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Bt Brinjal Essay Example
Bt Brinjal Essay Example

Bt Brinjal Essay Example

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  • Pages: 12 (5832 words)
  • Published: June 10, 2018
  • Type: Essay
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Disclaimer: This booklet has been compiled by the Centre for Environment Education (CEE) as a primer for discussants at the national consultations and does not in any way express the views of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India or of the Centre for Environment Education.

Introduction What is Bt Brinjal? Bt Brinjal is a transgenic brinjal created by inserting a gene cry1Ac from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into Brinjal. This is said to give the Brinjal plant resistance against lepidopteran insects like the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer Leucinodes orbonalis and Fruit Borer Helicoverpa armigera. What is the controversy about? Bt Brinjal has generated much debate in India. The promoters say that Bt Brinjal will be beneficial to small farmers because it is insect resistant, increases yields, is more cost-effective and will have minimal environmental impact.

On the other hand, concerns about Bt Brinjal relate to its possible adverse impact on human health and bio-safety, livelihoods and biodiversity. What is the official response to the controversy? The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has a statutory body called the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) which has recommended the environmental release of Bt Brinjal in India based on the recommendations of the Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM), a statutory body and two expert committees constituted by the GEAC between 2006 and 2009.

However the Minister of State (I/C) for Environment and Forests, responding to strong views raised both for and against the introduction of the Bt Brinjal, has called for public consultations across the country before taking a final

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decision on this issue. The Centre for Environment Education, an autonomous organization engaged in Environmental and Sustainability Education, has been entrusted with the task of organizing these consultations. 1 What are the objectives of the national consultations on Bt Brinjal? The main objectives of the consultation are to Provide a forum to various stakeholders to express their views and concerns related to Bt Brinjal at venues across the country; l Provide appropriate inputs to the Minister before a final decision is taken. How are the consultations being structured? The consultations are planned at seven locations in the country, so that people across the country can be heard. These consultations will be open to all members of the public. Additionally, stakeholder groups representing diverse viewpoints on the issue will be invited to the consultations to ensure the widest possible participation in the discussions.

The consultations will be conducted in the local language of the area in addition to Hindi and English to secure the active participation of all stakeholders. At least 250 representatives from a range of groups such as farmers, scientists, agricultural experts, farmers organizations, consumer groups, citizens forums, NGOs/CBOs, Government officials, media, seed suppliers, traders, doctors, lawyers and others will be invited to each consultation. Advertisements will be placed in the local media before the vent to ensure that the public is fully informed about the event. The Minister of State (MoS) MoEF Mr. Jairam Ramesh will chair the consultations at all locations. The Brinjal in India Why is the brinjal important to India? The brinjal Solanum melongena is sai

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to have originated in India and is known to have been cultivated for over 4000 years. Second only to the potato in terms of the total quantity produced, the brinjal continues to be an important domestic crop cultivated across the country accounting for 9% of total vegetable production and covering 8. 4% of the land under vegetable cultivation. There are approximately 2500 varieties of Kingdom : Plantae brinjal in India of various shapes extending Class : Magnoliopsida from oval or egg-shaped to long or clubSubclass : Asteridae shaped; and colours ranging from white, Order : Solanales yellow, green and purple to nearly black. Family : Solanaceae Many popular commercial varieties of Genus : Solanum Species : melongena brinjal available today are derivatives of older varieties from India and China.

The brinjal is low in calories and fats and contains mostly water, some protein, fibre and carbohydrates. It is also an excellent source of minerals and vitamins and is rich in water soluble sugars and amide proteins among other nutrients. The brinjal is a popular component of the Indian diet across the country. It is an important ingredient in Ayurvedic medicine and is of special value in the treatment of diabetes and liver problems. The brinjal is known to be consumed both cooked and raw.

Some of the most well-known brinjal dishes in India include the begun bhaja of Eastern India, the gutti vankaya kura of Andhra Pradesh, the katharikai kozhambu of Tamil Nadu, upperi in Kerala, vangi bath in Karnataka, wangyacha bharit in Maharashtra, olo, bharatu in Gujarat and baingan jhonga in Bihar. Folk songs in different parts of the country such as Guthi vankya kooroyi baava in Andhra Pradesh, Konkani songs in Maharashtra, Jaina in Karnataka, Bihu folk songs in Assam often allude to the brinjal.

The role of brinjal in religious rituals is best exemplified by one of the traditional varieties in Udupi District of Karnataka called the Mattu Gulla. This particular variety has been cultivated in the region for at least 500 years and is used as an offering to the main deity of the region at the Sode matha temple. What are the known features of the brinjal crop in India? The brinjal is usually self-pollinated. However, it has been reported that the extent of cross-pollination can range from 2% to as high as 48%. It is thus classified as a cross-pollinated crop.

While the biological structure of the anthers favours self pollination, the stigma projects beyond the anthers, thus providing ample opportunity for cross-pollination. The genotype, location, and insect activity further determine the actual rates of natural cross-pollination. Pests affecting the brinjal crop include the brinjal fruit and shoot borer, the brinjal stem borer, the mealy bug, lace wing bug, leaf hopper, leaf rollers, red spider mite, leaf-eating beetle, jassids, aphids, white fly and root knot nematodes.

Amongst these the brinjal fruit and shoot borer is the greatest threat and can cause a major loss in the marketable yield. The brinjal crop is typically grown in small plots or as inter crop. The major brinjal producing states in India are West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and

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