Chief Justice John Marshall Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Chief Justice John Marshall?
Chief Justice John Marshall was one of the most influential figures in the history of American jurisprudence. He served as Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835 and is considered by many to be one of the greatest justices in U.S. history. John Marshall was born in Virginia on September 24, 1755 and went on to attend college at The College of William & Mary. After graduating, he joined the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War before then joining a law practice and eventually becoming a lawyer. In 1797, President John Adams appointed him Secretary of State, which he held until 1800 when he was nominated to become Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Thomas Jefferson. Marshall’s tenure as Chief Justice saw numerous landmark decisions that had a significant impact on American jurisprudence for decades to come. His decision in Marbury v Madison (1803) established judicial review – where courts could review legislation passed by Congress – as part of US law and is still taught today as part of constitutional law courses across America. Other important decisions included Fletcher v Peck (1810), Dartmouth College v Woodward (1819), Gibbons v Ogden (1824), Cohens v Virginia (1821) which established federal power over state power; McCulloch v Maryland (1819) which established implied powers for Congress; and Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831). All these cases were instrumental in establishing an expansive interpretation of federal power over state power, furthering national supremacy over states’ rights within America’s legal system even today. Marshall also wrote opinions that advanced civil liberties such as freedom from unreasonable search and seizure or freedom from self-incrimination, writing what we now know as The Bill Of Rights into American judicial system firmly through his judgements throughout his career on the bench. Ultimately, it can be said that during his 34-year tenure at The Supreme Court John Marshall provided invaluable service towards US legal development through his various contributions including cementing national supremacy over states’ rights along with other civil liberties enshrined into our legal system today due to his work throughout all those years ago while serving on The Supreme Court under Presidents Adams & Jefferson all those years ago.