Praxis II Social Studies 0081 – Flashcards

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Hammurabi's Code
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Is best summarized by the following expression, "An eye for and eye"
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Paleolithic Age
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Old Stone Age, during the this period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting or scavenging wild animals. This period is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools. Were nomadic and lived in small groups.
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Roman Empire's use of slavery in their economy
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Led to a lack of innovation in manufacturing and agriculture.
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Hippocrates
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Contributed to the knowledge of the ancient Greeks by proposing new methods for treating diseases.
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Charlemagne
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He attempted to unitfy his lands in Western Europe after his death in 814 C.E. because regional loyalties that owtweighed allegience to his son.
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Mao Zedong
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Successfully implemented communism in China because he had the support of the Chinese peasantry.
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West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mail, Songhai between 1000 to 1500
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Rose in power and wealth because they controlled the cross-Sahara trade of salt from northern Africa for the gold of tropical Africa.
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Merchants
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This group in medieval Europe helped loosen fuedal ties.
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Neolithic Period
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In the Middle East, the sedentary agriculture was based on barley, wheat, and pigs. New Stone Age (following the mesolithic)
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Sedentary Agriculture
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Farming system in which the farmer remains settled in one place
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Shifting cultivation
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Farming system where farmers move on from one place to another when the land becomes exhausted. The most common form is slash-and-burn agriculture: land is cleared by burning, so that crops can be grown. Slash-and-burn is practised in many tropical forest areas, such as the Amazon region, where yams, cassava, and sweet potatoes can be grown
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Nomadic pastoralism
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Farming system where animals (cattle, goats, camels) are taken to different locations in order to find fresh pastures.
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Suez Crisis, 1956
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Also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, was a military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel beginning on 29 October 1956. A consequence from this crisis was, that president Nasser of Egypt gained prestige as the leader of Arab opposition to Western Colonialism.
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Yalta Conference
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Was the February 4-11, 1945 wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, for the purpose of discussing Europe's postwar reorganization. Mainly, it was intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. Established new boundaries for Poland.
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Sun Yat-sen
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Led a movement to create a united, democratic China free from foreign control.
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The Silk Road
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Is an extensive interconnected network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, as well as North and Northeast Africa and Europe. It spread Buddhism from India to China.
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Animal husbandry
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An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
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Mesolithic Period
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Middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago
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The Neolithic Revolution
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Was the first agricultural revolution—the transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement. Archaeological data indicate that various forms of domestication of plants and animals arose independently in at least seven or eight separate locales worldwide, with the earliest known developments taking place in the Middle East around 10,000 BC or earlier
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Acropolis
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The religious center of Athens in Ancient Greece; meeting place; site of Parthenona. Large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
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Socrates
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Ancient Athenian philosopher who helped bring about Greece's Golden Age
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Plato
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Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society.
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The Republic
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A political order in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who are entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them
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Peloponnesian War
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A war fought between Athens and Sparta; won by Sparta because it was able to cut off Athens' grain supply.
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Alexander the Great
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King of Macedonia who conquered Greece, Persia, Egypt and the Indus Valley; spred Greek culture across three continents
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Thucydides
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Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles
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Aristotle
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Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
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Macedonia
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An an ancient kingdom ruled by Alexander the Great that conquered most of Greece and the Persian Empire in the 300s B.C.
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Alexandria
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City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
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Helladic Period
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Bronze age Greece, started around 2800 BC and lasted till 1050 BC in Crete while in the Aegean islands it started in 3000 BC. The economy of the villages depended on production of tools, weapons, agriculture and art and architecture.The need for more metals and goods lead to introduction of different colonies and barter creating set-up for trade.
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Minoan Age
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Bronze Age civilization, centring on the island of Crete. Built huge palaces, writing, artisans, traded w/Egypt, Phoenicia and Mesopotamia
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Mycenaean Age
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Lasted from about 2000 B.C.E to the conquest of the Greek peninsula by invaders in the 1100s. Were bold traders and maintained contact with other countries from the Mediterranean and Europe. They were excellent engineers and built outstanding bridges, tombs, residences and palaces. Civilization is dedicated to King Agamemnon who led the Greeks in the Trojan War.
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Sparta
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Was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which completely focused on military training and excellence.
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Oligarchy
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A form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, military might, or religious hegemony.
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Mixed government
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Also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy. It means there are some issues (often defined in a constitution) where the state is governed by the majority of the people, in some other issues the state is governed by few, in some other issues by a single person (also often defined in a constitution). The idea is commonly treated as an antecedent of separation of powers.
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Athenian democracy
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A type of government used in Athens which is sort of a combine of majority rule and democracy. It remains a unique and intriguing experiment in direct democracy where the people do not elect representatives to vote on their behalf but vote on legislation and executive bills in their own right. Greek democracy created at Athens was a direct, not a representative democracy: any adult male citizen of age could take part, and it was a duty to do so.
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Pericles
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Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece. Was a prominent and influential statesman, orator, and general of Athens during the city's Golden Age—specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Also, he led Athens in the war against Sparta.
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The Assembly
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The central events of the Athenian democracy. It had four main functions; it made executive pronouncements (decrees, such as deciding to go to war or granting citizenship to a foreigner); it elected some officials; it legislated; and it tried political crimes.
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The Golden Age
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Is the term used to denote the historical period in Classical Greece lasting roughly from the end of the Persian Wars in 448 BCE to either the death of Pericles 429 BCE or the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.
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Polis
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Greek word for city-state. Is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. When used to describe Classical Athens and its contemporaries, it is often translated as "city-state."
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Roman Senate
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A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic they effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire. Formed by Romulus; served for life; administered laws and decrees; controlled treasury and collected taxes; appointed military commanders; received foreign ambassadors and ratified treaties with foreign powers.
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Pax Romana
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A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
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Diocletian
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Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians. Separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and re-organized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire.
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Eastern Orthodox Church
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Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia.
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Constantine
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Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337). Roman Emperor who founded Constantinople as the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire; reunited the Roman Empire
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Julius Caesar
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Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power. Roman general who became the republic's dictator; created the basis for the calendar
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Augustus
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Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC. First Roman Emperor
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Carthage
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City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E.
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Tribunes
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An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.
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Attila
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Leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire's borders during the 5th century.
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Olmec
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The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., these people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
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Vedic
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Having to do with or pertaining to the Vedas-the oldest scriptures in India and the world, passed through oral tradition.
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Caste System
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A set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society.
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Gupta Empire
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Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism.
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Hinduism
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An eastern religion which evolved from an ancient Aryan religion in which followers strive to free their soul from reincarnation until the soul is finally freed. This religion is practiced primarily in India.
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Buddhism
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The teaching that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth.
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Zhou dynasty
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The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History.
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Qin dynasty
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A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). Their ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects.
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Han dynasty
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Imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; was an age of economic prosperity, and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1050-256 BCE).
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Daoism
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Philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
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Confucianism
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A philosophy that most emphasizes proper relationships as the basis for social and political order. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
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Praetorian Guard
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The elite bodyguard of a Roman Emperor
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Marcus Aurelius
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Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
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Byzantine Empire
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A continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395, rose out of the split of East and Western Roman Empire; lasted another 1000 years; kept Hellenism alive; fell in 1453 by the Ottomans
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Huns
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Nomadic people from Asia who attacked Europe in the 4th Century and then invaded the northwest part of India in the 5th Century.
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Mongols
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A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
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Byzantine culture
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Greco-Roman culture continued to flourish, language was Greek, Orthodox Christianity, Greek and Roman knowledge was perserved in libraries
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Islam
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The monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
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Ottoman Empire
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Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
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Mayans
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A Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Preclassic period,(c. 250 CE to 900 CE), and continued until the arrival of the Spanish.
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Aztecs
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(1200-1521) 1300, They settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
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Incas
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A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
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The Black Death
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By 1348, this disease ravaged from Italy, Spain, and France to the rest of Europe; transmitted by fleas on rats; considered an epidemic; one in three people died; spread from Asia to middle east; people turned to witchcraft for cures; some beat themselves because they considered the disease God's punishment; Christians blamed Jews; production declined; higher wages; inflation
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Tang Dynasty
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The imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907, with its capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), the most populous city in the world at the time, is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization—equal to, or surpassing that of, the earlier Han Dynasty—a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han period
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Ming Dynasty
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A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia
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Song Dynasty
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(960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Tai Zu; by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; *landscape black and white paintings
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Kingdom of Maili
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Was a West African empire of the Mandinka from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. This Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. This empire extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces.
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Kingdom of Ghana
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First of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (7th - 13th century). Located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and part of Mali, it acted as intermediary between Arab and Berber salt traders to the north and gold and ivory producers to the south.
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Kingdom of Songhay (Songhai)
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Was an African state of west Africa. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, It was one of the largest African empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group. Its capital was the city of Gao, where a small state had existed since the 11th century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present day Niger and Burkina Faso.
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Magellan
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He was the first to prove that the new world really was a distinct landmass, separate from Asia. After sailing around around the southern tip of South America he sailed westward acrosst he Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, claiming them for Spain., Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
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Vasco Da Gama
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Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
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Christopher Columbus
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Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization.
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Copernicus
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Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
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Galileo
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Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
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Newton
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This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
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Absolutism
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A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
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Locke
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Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
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Voltaire
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French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
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Rousseau
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Wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, The Social Contract, & Emile. He identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted when man claimed that they owned land. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated Parlaiment because the delegates made laws not the people.
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Reformation
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A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
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Renaissance
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The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
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Enlightenment
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An intellectual movement concentrated in France during the 1700's developed rational laws to describe social behavior and applied their findings in support of human rights and liberal economic theories.
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French Revolution
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The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
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Haitian Revolution
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Toussaint l'Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world's second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
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Industrial Revolution
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The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
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Urbanization
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Movement of people from rural areas to cities. Refers to a process in which an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities. Historically, it has been closely connected with industrialization
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The factory system
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Each worker created a separate part of the total assembly of a product, thus increasing the efficiency of factories. Factories spread wildly as well in the 1820s. Many of these factories were also built alongside water to take advantage of water power. Many also had massive smokestacks. Factories polluted both water and air.
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Marxism
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The economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
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Liberalism
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A political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
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Socialism
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A theory or system that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole. An economic system in which government owns some factors of production and participates in answering economic questions. It offers some security and benefits to those who are less fortunate, homeless, or under-employed.
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Imperialism
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A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
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The Meiji Restoration
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Period of time where the shoguns were abolished as military leaders of the government and all controll was given to the government and Japan was modernized
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Lenin
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Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
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Stalin
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Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
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Mao Zedong
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This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
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Mohandas Gandhi
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A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
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Kwame Nkrumah
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Founder of Ghana's independence movement and Ghana's first priesident
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Nelson Mandela
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Born 1918. 11th President of South Africa. Spent 27 years in prison after conviction of charges while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid. Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
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Facism
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A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition
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Communism
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A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
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League of Nations
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International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
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The Great Leap Forward
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In 1958 Zedong launched a program; he urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output and created communes; Rural communes set up "backyard" industries to produce steel; this program failed b/c "backyards" produced low-quality, communes had slow food output, bad weather, and a famine. What is this program called?
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Cultural Revolution
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A radical sociopolitical movement in China c1966-71, led by Mao Zedong and characterized by military rule, terrorism, purges, restructuring of the educational system, etc.
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Neo Colonialism
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A process of acculturation or cultural imperialism through which forms of industrial, political and economic organization are often imposed on other cultures under the guise of getting aid in the form of technological and industrial "progress," but it can still lead to good things, like bringing needed infrastructure
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Gorbachev
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Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
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Perestroika
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An economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union, a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society.
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Glasnost
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Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
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International Monetary Fund
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An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
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United Nations
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International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
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European Union
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An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
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Russian Revolution
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The coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
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Mexican Revolution
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This revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist and agrarianist movements, led by Fransico Madero, 1810 to 1823. They fought for independence from Spain and for social justice; they wanted equal rights for Indians, mestizos,
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Chinese Revolution
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The struggle between Nationalists and Communists forces in China that began in the 1920's and ended in 1949 with a Communist victory
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Homo erectus
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Hominids who are believed to have walked completely upright like modern people do, called "Upright Man". First developed in Africa.
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Nomadic Herding
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Is a way of life where families move along with their herds according to the seasons and rely on their animals for food, shelter and clothing. They can tend to cattle, camels, goats, horses, reindeer, or sheep.
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Slash-and-burn agriculture
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Consists of cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock, or for a variety of other purposes. It is sometimes part of shifting cultivation agriculture, and of transhumance livestock herding.
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Settled Agriculture
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As opposed to slash-and-burn varieties, usually implied some forms of property so that land could be identified as belonging to a family, a village, or a landlord. Only with property was there incentive to introduce improvements, such as wells or irrigation measures, that could be monopolized by those who created them or left to their heirs.
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Hunting and Gathering
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The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance. Prehistoric Cave People Moved in Search of Food
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The Four Noble Truths
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The core of the Buddhist teaching. There is suffering. There is a cause to suffering. There is an end to suffering. The is a path out of suffering (the Noble 8-fold path).
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The Concept of Zero
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Was developed in India and brought to Europe by Arab mathematicians. The place-value notation was much more efficient than the unwieldly numerical systems of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans.
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Crusades
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A series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims. A result were new products and technologies brought back to Europe.
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Fuedalism
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A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land. Socioeconomics predominated in both Europe and Japan between 700 and 1300 BCE.
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Guild System
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Eliminated competition, set regulations for size, price, standard, etc...and created a training program for people to become members (apprentice, journey man, master).
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Humanism
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An intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics. A system of thought based on the study of human ideas and actions.
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Humanists
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European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later. Explored human endeavors in their art, literature, and poetry.
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Protestant Reformation
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A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches. The translation of the Bible into vernacular languages was part of it's endeavor.
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Social Darwinism
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The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
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Laissez-faire economics
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Means allowing industry to be free from state intervention, especially restrictions in the form of tariffs and government monopolies. The phrase is French and literally means "let do", but it broadly implies "let it be", or "leave it alone."
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Jean-Baptiste Colbert
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Served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy.
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Pachacuti
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Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
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Cortes
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Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
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Otto von Bismarck
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Was a Prussian/German statesman of the late 19th century, and a dominant figure in world affairs. Helped Germany expand, went to war against Denmark, won war, turned against Austria, gained control of North German Confederation.
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North German Confederation
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Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs, major step towards German unification. Came into existence in August 1866 as a military alliance of 22 states of northern Germany with the Kingdom of Prussia as the leading state.
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Julius Andrassy
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He became Austria-Hungary's last imperial Foreign Minister, serving for just nine days before resigning on 1 November 1918. With war underway He came out in opposition to Foreign Minister Burian's initiatives in Italy and Poland.
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The Long March
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Mao zedong and 100,000 of his followers marched away from the Guomundang (national party)...this was a great victory for communists in China.
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Gunpowder
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Was invented, documented, and used in the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) in China where the Jurchen military forces used gunpowder-based weapons technology (i.e. rockets, guns, cannons), and explosives (i.e. grenades and different types of bombs) against the Mongols. The Mongols, Muslims, Western Europe, and Japan adopted gunpowder in chronological sequene.
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Shintoism
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Was the primitive religion of Japan before the coming of Buddhism, which is currently the main religion of Japan. It is a very simple religion. It gives only one command, the necessity of being loyal to one's ancestors.
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The Printing Press
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Was most responsible for the rapid spread of new ideas inRenaissance Europe.
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Franco-Prussian War
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(1870 - 1871) Was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia.
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Russo-Turkish War
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(1877-1878) Had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War. As a result of the war, the principalities of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire.
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Crimean War
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Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans. The war arose from the conflict of Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman sultan.
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Treaty of Versailles
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The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans. Terms on which the U.S. would mediate would include the retroession of Alsace-Lorraine to France and the acquisition of Constantinople by Russia.
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The Korean War
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In June 1950 the N. Korean army invaded S. Korea, quickly taking Seoul. The UN Security Counsil met in emergency session and declared the invasion an unwarranted aggression. After three years of fighting, the war ended in stalemate.
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The Vietnam War
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The Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the United States resulted in war.
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Egyptian Afterlife
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The dead were judged and if they had led a good life, they would live forever in the next world just as they had on Earth.
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Empiricism
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The view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
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Scholasticism
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A medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
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Philosophes
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French thinkers who popularized Enlightenment ideas through their writings were known as this. Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason.
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Council of Trent
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An ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
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Hammurabi's Code
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Is best summarized by the following expression, "An eye for and eye"
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Paleolithic Age
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Old Stone Age, during the this period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting or scavenging wild animals. This period is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools. Were nomadic and lived in small groups.
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Roman Empire's use of slavery in their economy
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Led to a lack of innovation in manufacturing and agriculture.
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Hippocrates
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Contributed to the knowledge of the ancient Greeks by proposing new methods for treating diseases.
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Charlemagne
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He attempted to unitfy his lands in Western Europe after his death in 814 C.E. because regional loyalties that owtweighed allegience to his son.
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Mao Zedong
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Successfully implemented communism in China because he had the support of the Chinese peasantry.
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West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mail, Songhai between 1000 to 1500
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Rose in power and wealth because they controlled the cross-Sahara trade of salt from northern Africa for the gold of tropical Africa.
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Merchants
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This group in medieval Europe helped loosen fuedal ties.
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Neolithic Period
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In the Middle East, the sedentary agriculture was based on barley, wheat, and pigs. New Stone Age (following the mesolithic)
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Sedentary Agriculture
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Farming system in which the farmer remains settled in one place
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Shifting cultivation
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Farming system where farmers move on from one place to another when the land becomes exhausted. The most common form is slash-and-burn agriculture: land is cleared by burning, so that crops can be grown. Slash-and-burn is practised in many tropical forest areas, such as the Amazon region, where yams, cassava, and sweet potatoes can be grown
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Nomadic pastoralism
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Farming system where animals (cattle, goats, camels) are taken to different locations in order to find fresh pastures.
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Suez Crisis, 1956
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Also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, was a military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel beginning on 29 October 1956. A consequence from this crisis was, that president Nasser of Egypt gained prestige as the leader of Arab opposition to Western Colonialism.
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Yalta Conference
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Was the February 4-11, 1945 wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, for the purpose of discussing Europe's postwar reorganization. Mainly, it was intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. Established new boundaries for Poland.
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Sun Yat-sen
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Led a movement to create a united, democratic China free from foreign control.
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The Silk Road
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Is an extensive interconnected network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, as well as North and Northeast Africa and Europe. It spread Buddhism from India to China.
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Animal husbandry
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An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
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Mesolithic Period
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Middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago
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The Neolithic Revolution
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Was the first agricultural revolution—the transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement. Archaeological data indicate that various forms of domestication of plants and animals arose independently in at least seven or eight separate locales worldwide, with the earliest known developments taking place in the Middle East around 10,000 BC or earlier
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Acropolis
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The religious center of Athens in Ancient Greece; meeting place; site of Parthenona. Large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
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Socrates
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Ancient Athenian philosopher who helped bring about Greece's Golden Age
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Plato
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Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society.
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The Republic
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A political order in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who are entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them
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Peloponnesian War
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A war fought between Athens and Sparta; won by Sparta because it was able to cut off Athens' grain supply.
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Alexander the Great
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King of Macedonia who conquered Greece, Persia, Egypt and the Indus Valley; spred Greek culture across three continents
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Thucydides
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Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles
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Aristotle
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Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
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Macedonia
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An an ancient kingdom ruled by Alexander the Great that conquered most of Greece and the Persian Empire in the 300s B.C.
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Alexandria
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City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
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Helladic Period
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Bronze age Greece, started around 2800 BC and lasted till 1050 BC in Crete while in the Aegean islands it started in 3000 BC. The economy of the villages depended on production of tools, weapons, agriculture and art and architecture.The need for more metals and goods lead to introduction of different colonies and barter creating set-up for trade.
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Minoan Age
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Bronze Age civilization, centring on the island of Crete. Built huge palaces, writing, artisans, traded w/Egypt, Phoenicia and Mesopotamia
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Mycenaean Age
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Lasted from about 2000 B.C.E to the conquest of the Greek peninsula by invaders in the 1100s. Were bold traders and maintained contact with other countries from the Mediterranean and Europe. They were excellent engineers and built outstanding bridges, tombs, residences and palaces. Civilization is dedicated to King Agamemnon who led the Greeks in the Trojan War.
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Sparta
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Was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which completely focused on military training and excellence.
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Oligarchy
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A form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, military might, or religious hegemony.
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Mixed government
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Also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy. It means there are some issues (often defined in a constitution) where the state is governed by the majority of the people, in some other issues the state is governed by few, in some other issues by a single person (also often defined in a constitution). The idea is commonly treated as an antecedent of separation of powers.
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Athenian democracy
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A type of government used in Athens which is sort of a combine of majority rule and democracy. It remains a unique and intriguing experiment in direct democracy where the people do not elect representatives to vote on their behalf but vote on legislation and executive bills in their own right. Greek democracy created at Athens was a direct, not a representative democracy: any adult male citizen of age could take part, and it was a duty to do so.
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Pericles
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Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece. Was a prominent and influential statesman, orator, and general of Athens during the city's Golden Age—specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Also, he led Athens in the war against Sparta.
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The Assembly
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The central events of the Athenian democracy. It had four main functions; it made executive pronouncements (decrees, such as deciding to go to war or granting citizenship to a foreigner); it elected some officials; it legislated; and it tried political crimes.
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The Golden Age
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Is the term used to denote the historical period in Classical Greece lasting roughly from the end of the Persian Wars in 448 BCE to either the death of Pericles 429 BCE or the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.
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Polis
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Greek word for city-state. Is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. When used to describe Classical Athens and its contemporaries, it is often translated as "city-state."
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Roman Senate
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A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic they effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire. Formed by Romulus; served for life; administered laws and decrees; controlled treasury and collected taxes; appointed military commanders; received foreign ambassadors and ratified treaties with foreign powers.
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Pax Romana
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A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
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Diocletian
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Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians. Separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and re-organized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire.
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Eastern Orthodox Church
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Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia.
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Constantine
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Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337). Roman Emperor who founded Constantinople as the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire; reunited the Roman Empire
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Julius Caesar
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Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power. Roman general who became the republic's dictator; created the basis for the calendar
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Augustus
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Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC. First Roman Emperor
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Carthage
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City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E.
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Tribunes
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An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.
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Attila
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Leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire's borders during the 5th century.
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Olmec
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The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., these people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
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Vedic
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Having to do with or pertaining to the Vedas-the oldest scriptures in India and the world, passed through oral tradition.
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Caste System
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A set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society.
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Gupta Empire
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Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism.
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Hinduism
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An eastern religion which evolved from an ancient Aryan religion in which followers strive to free their soul from reincarnation until the soul is finally freed. This religion is practiced primarily in India.
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Buddhism
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The teaching that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth.
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Zhou dynasty
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The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History.
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Qin dynasty
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A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). Their ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects.
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Han dynasty
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Imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; was an age of economic prosperity, and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1050-256 BCE).
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Daoism
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Philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
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Confucianism
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A philosophy that most emphasizes proper relationships as the basis for social and political order. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
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Praetorian Guard
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The elite bodyguard of a Roman Emperor
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Marcus Aurelius
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Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
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Byzantine Empire
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A continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395, rose out of the split of East and Western Roman Empire; lasted another 1000 years; kept Hellenism alive; fell in 1453 by the Ottomans
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Huns
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Nomadic people from Asia who attacked Europe in the 4th Century and then invaded the northwest part of India in the 5th Century.
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Mongols
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A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
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Byzantine culture
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Greco-Roman culture continued to flourish, language was Greek, Orthodox Christianity, Greek and Roman knowledge was perserved in libraries
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Islam
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The monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
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Ottoman Empire
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Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
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Mayans
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A Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Preclassic period,(c. 250 CE to 900 CE), and continued until the arrival of the Spanish.
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Aztecs
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(1200-1521) 1300, They settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
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Incas
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A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
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The Black Death
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By 1348, this disease ravaged from Italy, Spain, and France to the rest of Europe; transmitted by fleas on rats; considered an epidemic; one in three people died; spread from Asia to middle east; people turned to witchcraft for cures; some beat themselves because they considered the disease God's punishment; Christians blamed Jews; production declined; higher wages; inflation
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Tang Dynasty
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The imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907, with its capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), the most populous city in the world at the time, is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization—equal to, or surpassing that of, the earlier Han Dynasty—a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han period
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Ming Dynasty
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A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia
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Song Dynasty
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(960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Tai Zu; by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; *landscape black and white paintings
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Kingdom of Maili
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Was a West African empire of the Mandinka from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. This Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. This empire extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces.
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Kingdom of Ghana
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First of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (7th - 13th century). Located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and part of Mali, it acted as intermediary between Arab and Berber salt traders to the north and gold and ivory producers to the south.
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Kingdom of Songhay (Songhai)
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Was an African state of west Africa. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, It was one of the largest African empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group. Its capital was the city of Gao, where a small state had existed since the 11th century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present day Niger and Burkina Faso.
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Magellan
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He was the first to prove that the new world really was a distinct landmass, separate from Asia. After sailing around around the southern tip of South America he sailed westward acrosst he Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, claiming them for Spain., Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
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Vasco Da Gama
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Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
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Christopher Columbus
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Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization.
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Copernicus
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Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
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Galileo
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Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
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Newton
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This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
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Absolutism
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A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
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Locke
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Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
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Voltaire
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French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
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Rousseau
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Wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, The Social Contract, & Emile. He identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted when man claimed that they owned land. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated Parlaiment because the delegates made laws not the people.
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Reformation
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A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
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Renaissance
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The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
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Enlightenment
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An intellectual movement concentrated in France during the 1700's developed rational laws to describe social behavior and applied their findings in support of human rights and liberal economic theories.
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French Revolution
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The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
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Haitian Revolution
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Toussaint l'Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world's second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
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Industrial Revolution
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The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
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Urbanization
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Movement of people from rural areas to cities. Refers to a process in which an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities. Historically, it has been closely connected with industrialization
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The factory system
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Each worker created a separate part of the total assembly of a product, thus increasing the efficiency of factories. Factories spread wildly as well in the 1820s. Many of these factories were also built alongside water to take advantage of water power. Many also had massive smokestacks. Factories polluted both water and air.
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Marxism
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The economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
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Liberalism
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A political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
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Socialism
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A theory or system that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole. An economic system in which government owns some factors of production and participates in answering economic questions. It offers some security and benefits to those who are less fortunate, homeless, or under-employed.
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Imperialism
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A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
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The Meiji Restoration
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Period of time where the shoguns were abolished as military leaders of the government and all controll was given to the government and Japan was modernized
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Lenin
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Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
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Stalin
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Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
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Mao Zedong
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This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
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Mohandas Gandhi
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A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
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Kwame Nkrumah
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Founder of Ghana's independence movement and Ghana's first priesident
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Nelson Mandela
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Born 1918. 11th President of South Africa. Spent 27 years in prison after conviction of charges while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid. Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
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Facism
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A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition
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Communism
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A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
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League of Nations
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International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
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The Great Leap Forward
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In 1958 Zedong launched a program; he urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output and created communes; Rural communes set up "backyard" industries to produce steel; this program failed b/c "backyards" produced low-quality, communes had slow food output, bad weather, and a famine. What is this program called?
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Cultural Revolution
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A radical sociopolitical movement in China c1966-71, led by Mao Zedong and characterized by military rule, terrorism, purges, restructuring of the educational system, etc.
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Neo Colonialism
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A process of acculturation or cultural imperialism through which forms of industrial, political and economic organization are often imposed on other cultures under the guise of getting aid in the form of technological and industrial "progress," but it can still lead to good things, like bringing needed infrastructure
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Gorbachev
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Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
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Perestroika
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An economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union, a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society.
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Glasnost
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Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
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International Monetary Fund
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An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
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United Nations
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International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
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European Union
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An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
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Russian Revolution
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The coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
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Mexican Revolution
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This revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist and agrarianist movements, led by Fransico Madero, 1810 to 1823. They fought for independence from Spain and for social justice; they wanted equal rights for Indians, mestizos,
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Chinese Revolution
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The struggle between Nationalists and Communists forces in China that began in the 1920's and ended in 1949 with a Communist victory
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Homo erectus
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Hominids who are believed to have walked completely upright like modern people do, called "Upright Man". First developed in Africa.
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Nomadic Herding
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Is a way of life where families move along with their herds according to the seasons and rely on their animals for food, shelter and clothing. They can tend to cattle, camels, goats, horses, reindeer, or sheep.
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Slash-and-burn agriculture
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Consists of cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock, or for a variety of other purposes. It is sometimes part of shifting cultivation agriculture, and of transhumance livestock herding.
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Settled Agriculture
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As opposed to slash-and-burn varieties, usually implied some forms of property so that land could be identified as belonging to a family, a village, or a landlord. Only with property was there incentive to introduce improvements, such as wells or irrigation measures, that could be monopolized by those who created them or left to their heirs.
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Hunting and Gathering
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The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance. Prehistoric Cave People Moved in Search of Food
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The Four Noble Truths
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The core of the Buddhist teaching. There is suffering. There is a cause to suffering. There is an end to suffering. The is a path out of suffering (the Noble 8-fold path).
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The Concept of Zero
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Was developed in India and brought to Europe by Arab mathematicians. The place-value notation was much more efficient than the unwieldly numerical systems of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans.
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Crusades
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A series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims. A result were new products and technologies brought back to Europe.
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Fuedalism
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A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land. Socioeconomics predominated in both Europe and Japan between 700 and 1300 BCE.
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Guild System
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Eliminated competition, set regulations for size, price, standard, etc...and created a training program for people to become members (apprentice, journey man, master).
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Humanism
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An intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics. A system of thought based on the study of human ideas and actions.
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Humanists
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European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later. Explored human endeavors in their art, literature, and poetry.
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Protestant Reformation
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A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches. The translation of the Bible into vernacular languages was part of it's endeavor.
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Social Darwinism
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The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
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Laissez-faire economics
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Means allowing industry to be free from state intervention, especially restrictions in the form of tariffs and government monopolies. The phrase is French and literally means "let do", but it broadly implies "let it be", or "leave it alone."
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Jean-Baptiste Colbert
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Served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy.
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Pachacuti
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Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
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Cortes
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Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
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Otto von Bismarck
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Was a Prussian/German statesman of the late 19th century, and a dominant figure in world affairs. Helped Germany expand, went to war against Denmark, won war, turned against Austria, gained control of North German Confederation.
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North German Confederation
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Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs, major step towards German unification. Came into existence in August 1866 as a military alliance of 22 states of northern Germany with the Kingdom of Prussia as the leading state.
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Julius Andrassy
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He became Austria-Hungary's last imperial Foreign Minister, serving for just nine days before resigning on 1 November 1918. With war underway He came out in opposition to Foreign Minister Burian's initiatives in Italy and Poland.
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The Long March
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Mao zedong and 100,000 of his followers marched away from the Guomundang (national party)...this was a great victory for communists in China.
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Gunpowder
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Was invented, documented, and used in the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) in China where the Jurchen military forces used gunpowder-based weapons technology (i.e. rockets, guns, cannons), and explosives (i.e. grenades and different types of bombs) against the Mongols. The Mongols, Muslims, Western Europe, and Japan adopted gunpowder in chronological sequene.
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Shintoism
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Was the primitive religion of Japan before the coming of Buddhism, which is currently the main religion of Japan. It is a very simple religion. It gives only one command, the necessity of being loyal to one's ancestors.
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The Printing Press
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Was most responsible for the rapid spread of new ideas inRenaissance Europe.
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Franco-Prussian War
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(1870 - 1871) Was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia.
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Russo-Turkish War
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(1877-1878) Had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War. As a result of the war, the principalities of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire.
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Crimean War
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Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans. The war arose from the conflict of Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman sultan.
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Treaty of Versailles
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The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans. Terms on which the U.S. would mediate would include the retroession of Alsace-Lorraine to France and the acquisition of Constantinople by Russia.
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The Korean War
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In June 1950 the N. Korean army invaded S. Korea, quickly taking Seoul. The UN Security Counsil met in emergency session and declared the invasion an unwarranted aggression. After three years of fighting, the war ended in stalemate.
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The Vietnam War
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The Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the United States resulted in war.
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Egyptian Afterlife
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The dead were judged and if they had led a good life, they would live forever in the next world just as they had on Earth.
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Empiricism
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The view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
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Scholasticism
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A medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
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Philosophes
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French thinkers who popularized Enlightenment ideas through their writings were known as this. Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason.
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Council of Trent
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An ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation