories, opting for private services rather than relying on public ones. This group consists of individuals deeply connected to Pakistan's political sphere, representing the nation's political landscape, society, and culture. Currently, Pakistan's elite class benefits greatly from their abundant income and wealth, as they are not affected by financial constraints. They have the means to afford luxurious travel and pursue education abroad. In contrast, a substantial portion of the population encounters challenges in meeting basic needs.

A study by Y. So (1991) investigated the causes of social stratification, which create a conflict among various societal groups and further accentuate differences. The research concentrated on political relations and the historical context in relation to this conflict between different groups. It scrutinized three primary elements: the circumstances surrounding the conflict, the complete process of the conflict, and the consequent effects of this conflict on both individual and societal levels.

By incorporating category conflict into the stratification theory, the author introduces a fresh perspective for analysis. The stratification theory classifies individuals based on their income distribution. People with similar characteristics form social groups or categories, which in turn result in social disparities. The Neo-Marxist theory emphasizes the realm of production and supports

the idea of conflict among emerging classes. The aim of this study was to examine the development of various categories.

The survey examines different forms of class conflict and how classes are formed, specifically looking at the reasons and causes of this phenomenon. According to Strasser (1980), there are two rules involved in societal inequality: stratification and class formation. The goal is to validate the work by comparing the claims made by the functional theory of societal stratification and to highlight the framework that underlies the analysis of societal inequality in a society. The author draws attention to his recent research in anthropology and ethnology to further explain his thesis and explores various theories of societal inequality, including functional, conservative, and progressive. Stratum refers to a group of people who share common characteristics such as income, occupation, status, etc.

The formation of different strata is primarily caused by socialization. People who have similar backgrounds tend to socialize more with each other rather than with those who are different. Inequality within society leads to an uneven distribution of tangible and symbolic resources, causing conflicts and tensions between social classes.

Classes and strata are formed based on the grouping of similar individuals and their lifestyles. According to Rashid (1985), Pakistan has had a feudal culture since its inception, which still exists today with many elites and politicians being part of it. While land reforms are necessary for a country like Pakistan, those responsible for their implementation are the ones who benefit the most from land ownership. The policymakers and implementers of these policies are often involved in politics and make up the majority of landlords in Pakistan. Landlords enjoy the

labor of lower-class individuals who tend to the lands that they do not own themselves.

The relationship between worker and maestro creates a struggle that will eventually erupt. The government is not attempting to address the unequal distribution of land among the population. Wealth is concentrated among a single ruling class. According to Chandra (1972), Pakistan has always been dominated by this ruling class. The author provides a comprehensive analysis of the class structure in Pakistan.

Despite being comprised mostly of Zamindars and bargainers from the upper class, the Muslim League's survey highlights the stagnant living conditions of the lower class. Unfortunately, after a considerable amount of time, these impoverished individuals constitute the majority of Pakistan's population, yet their living conditions and other crucial sectors remain unimproved. Conversely, noteworthy advancements have been observed in both industrial and private sectors.

Despite an influx of foreign investment, societal inequality remains unaffected as it primarily benefits landlords and capitalists. These influential investors have established monopolies, exacerbating disparities across different groups. Crenshaw and Ameen (1993) conducted a survey on third-world societal inequality, discovering that modernization and ecological-evolutionary theories provide more substantial evidence compared to dependency/world systems or urban prejudice theories. Their research encompasses an international evaluation of the factors contributing to income inequality, along with various conclusions derived from diverse theories. While injecting foreign capital may create opportunities for certain individuals, it simultaneously widens the gap as many are unable to reap its benefits.

Only those who are well integrated or part of the mainstream are able to benefit from economic growth and development in rural areas, leading to reduced mortality rates and stabilized income inequality. In a rapidly advancing world, social, cultural,

and religious conflicts are tearing apart not only developed countries but also less developed third world nations, according to Ahmed (1996). The author states that Pakistan is divided into various cultural groups, with the Punjabis being the largest group consisting mainly of the upper and middle classes.

However, inequality is prevalent throughout the entire state, with pockets of people who have limited access to resources. These pockets consist of various cultural groups such as Sindhi, Pushtoon, and Balochi people, who are less developed and integrated. Despite the fast development of Pakistan, there are factors that hinder progress and contribute to the gap between its people. While national integration is desirable, it has historically caused problems such as suppression. Even if national equality is promoted and different groups live in harmony, there will still be emerging ideas that may have negative consequences. Bulir (2001) conducted a study using the traditional Kuznets model to examine this issue.

Inflation decreases the purchasing power of the unfortunate individuals, as well as reducing overall income and increasing social disparities. The government can address this gap by imposing taxes on the wealthy. However, in Pakistan, there are only a few honest taxpayers compared to the number of poor individuals. This leads to tension among the population, as tax evaders, who are primarily from the ruling class or elites, are perceived negatively. The lower class is heavily impacted by inflation as they already have limited resources. With further reduction in their purchasing power, they are compelled to engage in corrupt practices.

Lower inflation rates, along with the level of development and financial redistribution, have been found to improve income equality. This effect is consistent across

all levels of GDP per capita, meaning that low inflation rates can help reduce income inequality. The level of development in a country, including factors such as employment, financial redistribution, and price stability, also contribute to improving income inequality. It should be noted that the impact of price stability on income distribution is not linear. When inflation is reduced from high levels, there is a significant decrease in income inequality. However, further reductions in inflation may only result in small increases in a country's gini coefficient. Kentor (2001) studied the effects of globalization on income distribution, population growth, and economic development. The goal was to understand the connections between these factors, as they are interconnected components of a complex system of unequal economic, social, and political relationships.

Globalization has both positive and negative effects on income inequality and income distribution. While it negatively affects per capita GNP growth, it has a positive impact on trade openness. It is important to make policies based on current circumstances rather than anticipation. In a study conducted by Hussain, Sharif, and Hasan (2009) in Pakistan, the impacts of trade openness, foreign direct investment (FDI), and remittances on income distribution and income inequality were examined. The findings revealed that increased trade openness leads to economic growth, reduces poverty, and creates a more equal income distribution. Trade liberalization has played a significant role in reducing income inequality through a significant increase in overall trade in recent years.

Pakistan has reduced duties from 200% to 25%. Despite unstable political and economic conditions, studies indicate that FDI has a positive impact on income distribution. FDI was initially limited to a few countries but has

increased significantly since it opened up to the industrial sector. While FDI had a beneficial effect on income distribution in Pakistan, remittances also play a crucial role in the economy. Though remittances declined after the 80s, Pakistan experienced a rapid increase after 2000. Furthermore, Pakistan is currently pursuing economic liberalization through privatization.

This will ultimately lead to economic growth and a reduction in poverty, as well as more equal distribution of income. According to their survey, income inequality in Pakistan does not show a significant increase or decrease over time.

Chapter 3 - Methodology

Research Type

My research is quantitative in nature. I collected data and used various statistical techniques to test the hypotheses derived from the research.

Data Type and Research Period

I conducted my research using primary data.

Primary information was gathered to analyze the category struggle since there is currently no historical data available. The questionnaire provided me with the necessary information to continue my research.

Beginnings of Data

A questionnaire was circulated with general inquiries about the issue of category struggle in Pakistan.

Findings ; Analysis

The arrested development theoretical model explains how socialization, stratification, and income disparity are related to category struggle. It demonstrates how these factors influence category struggle. The equation above shows that income disparity, socialization, and stratification are directly connected to category struggle, as all three variables have a positive relationship.

The ANOVA table shows that the P-value is below 0.01, indicating a significant relationship between category conflict and the 3 independent variables with 99% confidence. The R-Squared statistic indicates that the fitted model explains 61.3514% of the variability in Class Conflict. For comparison

between models with different numbers of independent variables, the adjusted R-squared statistic is 57.5264%. The standard error of the estimate is 0.388717, showing the standard deviation of the residuals.

This value can be utilized to construct anticipation bounds for new observations by selecting the "Reports" option from the text menu. The mean value of the remainders, which is 0.318889, represents the average absolute mistake (MAE). To determine if there is any significant correlation based on the order in which the remainders appear in the data file, the Durbin-Watson (DW) statistic is employed. Since the DW value exceeds 1.4, it is unlikely that there is any notable correlation among the remainders.

In the theoretical model, the highest p-value on the independent variables is 0.9133, which corresponds to stratification. Since the p-value is greater than or equal to 0.10, this variable is not significant at the 90% confidence level. Therefore, we can conclude that stratification has little to no effect on the dependent variable, category conflict. The questionnaire was distributed to a variety of individuals, including students and professors from Lahore School of Economics, doctors at CMH hospital, students from LMDC, shopkeepers at H-Block market in DHA, and individuals working as drivers and cooks in my community.

The main purpose of obtaining filled questionnaires from individuals of various income groups was to analyze and understand the relationship between socialization, stratification, and income disparity with the issue of class struggle. The only limitation of conducting this primary research was the relatively small sample size of 50 people, which made it difficult to draw a conclusive decision due to the broad nature of the subject and the differing opinions held by each

individual regarding class struggle. Overall, the respondents agreed that class struggle exists in our society and leads to problems such as income disparity and the division of the population into different strata.

Hypothesis testing:

H0: Class struggle is caused by income disparity
H1: Class struggle is not caused by income disparity
Based on the results, the p-value for income disparity is calculated to be 0.0466, which is less than 0.05. Therefore, we accept Ho at a 95% confidence interval. This implies that income disparity does cause class struggle.

According to respondents, class conflict in Pakistan is a result of income disparities. Currently, the rich are becoming wealthier while the poor are becoming poorer. This class conflict is directly related to income disparities. The hypothesis being tested is: H0 - There are social gaps between the different classes in Pakistan; H1 - There are no social gaps between the different classes in Pakistan. The p-value obtained from the regression analysis is 0.0000. Since the p-value is less than the significance level of 0.05, the null hypothesis is accepted, indicating that social gaps do exist between the different classes in Pakistan. It is important to note that the p-value is very small and significant.

The majority of respondents believed that social disparities exist in various categories of Pakistan. H0: Social disparities and societal exclusion result in social class conflict. H1: Social disparities and societal exclusion do not lead to social class conflict. The p-value of socialization in the regression analysis is 0.000, which is less than 0.05. We accept Ho at a 95% confidence level. This indicates that social disparities caused the issue of class conflict. Most people stated that wide social disparities,

differences, and societal exclusion contributed to class conflict. They believed that this division among social classes will lead to a significant struggle among the general population in Pakistan.

H0: The division of stratums is a significant factor contributing to category struggle. H1: The division of stratums is a significant factor contributing to category struggle. After examining the arrested development analysis, we can observe that the p-value for stratification is 0.9133, which is higher than 0.05. Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis with a 95 % confidence level. This indicates that stratification is not a major cause of the category struggle issue. One possible explanation for this result could be the small sample size, which is insufficient for drawing conclusions about the relationship between stratification and category struggle.


From the above statement, we can conclude that there is a noticeable category struggle within the population of Pakistan due to the unequal distribution of income in the country.

The ongoing struggle among the people is fueled by corrupt functionaries, the low number of honorable taxpayers, and resistance to change. Pakistan is also facing security threats and inefficient monetary policies, which hinder economic growth. As a result, the people are divided into various groups based on income, status, resources, and other factors. Stratification among the people is not of great importance according to the results, but it does contribute to the class struggle to some extent.

Socialization plays a crucial role in the class struggle. Individuals with similar backgrounds and social status are more likely to socialize with each other compared to those from different categories. This behavior is commonly observed where individuals with similar material or symbolic resources form a

social group, often excluding those who are different.

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