Mexican American War Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Mexican American War?
The Mexican American War (1846-48) was a conflict between the United States and Mexico that resulted in U.S. victory and the acquisition of vast territory to the north, including California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. The war began after the annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845 led to border disputes between Mexico and its former province. After two years of fighting and several major battles on both sides, a peace treaty was signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo ending hostilities and ceding nearly half of present-day Mexico to the United States. The causes of the Mexican American War were rooted in long-standing tensions between Mexico and its northern neighbor over control of disputed territory. In 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico leading to a brief but bloody war before it officially joined the Union as an independent state in 1845. This outraged many Mexicans who viewed Texas as part of their nation despite its de facto separation since 1821 when Spanish rule ended there. When President James K Polk annexed Texas due solely to US interests he further inflamed tensions with his southern neighbor which would eventually culminate into open hostilities two years later. When diplomatic negotiations broke down between U.S representatives sent by President Polk and Mexican representatives led by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna over finalizing their new borders along with settling claims made by American citizens against their government for damages caused during internal civil wars within their country; President Polk ordered troops across Rio Grande River on May 13th 1846 thus beginning what would be called The Mexican American War or sometimes referred to as the invasion by some Mexicans today due it being seen more as an act of aggression rather than any real attempt at diplomacy or negotiation on behalf of either side prior to combat operations starting up again after few months ceasefire had been agreed upon following initial skirmishes near Matamoros.. The first year proved disastrous for Mexican forces who suffered defeats at Palo Alto, Monterrey , Buena Vista & Resaca De La Palma only for them fight back fiercely throughout rest period culminating in stalemate situation around middle portion conflict where neither side could gain upper hand until US reinforcements arrived allowing them eventually overwhelm outnumbered defenders forcing them out capital city & signing terms dictated under Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty February 2nd 1848 effectively ending hostilities shortly afterward although minor engagements continued take place throughout duration next few months until final armistice put into effect August 20th same year bringing official end most brutal yet least known conflicts history America . Overall outcome this war far reaching politically economically culturally even militarily because not only did it expand USA geographically opening door settlement expansion westward but also set precedent whereby now governments can use military means enforce political policies without necessarily having declare formal declaration war take action which has become common practise modern times whenever nations need exert influence another’s affairs regionally internationally though still remains controversial topic till day .