The Factors that Affect Health Status Essay Example
The Factors that Affect Health Status Essay Example

The Factors that Affect Health Status Essay Example

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  • Pages: 16 (4160 words)
  • Published: September 4, 2017
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The UK National Statistics department plays a crucial role in generating and monitoring statistics to identify trends of sickness within the country. These statistics are used to illustrate and track various types of illnesses in the UK. Government statistical departments have the responsibility of identifying and monitoring nationwide patterns of illness.

of which include:

  • The Department of Health
  • Health and Safety Executive
  • NHS Information Centre for
  • Health and Social Care

Data can be collected from different sources, such as birth certificates, death registries, and hospital admission records. These records offer valuable information that can be examined to obtain specific insights, like the weight of a newborn or the cause of someone's hospitalization.

In order to ensure easy access when needed, the government has required that these records be accessed an


d retained. Surveys, such as the UK government's national census conducted every 10 years since 1801, are utilized for statistical gathering purposes. The national census survey gathers information on each person within a household.

The representation of the UK enables comparison of its different regions, but statistical data may not always be fully accurate due to unreported health information. Therefore, these statistics provide only a general understanding of health in England. Additionally, surveys and reports like the 1980 Black Report can identify various forms of illness.

During a specific time period, it was found that there were significant health disparities. The Black Report emphasized that the death rate of men in the lowest social class was twice as high as the death rate of men in the highest social class, suggesting that inequality was on the rise rather than declining as expected. Currently, there are different types

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of illnesses prevalent in the UK, with varying patterns depending on the geographical location within England.

Acheson Report (1998) - The Acheson Report was a study requested by the new Labour government in 1997.

Former Chief Medical Officer for England and Wales Sir Donald Acheson conducted a comprehensive study on wellness inequalities in the UK. The study focused on individuals in society who were considered to be at a disadvantage. Acheson's findings were similar to the Black Report from 1980, which identified poverty as the main cause of wellness inequalities. The study concluded that in order to improve the overall wellness of the country, the gap between the higher and lower social classes in the UK needed to be reduced.

Our Healthy State (1999)

– Our Healthy Nation was an action program aimed at addressing poor health within the UK. It set achievable targets in areas where people are most at risk, including cancer and coronary heart disease.

According to Our Healthy Nation, incidents related to firearms and mental disorders are affected by societal, economic, and environmental elements. They suggest that making healthier choices for individuals and their families can make a substantial difference.

It is important to give individuals and their families accurate information about the risks associated with exercising, eating better, and giving up smoking in order to enhance one's health. The UK faces health inequality, which primarily impacts the most disadvantaged individuals and significantly affects their overall well-being. To address this disparity, the government plans to introduce various education-centered initiatives.

Public assistance should prioritize work, housing, transportation, and the environment in order to improve overall wellness. It is equally important to address key

issues related to sexual health and drugs.

The Programme for Action, called Undertaking Health Inequalities (2003), aims to address health disparities in the UK by establishing the necessary foundations to reduce infant mortality rates among different social groups. It addresses issues related to intoxicant usage, nutrient safety, and susceptibility to diseases.

Moreover, the program aims to improve life expectancy in disadvantaged regions of the United Kingdom and tackle both immediate and long-term causes of preventable health problems. Its main goal is to address disparities based on geography, gender, cultural communities, and social and economic groups. The collaboration between frontline practitioners, community groups, and non-governmental organizations has already produced positive results in reducing local health inequalities.

Choosing Health: Making healthy picks easier (2004) – The White Paper Choosing Health: making healthier choices easier outlines the government's approach to addressing multiple public health concerns, including smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, and mental and sexual health. A crucial aspect of this strategy involves labeling fat, sugar, and salt levels in food products to enhance public understanding of their effects on wellness. This effort has been highly effective primarily due to extensive media coverage it received in the past.

(P4) (M2): In the UK, there are multiple factors that affect an individual's well-being and contribute to the current state of wellness. These factors include socio-economic issues, which have a significant impact on the forms and trends of poor health.

The topics that are addressed in this article include education, residing in a rural country, pollution, sexuality, and genetic sciences.

Culture and Diet.

  • Factor
  • Consequence
  • Socio-economic

Social category – The concept of "social category" pertains to an individual's placement in the current societal hierarchy, as determined by their wealth and accomplishments. Within the UK, the lower category and middle category are widely acknowledged social categories.

Geographical location is a significant factor in determining social status, with the majority of people in the UK falling into the middle category. This leads to relatively little difference between the upper and lower categories. However, inequality remains present. Statistics show that individuals born in countries classified as lower face more significant health obstacles than those born in higher category regions.

Individuals born into a lower societal category face more obstacles in their daily lives compared to those born into a more privileged location. These challenges hinder the ability of individuals to maintain good health, as limited income or time prevent them from providing healthy meals for themselves and their families. Furthermore, individuals in the lower societal category may lack sufficient funds to take time off work or attend to their family's needs, leading to less effective utilization of healthcare services. In contrast, residents of wealthier areas do not encounter these difficulties.

Mental Health in Less Prosperous Countries: People living in less prosperous countries are more likely to develop mental health problems, like depression, compared to those from wealthier social classes. This increased vulnerability is caused by the widespread corruption they encounter every day, including high levels of unemployment.

Housing and its Impact: Inadequate housing directly affects people's health negatively. Previous attempts to address the issue of substandard housing and its harmful impact on health have been unsuccessful. For example, individuals with poor health often live in low-quality housing

due to limited financial resources.

The primary dangers for individuals are cold, moisture, and moldy conditions. Martin et al., a male, conducted the initial survey in 1986 within a region of North Edinburgh. The residents were worried about the impact of moisture on their health. All the data gathered supports this concern.

There was no conclusive evidence indicating that damp conditions were causing health issues. The Council of Environmental Health Officers conducted a separate study and also concluded that there was no notable distinction between individuals living in damp housing compared to those in non-damp residences. However, it was determined that poor housing conditions were linked to illness in children. Children living in damp environments were 85% more likely to experience headaches and pains.

nervousnesss. diarrhea concerns and respiratory jobs occurred over the course of two months, compared to the 60% of kids living in non-damp housing.

The presence of visible mold in the home can lead to higher rates of vomiting and sore throats in children. Additionally, research suggests that adults living in damp housing may also experience similar symptoms related to moisture and mold. Furthermore, as humidity levels increase, the likelihood of illness also rises. Moreover, inadequate housing conditions such as overcrowding and residing in high-rise apartments have been associated with psychological problems like depression.

The rising rates of anxiety and depression are impacted by a range of societal and economic factors, with housing issues being particularly influential.


Achieving higher levels of education is associated with improved health outcomes and a greater understanding of healthcare choices, empowering individuals to effectively access the provided healthcare services.

Increasing one's level of education enhances the likelihood of securing better-paying jobs,

ultimately resulting in an enhanced quality of life and mental well-being. This progress is evident through individuals' capacity to afford nourishing food and adopt a healthier way of living. Moreover, possessing a deeper understanding of what constitutes healthy behavior further promotes overall wellness.

This awareness would enable individuals to enhance their decision-making regarding their diet, alcohol consumption, smoking behaviors, and overall physical activity.

Living in a Rural Area

Rural living has its pros and cons on the mental and physical well-being of individuals as it varies from urban areas.

The main idea is that rural areas, also called the countryside, have large amounts of land and fewer buildings. Living in these regions can have a positive impact on health because pollution levels are lower compared to urban areas such as towns where there is a higher concentration of pollutants from cars and planes. Moreover, people living in rural areas are less likely to experience respiratory issues.

Open spaces in rural areas not only provide scenic views, but they also promote mental well-being and physical activity. Moreover, individuals living in rural areas are less prone to assault compared to their urban counterparts due to the lower population density.

Living in rural areas can result in heightened feelings of isolation and adverse effects on mental well-being, potentially resulting in elevated suicide rates. Moreover, accessing healthcare services can pose challenges for rural residents who reside at a considerable distance from hospitals and GP surgeries. Furthermore, the increased distances that healthcare services must travel to reach rural regions can also contribute to an augmented quantity of accident-related fatalities.

Rural areas pose a greater risk of road traffic accidents and higher fatality rates compared to urban areas.

The increased speed limits contribute to this elevated danger. Additionally, limited access to public transportation in rural regions leads to more frequent collisions and a higher occurrence of drinking and driving since people rely less on buses or trains. Consequently, the mortality rate for road traffic accidents is heightened in rural areas.

Due to the absence of public transportation, more people are opting to use their own vehicles for travel.


Pollution happens when different types of pollutants like gas, liquid, light, and sound harm the environment.

Gas pollutants:

Toxins emitted by cigarettes and airplanes.

Liquid pollutants:

Hazardous waste or pesticides used by farmers to improve crop growth.

Both light and sound pollutants, such as street visible radiations and vehicles Pollution, have adverse effects on the environment and can ultimately harm an individual's physical health. The level of this health damage depends on the extent of exposure to these pollutants and their negative impacts. It is important to mention that certain individuals, especially infants, may be more susceptible to sensitivity caused by pollution.

Pregnant adult females, the elderly, and individuals with health issues are more susceptible to pollution risks. This includes low levels of pollution that can cause minor symptoms like eye and throat irritation. However, continuous exposure to even low concentrations of pollution can have long-term effects on general health.

Pregnant adult females face a higher risk of giving birth to children with asthma if they are continuously exposed to low pollution levels. Conversely, brief exposure to high pollution levels can be highly hazardous and even lead to fatalities. The "Smog Disaster" in London in 1952 caused the deaths of four thousand individuals within a short period due to increased pollution levels. Additionally, living

in an urban area with excessive noise and light pollution has adverse effects on mental well-being and may potentially result in depression.


The physical and mental well-being of an individual can be affected by their sexual orientation, which is influenced by their gender. Engaging in sexual activities poses potential risks, including the transmission of STDs, regardless of whether someone identifies as homosexual or heterosexual.

Despite the progress made in contemporary England, where society largely accepts homosexuality, discrimination and prejudice against the LGBTQ+ community persist. This creates challenges for individuals in dealing with their own homosexuality and can contribute to feelings of depression. It is worth noting that certain religious households continue to view homosexuality as a sin and do not fully acknowledge or accept it.

Nonconformity to accepted gender roles can lead to homelessness and feelings of societal rejection, particularly among young homosexual men who experience the highest suicide rates due to societal rejection.


Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele. Both parents must carry the recessive allele for their child to be affected by this condition.

If a couple with the allele decides to have a baby, there is a 25% chance of the child being born with Cystic Fibrosis. This condition affects the body's internal organs by blocking them with mucus, making it difficult for the individual to breathe. Cystic Fibrosis is a progressive disorder and currently has no cure.

Currently, an individual's average life expectancy with the disease is 31. Despite the absence of a cure, there are measures in place to support the individuals in maintaining their health for as long as they can, including treatments such as a healthy diet.

Exerting physical therapy

and medical specialty intervention can help with the consequence of mucous secretion blocking up the lungs. However, this condition can make it difficult for individuals to breathe and eat properly, ultimately impacting their daily lives. Cystic Fibrosis is a significant factor influencing patterns and trends of illness in the UK, with an estimated 2 million people expected to carry the gene in the future.

Thalassemia is a group of familial disorders that affect a portion of the blood called hemoglobin, causing dysfunction in the affected red blood cells. This can result in anemia. In thalassemia, the production of hemoglobin is abnormal, leading to a decrease in the transportation of oxygen throughout the body.

The symptoms of thalassaemia include feeling tired, breathless, drowsy, and faint. If thalassaemia is not treated, these symptoms may persist.

It can cause a variety of complications, including organ damage, restricted growth, liver disease, heart failure, and death.

Thalassemia is an inherited condition with unknown causes that are associated with thalassaemia. Diagnosis of thalassemia involves blood and DNA tests to determine the specific type. Pregnant women routinely undergo check-ups to screen for inherited disorders like sickle cell anemia. Treatments for the condition may involve bone marrow transplants and cord blood transplants, but these procedures can lead to various complications and are not suitable for everyone.


Culture refers to a person's ethnicity, diet, and faith. It is closely associated with rules and traditions enforced by the family, which can have an impact on an individual's health.

In certain cases, civilization can have an impact on an individual's well-being. For instance, if someone has been taught that blood transfusions are wrong and that they should refuse such a procedure

even if it risks their own life, they are more likely to adhere to that belief and die when it could have been prevented. This can also be seen with homosexuality, where it can result in the individual being rejected by their family. However, culture can also prove beneficial to a person's health. For example, those who follow a traditional Japanese diet are most likely to have a longer lifespan compared to individuals following other national diets due to the diet's inherent healthiness.

The Nipponese diet consists mainly of fish, rice, and vegetables. These examples demonstrate the influence of civilization on various aspects of health, both positively and negatively.


Diet plays a significant role in determining overall health in contemporary society.

Poor nutrition can lead to type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, malnutrition, and obesity.

malignant neoplastic disease, high blood force per unit area, and shots are global concerns, including in the UK. Obesity is not limited to one country but is an issue worldwide. The World Health Organisation (WHO) forecasts that 2.

The global population is expected to reach 3 billion adults by 2015, with over 700 million of them being obese. Among these adults are large groups of adolescents, particularly females, who suffer from eating disorders that can lead to malnutrition. There are various factors that are likely to affect the current and future health patterns in the United Kingdom. One example is how an individual's diet can impact their current health patterns, such as life expectancy.

  • Factor: Socio-economic
  • Influence: Social class is a key factor affecting life expectancy.

The higher an individual's societal position,

the wealthier they are, which translates to a better overall quality of life. Those with a better quality of life are more likely to live longer compared to those with a poorer quality of life. This is because they are more likely to have a healthier diet, be less vulnerable to crime, and have better mental stability than those in a lower societal category. Their lives are also less stressful, which means they have fewer concerns. For instance, males born into a family where their parents are professionals have a higher quality of life than those born into a family where their parents are not as skilled.

This theory can be supported by statistics from 2007, which show that the gap between societal categories should decrease in the future. This decrease has been a result of significant improvements in equality in the UK over the years.


Having a good education increases an individual's likelihood of success in life and obtaining a satisfying career and quality of life. In contrast, those who are not well educated are less likely to succeed and more likely to have low-paying jobs, which negatively impacts their quality of life. This can also have significant implications for their health, as they may not be able to afford to eat as healthily as those in higher-paying jobs.

This argument asserts that professionals have a higher life expectancy compared to unskilled manual workers. This claim is supported by statistics previously used in the field of social class. According to National Statistics, males in the professional category had a life expectancy at birth of 80.0 years, while those in the manual unskilled class had a life expectancy

of 72.7 years.

Residing in a Rural Area

Living in a rural area can have a negative impact on a person's health because it is challenging to access healthcare services. Additionally, there is a higher risk of fatal road traffic accidents. These factors can decrease life expectancy in rural areas. The National Statistics survey provides evidence of these effects.

The life expectancy in London is, on average, two years longer than in rural areas, according to statistics. However, the same data also indicates that life expectancy in rural areas is increasing and is predicted to continue doing so in the future. Source.

uk/ons/dcp171778_238743. pdf


Pollution has the potential to reduce life expectancy by increasing the risk of respiratory diseases such as asthma. In 2009, the NHS reported that a study conducted in the USA revealed that individuals residing in polluted areas are expected to live 10 months less than those in non-polluted areas, such as the countryside where the air is cleaner. World Wide Web.

New Hampshire. uk/news/2009/01January/Pages/Pollutionandlifeexpectancy.aspx


As previously mentioned, Cystic Fibrosis is a progressive disorder with no known cure. Individuals with this disorder have an average life expectancy of 31. This can have implications for their overall health, as approximately 7.

The number of people with the condition is 500 and the number of people carrying the gene is 2 million. While there may not be a cure, there are interventions being researched and improved. With the advancements in treatments and research, the life expectancy for individuals with Cystic Fibrosis is expected to continue increasing, as it has been in recent years. According to the World Wide Web.

disabled-world. com shows that the life

expectancy for individuals with the disorder in the 1980s was only 14 years old, demonstrating a significant improvement in life expectancy.


Individuals' beliefs and traditions may contribute to variations in life expectancy, as they may choose to live longer based on their preferred healthy lifestyle.

The diversity within cultural groups falls within the realm of civilization, and throughout the United Kingdom, there are disparities in equity based on an individual's ethnicity. The publication of the Black Report has had a significant impact on narrowing the gap between the white British majority and ethnic minorities. However, there still exist inequalities between these groups. Government statistics reveal that white British individuals are projected to have a lifespan approximately two years longer than those belonging to cultural minorities.

The statistics state that, on average, white British individuals are expected to live to 77.7 years of age, compared to individuals in the ethnic minority who, on average, are expected to live to 75.5 years of age. World Wide Web.

Lancashire. gov. United Kingdom


It is widely recognized that a nutritious diet can enhance a person's lifespan. Various intelligence studies highlight the benefits of healthy eating and the detrimental impact of an unhealthy diet. For instance, one study reveals that a wholesome diet can extend an individual's life and reduce the risk of developing cancer.

By consuming unhealthy nutrients regularly for an extended period of time, one can increase the risk of several diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This information can be found on the website World Wide Web Livestrong (

The individual is at a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese. Obesity is a killer and its

prevalence is currently increasing. Being overweight can lead to arthritis, diabetes, and cancer.

Coronary heart disease and high blood pressure are common health issues in the UK. According to the BBC, approximately 60.8% of adults in the UK are estimated to be obese. This problem is increasing and may affect 75% of the population in the UK within the next 15 years. World Wide Web.

bbc. co. uk/health/physical_health/conditions/obesity. shtml In the past 50 years, the UK government (England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland) has made significant efforts to enhance the overall health of the population in the UK.

The government has increased public awareness of health risks and the actions individuals can take to improve their well-being. This includes informing the population about the dangers of smoking and its impact on one's health. In addition to smoking, people are also encouraged to make informed decisions related to diet, exercise, driving safety, and education. The government's efforts have greatly influenced the population's understanding of wellness over the past 50 years.

The harmful effects of smoking were initially discovered in 1961, and since then, authorities have continuously worked to prevent people from smoking and save lives. The first government initiative took place in 1971, requiring industries to display compulsory anti-smoking advertisements on their packaging, such as "smoking kills." This initiative greatly raised awareness in the UK about the negative health effects of smoking. Another government initiative, known as "The Tobacco Advertising and Smoking Bill 2001," officially banned ads promoting smoking in 2002. The significant decrease in smoking since 1948 is proof that these government initiatives have positively affected public health in the UK. The government has also been working to improve

road safety.

Driving under the influence of an intoxicant increases the likelihood of an individual having a road accident. The government has implemented health campaigns to tackle drink driving over the past few years, with the aim of reducing or preventing road traffic collisions in the UK. Moreover, the government has also implemented stricter measures to deter individuals from driving while under the influence of alcohol. Currently, the maximum penalty for being caught drinking and driving is a ?5000 fine, a driving license suspension, and 6 months imprisonment.

If a person causes a fatal accident while driving under the influence of alcohol and kills someone, they can be sentenced to a maximum of 14 years in prison. Besides the measures implemented to prevent drinking and driving, the government has also taken other initiatives to deter people from using their phones while driving, encourage seat belt usage, and raise awareness about road rage. Obesity has become a significant issue in the UK in the 21st century.

After addressing the problem of smoking, the prime minister introduced a new piece of legislation called "Choosing Health: Making healthy choices easier". This legislation was created to inspire individuals to tackle obesity and improve their emotional well-being by making healthy choices more accessible in the UK.

The authorities implemented a healthier state initiative to prevent individuals from becoming obese and subsequently developing other health issues such as type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. It is currently too soon to determine whether this legislation has had a tangible positive effect on health patterns and trends in the UK. However, on the contrary,

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