# Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Flashcards, test questions and answers

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## What is Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium?

The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is a fundamental concept in population genetics that is used to determine the genetic frequencies of alleles in a population. It is named after the two German mathematicians, G.H. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg, who independently developed it in 1908. The equation states that under certain conditions, allele frequencies will remain constant from one generation to the next and can be used to estimate gene frequency in a population by examining genotypes of individuals within it.The assumptions underlying the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are: 1) Random mating: All individuals have an equal probability of mating with any other individual in the population; 2) Large Population Size: The population size must be large enough such that no one individual or small group has a significant impact on allele frequencies; 3) No Mutations: There must be no mutations occurring between generations; 4) No selection pressure: Natural selection must not act upon any particular genotype more than another; 5) No Migration: There must be no migration into/out of the population so that alleles don’t enter or leave it. If these five assumptions are met, then we can use the equation p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 to determine gene frequency (where p is dominant allele frequency and q is recessive allele frequency). By examining genotypes of individuals within a given population, we can calculate p and q using this equation which gives us an indication of how common certain alleles are in that particular population. This information can then be used by scientists to study different aspects of evolution as well as diseases associated with specific genes. Overall, understanding Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium provides us with an important tool for studying populations at both local and global levels from identifying trends in genetic inheritance amongst different species to investigating disease prevalence among human populations around the world.