Statistic analysis of a cricket bat with and without alumnium plate

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Abstraction—A figure of games like cricket, tennis, baseball, etc have developed a batch due to the extended research done in the sporting equipment. The chief purpose of this research is to observe the features and alteration of cricket chiropteran with utilizing a metallic home base in inactive status and compare it with the normally utilizing wooden chiropteran. Since the debut of the first aluminum chiropteran, lastingness has been a great concern. Some work has been performed in the country of foretelling chiropteran public presentation, but small has been done in the manner of quantifying their lastingness or length of service. The work performed hear sets out to pr edict the lastingness of a individual wall aluminum home base chiropteran by patterning a bat-ball hit utilizing finite component an a lyses. This thesis presents the development of two fast-solving numerical theoretical accounts every bit good as a cosmopolitan F EA theoretical account for the structural analysis of cricket chiropteran. The theoretical accounts were developed utilizing experimental informations obtained from bead trials and high velocity impact trials. These theoretical accounts predict impact features with really small calculating cost. . The inter action of a cricket ball and a chiropteran are computationally modelled utilizing commercially available package INVENTOR and average analysis is done by utilizing commercially available package ALTAIR. The theoretical account of the ball is making utilizing a viscoelastic stuff and for cricket chiropteran orthotropic theoretical account used.

Keywords—Viscoelastic stuff, orthotropic theoretical account, finite component analysis, ALTAIR.


Cricket has been about for more than a Century but until now, betterments in the piece of the Cricket chiropteran have been reasonably limited. It’s to some extent due to game directing limitations and partially because the application of proper high engineering to the chiropteran has been about non-existent. As everyone who played the game of Cricket knows, the consequence of hitting a ball off from the Sweet Spot may be really sore due to the transmitted structure-borne torsional and cross quiver on a player’s manus and besides a hazard for batter to be injured because of transeunt quiver. These transeunt quivers have up until now, been inactively and automatically damped by the built-in damping belongingss of wood and level gum elastic panels in the grip. The assortment is that the kind of still muffling is effectual for the high regularity quivers merely while the low regularity quivers remain uninterrupted.


The first aluminum chiropterans come in the terminal of the twelvemonth 1960’s. These chiropterans immediately well-liked between the participants because of the raised less attempt is required to bat the ball over so wood chiropterans. Earlier to any cognition of what is now known as the trampoline consequence, which is present in thin-plate aluminum chiropteran, the public presentation of the first aluminum chiropterans were non nearby to what they are now. Research on history of how to better the public presentation of a home base aluminum chiropteran by utilizing different metals or home base thicknesses has been increased and the public presentation finally went up. But the barter to this increased public presentation was decreased lastingness. To neutralize this job, makers began to present chiropterans with stronger aluminum metals, added beef uping metals such as Sc, or used wholly different metals such as Ti. As the natural stuff cost is less in instance of aluminum, it has become the first penchant to be used for metal chiropterans. Today the Ti is still being used, but non on the same degree as that of aluminum. At the minute, there were a assortment of processs of chiropteran public presentation, but there is no minimal duty on a bat’s degree or sturdiness or period. Sturdiness and public presentation for a chiropteran can be really estimated and judged based on the chiropteran swung speed, the ball hardness and the environment conditions such as temperature. Typically, a chiropteran is designed to last the wear and tear of a year’s worth of usage, but except firsthand cognition is known about how the chiropteran will keep up by a participant of tantamount accomplishment and strength. It is really hard to supply any estimation of how long the chiropteran will travel without any denting for the individual who is buying it. Manufacturers characteristically offer one twelvemonth guarantees due to this ground that license for entire chiropteran replacing in instance the chiropteran dents highly under normal usage.

III.Literature reappraisal

The methodological analysis used for baseball chiropteran research is used for cricket chiropteran. Lloyd Smith et Al [ 1,10 ] in their paper determined dynamic interaction of chiropteran and ball. Linear elastic belongings was used for chiropteran and nonlinear belongings for ball. The chiropteran and ball was given additive speeds. The consequence of impact location on ball issue speed was presented. Rochelle Nicholls et Al [ 7,8 ] analyzed the kineticss of chiropteran ball impact utilizing finite component method. Kinematic input was obtained from experimental apparatus. Aluminum and wood baseball chiropteran was used for analysis. Linear elastic isotopic theoretical account was used for chiropteran. Both terminals were assumed to be free to revolve and interpret. Consequences between ball issue speed and impact location is plotted to find the location of maximal BEV. Sherwood et al [ 4, 11 ] analyzed the alteration in the public presentation of chiropteran due to alterations in wall thickness, grip flex, stuff belongingss, and weight distribution. Experimental information was calibrated utilizing finite component method. Mooney rivilin material theoretical account was used for ball. Automatic surface to come up contact algorithm was selected. Aluminium chiropteran made of C405 metal was considered and meshed utilizing shell component. Solid wood chiropteran was besides used for analysis. Graph was plotted between BEV and clip for wood and aluminum chiropterans. Aluminium chiropteran had higher ball issue speed. Shenoy et al [ 2,9 ] compared the public presentation for wooden chiropteran and composite chiropteran. The consequence of chiropteran restraints on emphasis and public presentation is determined. Graphs were plotted between hit ball velocity and chiropteran impact location and Bat impact location and axial emphasis. Larry baronial [ 5,11 ] provided scientific footing for analyzing and developing new chiropteran design and mode in which chiropteran is swung and forces transmitted during swing and belongingss of chiropteran were considered. Mass, Moment of inactiveness, Coefficient of damages, COP and Fundamental node of quiver were the belongingss considered. The survey is made on the cricket chiropteran. The present concentrates the characterizing of cricket chiropteran and its public presentation. Assorted Graphs are plotted for ball issue speed and impact location from underside of the chiropteran.


The analysis is carried out for the cricket chiropteran. The geometry of the cricket chiropteran is measured and modelled. Material belongingss of the chiropteran are based on the type of wood used. Cricket ball dimensions are besides measured and modelled with two premises. First the chiropteran is to travel linearly in order to cut down the computational clip and the 2nd one Cricket chiropteran is assumed to be made of English willow wood. Modeling of the cricket, ball and home base is done on ALTAIR package. We utilizing round home base for cut downing stress concentration. modeling of the cricket has created on the Ansys by the usage of criterions dimensionsHarROtungsten:Litervitamin ENgTH32.5TungstenIvitamin DThursday4.25todegree FahrenheititPbedof5degree FahrenheitT45degree FahrenheitT8and the back side upper limit boss is 3 centimeter from the back blade surface. Thickness of the chiropteran blade is 3 centimeter and the radius of the grip of the chiropteran is 1.5 centimeter. the whole chiropteran is as a individual volume the grip and blade are non different a day’s many companies doing a this type of individual volume chiropteran and many research is traveling on for increasing their lastingness and public presentation. Harmonizing our analysis we have created two theoretical account of chiropteran. One is wholly wood which are by and large used in the cricket lucifers and another 1 is besides wood but a steel home base dimension 4.5cm*35cm*2cm fitted inside the chiropteran in the sandwich signifier and the same volume of wood removed from inside the chiropteran.the mass of wood chiropteran is 0.840 kilogram and the mass of chiropteran with aluminum home base is 0.804 kilogram.


Computational analysis of chiropteran ball analysis is performed in ALTAIR. It combines the ALTAIR finite component plan with the powerful pre and station processing capablenesss of it. The method used for analysis ‘ALTAIR’ that provides fast solutions for short-time, big distortion inactive, jobs with big distortions and linearity’s, contact/impact jobs. Using the theoretical account in ALTAIR can obtain the inactive solution and rating of consequences utilizing the standard ALTAIR station processing tools. The component is defined by nodes holding the following all grades of freedom is fix the grip at each node in x, Y, and omega waies. Specify their belongingss Static elastic theoretical account is show and so use a engagement tool utilizing a triangular and free mesh and size of the component is 2 centimeter. Meshed theoretical account is shown in fig.4.


Fig-1 Wooden chiropteran is shade


Fig-2 Aluminium chiropteran in shadiness


Fig-3 Aluminium chiropteran in wireframe


The chiropteran is unspecified to be free-free beam and moved in additive way. The ball is traveling with speed with additive way and angular way



Fig-4 meshed theoretical account

There are abundant stuff theoretical accounts available for usage in an expressed dynamic analysis. Orthotropic theoretical account is selected for chiropteran and proper stuff belongingss are defined as in Table.1

Table.1 Material belongingss of Cricket chiropteran






450 kg/m3


Shear modulus

6.7 e9 N/m2


Poisson ratio



Elastic modulus

9.8 e9 N/m2

A cricket ball is a object in which many nonlinear stuffs such as leather, string or narration and cork/rubber pill. A entirely linear-elastic ball can non be used in the modeling because it does non describe for the nonlinear belongingss that a existent ball reveals with regard to the stiffness of the ball. Viscoelastic theoretical account was taken for the ball defined from a clip dependent on shear modulus as

G ( T )=G?+( Go – G? ) e-?t

Value of assorted invariables are given in table.2

Table.2 Material belongingss of Cricket ball






150 kg/m3


? ( material Constant )



Shear modulus Go

41 e6 N/m2


Bulk modulus K

69 e6 N/m2


Shear modulus G?

11 e6 N/m2

A contact surface in ALTAIR allows to mean, a broad scope of types of contact between constituents in a theoretical account. Bat surface and ball surface is selected as contact entities. Normally Surface-to-Surface algorithm is selected to expeditiously stand for the realistic contact.Assortment of combination for bat impact such as 30-30, 40-30, 30-40 impacts and angular impacts of Ball. 30-30 impact means given speed to the ball of 30 m/s and chiropteran is given 30 m/s. Ball speed obtained after is renowned for assorted locations from the underside of the chiropteran to happen the emphasis strain and warp on the chiropteran theoretical account is plotted for all combinations. Material belongingss are defined in Table 3

Table 3 Material belongingss of Aluminium home base








Young’s modulus



Poisson’s ratio



Shear modulus

26000000 N/ M2

VII. Result And Description

Wooden chiropteran Result

The graph is plotted between emphasis on the chiropteran and impact location so that we can find the country of impact which creates maximal emphasis or warp.

For illustration when ball is subjected to 145 km/hrs additive speed at the distance 13cm from the underside of the wood willows bat the force is generated on the chiropteran face is about 13583 N so maximum stress green goods 204136 N/cm2 at the distance 65cm from the underside and maximal warp occur in the wood willows chiropteran is 0.569874 centimeter


Graph-1 between the emphasis develop in the chiropteran and distance from the underside

Five Analysis has been carried out with wooden chiropteran by changing the impact location i.e distance from the underside of the chiropteran and the consequences are shown in Table 4.

Table 4 Consequence for the willow wood chiropteran

Collision of chiropteran and ball distance from the underside ( centimeter )

Maximumstressonthe wood chiropteran. ( N/cm2 )

Maximal warp on the wood chiropteran. ( centimeter )
















Roentgenvitamin EsUlt oftungstenOOvitamin Dvitamin ENBaTtungstenithAcubic decimeterUmINIumPtardily:

After that at the same velocity ball 145 km/hrs come on the aluminum home base chiropteran and set their impact on the chiropteran with the same force 13583 N, and besides the hit of the ball and chiropteran at the same place distance from the underside is 13 centimeter so the result given by the Altair is wholly different from the first 1. Maximum emphasis on the aluminum home base chiropteran is 174263N/cm2 at the distance of 67 centimeter from the underside of the chiropteran and the maximal warp is 0.334779 centimeter. which is show in fig 8.5 and the Graph 9.2 is plotted between Stress and distance.


Graph-2: Between the emphasiss develop in the chiropteran and distance from the underside

Five Analysis has been carried out with Wooden chiropteran with Aluminium home base by changing the impact location i.e distance from the underside of the chiropteran and the consequences are shown in Table.5

Table No 5: Consequences for the wood aluminium chiropteran

Collision of chiropteran and ball distance from the underside ( centimeter )

Maximumstressonthe wood chiropteran. ( N/cm2 )

Maximum deflectionon the wood chiropteran. ( centimeter )
















Harmonizing to analysis chiropteran is taken as a free beam so when the distance additions from the underside of the chiropteran so the value of the maximal emphasis is reduces and the warp is besides below the normal. Take a five- five analysis on the both theoretical account at the different-different distance from the underside and cap ire the fluctuation in the emphasis, strain and the warp on both theoretical account. And show which is the more lasting wood chiropteran or aluminum home base chiropteran.

FINAl Rvitamin EsUlt andvitamin DiscusZion

Harmonizing to analysis chiropteran is taken as a free beam so when the distance additions from the underside of the chiropteran so the value of the maximal emphasis is reduces and the warp is besides below the normal


Graph -3: Between emphasis and distance from underside


Graph -4: Between warp and distance from underside

The consequences which have came for both theoretical account that shown on the Graph 7.3 to 7.4. It can easy compare to each other, by the compaction of both model we can see that the maximal emphasis develop and the maximal warp on the aluminum home base chiropteran is less as comparison to the willow wood chiropteran. so the public presentation of the aluminum home base chiropteran is better than the wood chiropteran it can bear the maximal velocity of the ball and upper limit forces which impact by the ball on the bate face. The aluminum home base chiropteran will more lasting and besides give a better public presentation as comparison to the willows wood chiropteran. batted ball velocity by the aluminum home base chiropteran will besides greater than the wood chiropteran and the attempt will applied by the batter with the aluminum home base chiropteran will less. So the batters feel comfy on the batting clip and will acquire a better consequence. The aluminum home base chiropteran is better option for the hereafter in the topographic point of willow wood chiropteran. It can do more interesting to the cricket.


This survey considered the public presentation of cricket chiropterans. A analysis has been done to mensurate chiropteran belongingss and the impact velocities of ball on the chiropteran public presentation. The analysis method involved firing the cricket balls at assorted places on a stationary cricket chiropteran. Bat public presentation has been compared utilizing the maximal emphasis and maximal warp of cricket chiropterans. The swing velocity of the cricket chiropteran was found from the flight of the cricket ball. The MOI of the cricket chiropteran has a important consequence on the public presentation. Knock-in and oiling has a little consequence on weight, MOI and public presentation. On norm, the public presentation of aluminum home base chiropteran was observed to be 10 % higher than willow chiropteran. The part of a sandwich aluminum home base to the interior of the blade of chiropteran is besides cut down ( 15 % ) , the attempt which is applied by the batter. The intent of utilizing a aluminum home base inside the wood chiropteran in the signifier of sandwich to cut down the emphasis concentration on the wood cricket chiropteran and do a more lasting. This finite component theoretical accounts provide an first-class simulation of the bat-ball impact and can be used to look into the emphasis, strain and warp. This modeling process yields a believable methodological analysis for chiropteran interior decorators to utilize finite component methods to qualify cricket chiropteran public presentation.

IX. Mentions

[ 1 ] Brody, H. ( 1986 ) , “The sweet topographic point of a base ball, American Journal of Physics, 54, pp. 640-643

[ 2 ] Brody, H. ( 1990 ) , Models of base ball chiropteran, American Journal of Physics,54, pp. 756-758

[ 3 ] Kirkpatrik, P. ( 1963 ) . “Batting the ball” American Journal of Physics,31, pp. 606-613

[ 4 ] Lloyd V. Smith, John C. Hermanson, Sudarsan Rangaraj, Donald A. Bender ( 2000 ) .A Dynamic finite component analysis of wood baseball bats.. , School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington province University

[ 5 ] Mahesh M. Shenoy, Lloyd V. Smith, JohnT. Axtell. ( 2001 ) ’Performance appraisal of wood, metal and composite baseball bats. , Composite str uctures. pp, 397.404.

[ 6 ] Mahesh M. Shenoy, Lloyd V. Smith, JohnT. Axtell. ( 2001 ) . Simulated composite base ball chiropteran impact utilizing numerical and experimental techniques, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington province University

[ 7 ] Mustone, T.J. , Sherwood, J.A. ( 1998 ) ..Charactersing the public presentation of baseball chiropterans utilizing experimental and finite component methods.. Engineering of Sport research Development and invention, Blackwell scientific discipline, Oxford. Pp.377-388.

[ 8 ] Noble, L. ( 1998 ) , .Inertial and vibrational features of playground ball and baseball chiropterans: research and design implications.. International Society of Biomechanics in Sports: conference proceedings.

[ 9 ] Noble, L. , Walker, H. ( 1994 ) . .Baseball chiropteran Inertial and Vibrational Characteristics and Discomfort following ball chiropteran impacts, Journal of Applied Bio-mechanics 10, pp. 132-144 [ 10 ] Rochelle L. Nicholls, Karol Miller, Bruce C. Elliot, ( 2001 ) ‘Bat design and ball issue speed in baseball deduction of participant safety’ . Australian conference of scientific discipline and medical specialty in athletics, Perth

[ 11 ] Rochelle L. Nicholls, Karol Miller, Bruce C. Elliot, ( 2003 ) ‘A New method for appraisal of Baseball chiropteran Performance, IX International Symposium computing machine simulation in Bio Mechanicss

[ 12 ] Grace, W. C.”Cricket” Simpkin, Marshall Hamilton, Kent and Co. Limited

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