Obesity in England: Statistical Report Essay

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CB313 Statistics Report

Fleshiness in England:

Reason & A ; Consequences

By and large, the aim of this statistics study is to measure the fleshiness in England.

Contentss

1.0 Abstract ………………………………………………………… Pg 2

2.0 Introduction ………………………………………….…… … … Pg 2 – 3

3.0 Methodology …………………………………………………… Pg 3

4.0 Findingss …………………………………………………….…… Pg 4

4.1 Statisticss of fleshiness in England by age group………………… Pg 4

4.2 Obesity between work forces and adult females in England……………….. Pg 5

5.0 Physical Activity……………………………………………… … Pg 6

5.1 Physical Activity guidelines……………………………..……… Pg 6

5.2 Self-reported physical activity of work forces and women…………… Pg 6

6.0 Comparative rates of adults’ fleshiness in 2010……… … … . Pg 7

6.1 Map of extra weight of England………………………….…… . Pg 8

7.0 Cost of Obesity…………………………………………….. Pg 9

7.1 Human Cost of obesity…………………………………………… . Pg 9

7.2 NHS Cost of Obesity……………………………………………… . Pg 9

8.0 Conclusion………………………………………………… . Pg 10

9.0 Recommendations………………………… … …………… . Pg 10

10.0 References………………………………………………… Pg 11

1.0 Abstraction

The chief intent of this study, is to place the statistics analytical study sing ‘Obesity in England’ that is specifically based on the physical activity and the life styles of people in England. In add-on to the aim of this study, is to foreground the fact that peoples ‘ physical activities and life styles are altering twelvemonth by twelvemonth. Additionally, this study will analyze the fleshiness statistics of the population in England. The study will so discourse about the physical activity of the population associating to fleshiness in England. In order to ease the apprehension of the reader, historical tabular arraies and pie charts will be included in this study which can besides assist readers to do comparings between the fleshiness rate, physical activities and lifestyle statistics.

2.0 Introduction

Figure 1represents the computation expression of BMI with different units of measurings. The unit of ‘masses in BMI can be applied by utilizingKilograms( kilogram ) ,Pounds( pound ) , orRocks( st ) . However, the SI units for BMI is still remain on kgs.

imgres

( Figure 1 )

Fleshiness can be defined as an person who is overweight with a important grade of organic structure fat and fatty acid ( NHS, 2012 ) . In the past 20 five old ages, the happening of fleshiness in England, was measured and surveies found that the statistical records, had doubled the figures from the past old ages ( Publich Health England, 2014 ) . There are several grounds that could do fleshiness to go on. The two chief factors act uponing fleshiness are, due to miss of physical activities and life styles. Obesity is doubtless harmful for an person ‘s wellness. An person who face fleshiness, may meet some terrible wellness issues such as diabetes, shots, bosom disease and even some common malignant neoplastic disease such as chest malignant neoplastic disease or colon malignant neoplastic disease ( NHS, 2012 ) . The inquiry is, how can one find whether an person is considered corpulent or non?

An individual’s weight can be measured in assorted ways and measuring to find the badness of corpulence. However, harmonizing to the United Kingdom’s National Health Service ( NHS ) , the method that is widely pattern for organic structure weighting is the organic structure mass index ( BMI ) . By utilizing the computations in ( Figure 1 ) , persons can admit whether he/she is fleshy or corpulent. BMI fleshy badness is separated into a few classs. For cases, persons with BMI scope of 25-29 would be considered as corpulence, while persons who falls in the 2nd class with BMI between 30 and 40, would be considered as corpulent, followed by people who has his/her BMI over 40, would be considered as unhealthy fleshiness ( NHS, 2012 ) .

This study will supply indispensable statistics informations to give a bigger image of fleshiness in England for readers. The statistics will be supported with graphs, tabular arraies and pie charts that will be included every bit good to show a better illustration of the comparing between the variables. Last but non least, by the terminal of the study, readers will understand the possible ground of fleshiness in footings of physical activities and effects of fleshiness.

3.0 Methodology

The information that was used in this study, were collected through assorted types of beginnings such as on-line diaries, articles, cyberspace and books. These beginnings were done utilizing secondary informations. In add-on, several dependable web sites and one-year studies of official establishments were used to construe and analyze the informations and was converted into information to discourse this statistics study. The web sites that were used in this study consists of Guardian, Telegraph, and National Health Service ( NHS ) . Furthermore, sing to the obesity’s informations and information, the informations were chiefly obtained from the studies published by NHS in order to better the creditability and dependability of this study. In short, the information, information and stuffs in this study are highly echt, trusty and dependable.

4.0 Findingss

4.1 Statisticss of fleshiness in England by age group ( 2002 to 2012 )

( Graph 1 )

Beginning: Hospital Episode Statistics ( HES ) , Health & A ; Social Care Information Centre ( 2014 ) .

Harmonizing to ( Graph 1 ) above, the graph specifically shows the statistics of fleshiness in England from twelvemonth 2002 to 2013 harmonizing to age groups from the age of 16. The statistics showed that the obesity’s population in England, is swerving up from 2002 to 2013 for all age group ( 16 to 74 and over ) . In 2002, there was a record of 29,237 people confronting fleshiness while in 2003 the fleshiness rate had significantly increased to 33,546 people which calculated 14.74 % alteration. During that minute, the population of fleshiness in England rose quickly from twelvemonth 2004 to 2009 with 21.45 % , 27.68 % , 29.20 % , 20.39 % , 27.28 % and 38.90 % addition severally. In population, the Numberss of people enduring from fleshiness, had gone up dramatically from 40,741 to 142,219 people.

By comparing to twelvemonth 2009, the per centum alteration of the obesity’s population had reached its extremum which is 48.91 % in 2010. There was a record of 211,783 person which are corpulent from the age of 16 to 74 and over. Additionally, the statistics of people confronting fleshiness in England climbed up to 266,666 with a 25.91 % alteration comparison to twelvemonth 2010. Last but non least, the entire population of fleshiness in England in twelvemonth 2012, had reached up to 292,404 people. However, this addition had accounted to merely 9.65 % alteration in population of fleshiness. In the bigger image, the population for fleshiness in England had been escalated from twelvemonth 2002 to 2013 with an addition of monolithic 900 % .

4.2 Obesity between work forces and adult females in England ( Year 2002-2012 )

( Graph 2 )

Beginning: Hospital Episode Statistics ( HES ) , Health & A ; Social Care Information Centre ( 2014 ) .

As you can see, ( Graph 2 ) represents the obesity’s population between the work forces and adult females in England. The graph shows a important uptrend formed with the recorded statistics of obesity’s population. Other than that, you can see the difference between the corpulent work forces and adult females. The difference between the work forces and adult females that are corpulent, showed that both genders were increasing twelvemonth by twelvemonth. In 2002, the figure of adult females who suffered from fleshiness ( 17,169 people ) were 5,100 people higher than the figure of corpulent work forces ( 12,068 people ) .

Furthermore, in 2007, the figure of corpulent adult females ( 48,829 people ) had a 16,749 people of difference compared to the corpulent work forces which was tripled the consequence of twelvemonth 2002. Nevertheless, the most important informations recorded was in twelvemonth 2012. The population of adult females being corpulent ( 192,795 people ) , was about twice every bit many as the population of corpulent work forces ( 99,579 people ) .

In consequence, we can reason that sing to England’s obesity’s population, the figure of adult females who suffered from fleshiness are higher than work forces. Harmonizing to the research, deficiency of physical activity were the cause of fleshiness.

5.0 Physical activity

Physical activity is known to convey healthy benefits to persons and it is proved that this will cut down incidence of many chronic conditions such as fleshiness ( HSCIC, 2012 ) . However, persons that are deficiency of physical activity may endure from fleshiness.

5.1 Physical activity guidelines

MPA ( minutes/week )

VPA ( minutes/week )

Active

150

10 & lt ; or a‰¦ 75

Some activity

60-149

30-74

Low activity ( Overweight )

30-59

15-29

Inactive ( Obese )

& lt ; 30

& lt ; 15

MPA:Moderate strength Physical Activity

VPA:Vigorous strength Physical Activity

( Figure 2 )

Beginning: Hospital Episode Statistics ( HES ) , Health & A ; Social Care Information Centre ( 2014 ) .

HSCIC ( 2012 ) had set up a criterion for physical activity guidelines as shown in ( Figure 2 ) . The activities are divided into four classs to find whether an person is active or inactive. Persons must run into the demands of at least either MPA or VPA or both in order to fall into that class.

5.2 Self-reported physical activity of work forces and adult females

( Chart 1 ) ( Chart 2 )

Beginning: Hospital Episode Statistics ( HES ) , Health & A ; Social Care Information Centre ( 2014 ) .

HSCIC ( 2012 ) stated that persons must hold at least 30 MPA in order to acquire rid of fleshiness. Low activity and inactive person will be considered as corpulence and corpulent. Chart 1 and Chart 2 are the pie charts that represent the self-reported physical activity informations that HSCIC ( 2012 ) collected. Harmonizing to both of the figures, the per centum of active persons in footings of physical activity of work forces ( 67 % ) is evidently more than the adult females ( 55 % ) by a difference of 12 % . Relatively, 26 % of adult females in twelvemonth 2012 are inactive sing to their physical activity. Furthermore, the per centum of low activity of adult females is somewhat ( 2 % ) higher than work forces. In contrast, the inactive population of work forces in their physical activity was merely 19 % which is 7 % lower than the adult females.

In comparing, the per centums of inactive adult females are higher than inactive work forces whereas the per centums of active work forces are higher than the adult females. In short, since the persons that fall in the ‘low activity’ and ‘inactive’ class, are considered to be fleshy and corpulent. Therefore, mentioning to ( Figure 3 ) , we can reason that physical activity is be one of the chief grounds that caused fleshiness and it besides showed why the population of corpulent adult females was more than work forces since twelvemonth 2002 until 2012.

6.0 Comparative rates of adults’ fleshiness in 2010

( Graph 3 )

Beginning: National Obesity Observatory, International Comparisons of Obesity Prevalence, available at:www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/international/

Graph 3 shows latest informations of comparative rates of grownup ‘s fleshiness in twelvemonth 2010. As we can see, the state ‘s highest fleshiness prevalence is the United States ( 35.70 % ) . This is followed by Mexico, Scotland and New Zealand coming in 2nd, 3rd and 4th topographic point consequently with the fleshiness prevalence of 30 % , 28.20 % and 26.50 % severally. England’s fleshiness prevalence is 26.10 % which is considered high by comparing to states such as Australia ( 24.60 % ) , Northern Ireland ( 23 % ) , Luxembourg ( 22.50 % ) and Slovak Republic ( 16.90 % ) . Last but non least, Japan and Korea have the least obesity prevalence by comparing to other states in the graph shown ; they have a per centum of 3.90 % and 3.80 % comparatively. Ultimately, this graph shows that the fleshiness degree of England which is considered terrible.

6.1 Map of extra weight of England

Map 1shows the per centum of grownups that are involved in fleshiness from different parts of England.

Guardian ( 2014 ) stated that it has an norm of 64 % grownups conveying corpulent in England by sing all the parts.

Obesity

( Map 1 )

7.0 Cost of Obesity

The cost of fleshiness, consists of human cost and National Health Service ( NHS ) cost. This session will discourse about both the cost for fleshiness.

Figure 2shows the comparative hazard of adult females and work forces in footings of the diseases caused by fleshiness. The table consist of diseases that may do high blood pressure, shot and malignant neoplastic disease. It can be seen that the comparative figures of adult females, is higher by comparing to the work forces particularly in the Type 2 Diabetes which is two times more of the chance. Type 2 Diabetes can do serious life shortening that will impact the mortality of human being ( NAO, 2011 ) .

7.1 Human Cost of fleshiness

Disease

Relative hazard – Womans

Relative hazard – work forces

Type 2 Diabetess

12.7

5.2

High blood pressure

4.2

2.6

Myocardial Infarct

3.2

1.5

Cancer of the Colon

2.7

3

Angina

1.8

1.8

Gall Bladder Diseases

1.8

1.8

Ovarian Cancer

1.7

Osteoarthritis

1.4

1.9

Stroke

1.3

1.3

( Figure 2 )

Beginning: National Audit Office estimations based on literature reappraisal

7.2 NHS Cost of Obesity

( Graph 4 )

Beginning: National Audit Office estimations ( 2012 )

Graph 4 shows the approximative fleshiness cost in 2012. It is estimated a disbursement of ?457m on fleshiness cost, is considered as a load to the England’s economic system. NAO ( 2012 ) estimated that the fleshiness cost for twelvemonth 2015, will increase dramatically up to ?6.3 billion and up to ?9.7 billion by twelvemonth 2050. The ground behind the cost of fleshiness will be important high, is because of the indirect cost of lost end product in economic system. NAO ( 2001 ) stated that the economic system will be in recession due to the illness or decease of the England’s work force caused by fleshiness. Therefore, the effects of fleshiness must non be ignored but must be taken into serious considerations.

8.0 Decision

In short, the statistics of this study identified some of import inside informations sing fleshiness in England. It is of import to understand how the impact of fleshiness and the growing of population can do the addition of people with fleshiness to be two times more in the past 25 old ages. Furthermore, the tendency for fleshiness in all different age groups, showed an addition in England from twelvemonth 2002-2013. The differences between the genders every bit good, will demo the grounds to why there is an addition in fleshiness in dealingss to physical activities because of the action of work forces, inaction of adult females and frailty versa. Importantly, this study stated the effects of fleshiness which is terrible unwellnesss that causes decease with related hazard statistics about work forces and adult females. Last, the study showed the comparing between other states related to fleshiness, the per centum of fleshiness in the parts of England, followed by the human and NHS cost of fleshiness.

9.0 Recommendations

As aforementioned, the degree of fleshiness in England is acquiring more and more important twelvemonth by twelvemonth. Government should carry on more run to contend fleshiness as it will supply more information about importance of physical activity in life to persons or households. In add-on, authorities should go on to subsidize NHS for the ‘Health Check programme’ in order to forestall and avoid terrible disease such as bosom disease, shot, and malignant neoplastic disease.

Besides, authorities should non merely concentrate on physical activity ; they must concentrate on other ground that causes fleshiness every bit good, such as diet and lifestyle. Government could implement some political scheme to contend fleshiness, such as addition the revenue enhancement of fat-food in order to halt people from purchasing the unhealthy merchandise. Last but non least, authorities could besides increase the advertisement of healthy run and advertizement of disadvantages of fleshiness to promote people to acquire rid of fleshiness.

10.0 Mentions:

Boseley, S. ( 2014) . The Defender: Almost two-thirds of grownups in England classed as overweight by wellness organic structure.[ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.theguardian.com/society/2014/feb/04/two-thirds-adults-overweight-england-public-health [ Last Accessed 28ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

National Health Service. ( 2014) . Fleshiness: Introduction. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhs.uk/conditions/Obesity/Pages/Introduction.aspx [ Accessed 27ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

Public Health England. ( 2014 ) .Tendencies in Obesity Prevalence. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/trends [ Accessed 20ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

Figure 1: Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //healthy-living.knoji.com/does-your-bmi-really-matter/

HSCIC. ( 2014 ) .Statisticss on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England 2014.[ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB13648/Obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2014-rep.pdf [ Accessed 20ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

HSCIC. ( 2012 ) .Physical activity in Adults.[ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB13218/HSE2012-Ch2-Phys-act-adults.pdf [ Accessed 24ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

NAO. ( 2012 ) .An Update on the Government’s Approach to Tackling Obesity. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/tackling_obesity_update.pdf [ Accessed 24ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

HSCIC. ( 2012 ) .Chapter 7: Health Outcomes. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hscic.gov.uk/searchcatalogue? productid=13887 & A ; returnid=3945 [ Accessed 24th March 2014 ] .

NAO. ( 2001 ) .Undertaking Obesity in England. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2001/02/0001220.pdf [ Accessed 28ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

Public Health England. ( 2013) . Social Care and Obesity: A Discussion Paper. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.local.gov.uk/documents/10180/11463/Social+care+and+obesity+-+a+discussion+paper+-+file+1/3fc07c39-27b4-4534-a81b-93aa6b8426af [ Accessed 29ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

HSCIC. ( 2012 ) .Statisticss on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England, 2012. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB05131/obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2012-rep.pdf [ Accessed 20ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

HSCIC. ( 2013) . Statisticss on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England, 2013. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bhfactive.org.uk/userfiles/Documents/obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2013-rep.pdf [ Accessed 20ThursdayMarch 2014 ] .

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