AP BIO evolution study guide

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how did Linnaeus classify organisms?
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One of his contributions was the development of a hierarchical system of classification of nature. Today, this system includes eight taxa: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
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George Cuvier
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the first person to provide evidence for extinctions
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Charles Lyell
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supported the theory of gradualism
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Alfred Wallace
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work not published- Natural selection first
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Thomas Malthus
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If a population became too big, it lead to war, famine, and disease
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John Henslow
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Darwins inspiration
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Charles Darwin
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The father of evolution. The man who wrote the book on Evolution
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The 5 pieces of evidence for evolution
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-fossils -anatomical structures (bone development) -molecular records -artificial selection -embryo development
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the 5 mechanisms for evolution
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-mutation -gene flow -non-random mating -genetic drift -selection
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homologous structures
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recent common ancestors, close evolutionary relationships
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analogous structures
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similar function, no evolutionary relationship
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what did Darwin not know about organisms?
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he did not know where organisms originated
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what are the 5 criteria for Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium equation
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-large population -no migration -no genetic change -random mating -no natural selection
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two equations for Hardy Weinberg?
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-alleles (p+q=1) -individuals(p2+2pq+q2=1)
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random selection
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when mating no preference
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directional selection
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Changing environmental conditions can result in a directional shift in an allele’s frequency.
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stabilizing selection
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In which genetic diversity decreases & the population mean stabilizes on a particular trait value
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sexual selection
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non-random mating
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gametic isolation
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sperm or egg cell do not match due to no reproduction
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temporal isolation
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is an evolutionary mechanism that keeps individuals of different species from interbreeding, even if they live in the same environment
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Behavioral isolation
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is an important evolutionary mechanism that helps members of the same species identify each other as proper mates
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habitats isolation
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being in separate habitats prevents from mating
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mechanical isolation
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the genitalia of the males and females may have different sizes, shapes, or locations
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allopatric speciation
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Geographical barrier isolates species forming new species
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divergent evolution
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when 2 or more biological characteristics have a common evolutionary origin but have diverged over time
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convergent evolution
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process in which unrelated species from similar environments have adaptions that seem very similar
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monophyletic
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In common cladistic usage, taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants
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polyphyletic
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group is characterized by one or more homoplasies: phenotypes which have converged or reverted so as to appear to be the same but which have not been inherited from common ancestors.
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the group of the kingdoms from largest to smallest
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Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Eubacteria Archaebacteria

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