Neolithic Art and Architecture Paper
During the “New” Stone Age. besides known as the Neolithic Period. art and life in general began to alter drastically for worlds. Many new oncomings began to blossom. for illustration worlds of this clip period had begun to populate in individual locations versus before they were mobile hunter-gatherers. This new life introduced new challenges and new chances. Within this paper I will discourse three Neolithic Locations. Jericho. Catal Hoyuk. and Stonehenge. Besides. what made each of these sites important. what new signifiers of edifices were present at each. and what is still confusing modern twenty-four hours historiographers and archeologists about these sites.
I will get down with the oldest of the three locations from above. Jericho. Jericho is a metropolis of Palestine. but has been under the business of many. Its most of import fact is that it is one of the oldest known for good occupied metropoliss in the universe. occupied during the Natufian epoch ( 10. 800 – 8. 500 BCE ) to present twenty-four hours. It was chiefly occupied during a clip known as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Period ( PPN: 8. 500 – 6. 000 BCE ) . which is further interrupt down into two more clip frames called PPNA ( 8. 500 – 7. 300 BCE ) and PPNB ( 7. 300 – 6. 000 BCE ) .
Along with being one of the oldest known metropoliss. Jericho shows us that worlds of the Neolithic Period had begun to make lasting constructions for life. After the domestication of workss and animate beings it is believed that Jericho was chosen to be a lasting colony because it was a tableland of the Jordan River vale with a spring that supplied a changeless beginning for H2O. During the PPNA. ellipse places made from clay bricks with roofs made from wooden subdivisions covered in Earth began to look at Jericho. Around 7. 500 BCE. a rock-cut ditch and midst walls about 5 pess broad surrounded the metropolis. Within the wall there is a individual handbill tower ( fig. 1 ) . about 30 pess high and about 33 pess in diameter. These walls and towers mark the beginning of monumental architecture.
Subsequently. during the PPNB epoch the designers of Jericho began constructing the places with rectangular clay bricks and a plaster-like clay howitzer. these houses were made into rectangular forms due to the rectangular bricks. During this clip we can besides happen grounds of new signifiers of art. plastered human skulls. It is believed these caputs may hold been used for a cult or faith of some kind. The caputs were formed around a human skulls with the plaster-like clay howitzer and so shells were placed in the eyes. and hints of pigment were besides found to shown a resemblance of tegument and hair ( fig 2 ) . Following. let’s discuss another major colony of the Neolithic Period that was formed between 7. 000 and 5. 000 BCE. Catal Hoyuk. This site is of import because it is possible to retrace human development of the Neolithic civilization over the period of about 800 old ages. The people of Catal Hoyuk were Neolithic arm and toolmakers. particularly in the usage of obsidian.
More significantly though was the small town itself. it’s architecture and the art that thrived within. Most of import about its architecture is that bordering edifices. intending it had no streets. formed this small town. In July of 2012. Catal Hoyuk was inscribed as a United Nations Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) World Heritage Site. There are two types of edifices that were constructed within Catal Hoyuk. houses and shrines. The houses were made of clay bricks that were strengthened by lumber frames. These places contained no doors. but gaps at the top that served as an entryway and a chimney. The insides were plastered and painted ; with platform postponing that was used as sites for kiping. feeding. and working ( fig. 3 ) . The dead of Catal Hoyuk were buried right under platforms of the places.
Although the houses of Catal Hoyuk were decorated on the interior there were other edifices somewhat larger that contained more ornament. flowery wall paintings. carnal caputs. pictures and statuettes. are the shrines. These edifices still intrigue archeologists today. as we do non cognize their true intent. Along with the architecture of Catal Hoyuk. you see the beginning of narrative pictures. Although people had begun to raise animate beings of their ain. runing still played a major portion in human life. This is shown in wall picture from Level III of Catal Hoyuk ( fig. 4 ) . Besides at Catal Hoyuk. we find what now referred to as the first map. or the first landscape picture ( fig. 5 ) . This landscape picture remained alone for 1000s of old ages. and with C dating this picture was executed in or around 6. 150 BCE. In add-on to picture. at Catal Hoyuk we find sculpture. weaving. clayware and even techniques of smelting lead.
Now allow us travel on to the most challenging and enigmatic topographic point of these three Neolithic sites. Stonehenge. Stonehenge is a formation of stones every bit high as 17 pess and weighing every bit much as 50 dozenss. Because these rocks are so big historiographers have called them megaliths. intending great rocks. Stonehenge exists on the Salisbury Plain of southern England. Stonehenge itself is a megalithic memorial constructed over the class of several old ages. in several stages. Stonehenge Phase 1. known as the earthwork memorial. The first stage of Stonehenge was begun around 2. 950 to 2. 900 BCE. During stage one Stonehenge consisted of four subdivisions and two entrywaies ( fig. 6 ) . The four subdivisions are as follows from outside to inside: the Outer bank. the Ditch. the Circular bank. and the Aubrey Holes. The ditch. which is enclosed by two earthen Bankss. has the same centre as the 56 Aubrey Holes inside it. hence stating historiographers they came from the same clip period.
The 2nd stage of Stonehenge is one that still perplexes historiographers. but the best grounds we have Tells us it occurred sometime between 2. 900 BCE and 2. 550 to 2. 400 BCE. During this clip of its building all grounds shows us that Stonehenge was more than probably being used as a cremation site. This stage it is known as the lumber memorial. All across the in circle of Stonehenge and around both entryway diggings have revealed post-holes which indicate that at this phase in Stonehenge’s building it was made from lumber and non the megalithic rocks that now stand. These post-hole sites are divided into three distinguishable locations. the northeasterly entryway. the southern entryway and the baffled cardinal form. The forms displayed in the baffled cardinal form raise many concerns for historiographers and this is something that still raises inquiries for them. as it is unknown precisely how large the constructions were or how they looked at this clip.
The 3rd and concluding stage of Stonehenge is known as the rock memorial. This is when what we see today was added to this memorial. There are two types of megalithic rocks found at Stonehenge. the bluestones and the sarsen rocks. The concluding phase took the signifier homocentric post-and-lintel circles. There are four circles and two quoitss that were formed in the concluding phase of Stonehenge. The first two circles formed inside of Stonehenge’s Circular bank are referred to as the Rings of Y and Z Holes. These holes show grounds that Stonehenge may hold ne’er been completed. as holes were dug prior to puting rocks inside the memorial. Inside of these two circles was a big circle formed out of sarsen rock headers. so followed by a circle of bluestones. Inside of the two rock circle were the quoitss. one made of sarsen rocks and another interior of that made out of bluestones. with a individual rock called the Altar Stone in the centre of the bluestone horseshoe ( fig. 7 ) .
Along the Circular bank four more rocks appear. known as the Station Stones. Merely two of the four rocks still remain. but when you run a line between each of rocks it forms a rectangle whose centre pinpoints the exact centre of the memorial. From the centre of the memorial going out toward the nor’-east entryway you see the last two megaliths of Stonehenge. the Slaughter Stone and the Heel Stone. The Heel rock aligns with the centre of Stonehenge at the summer solstice solstice. therefore giving historians the belief that Stonehenge was used a Calendar. The true usage of Stonehenge may ne’er be known. as grounds has besides proven that Stonehenge might hold been used as an observatory of astronomical facets.
Of these three sites we have learned a batch about our yesteryear. We have discovered many signifiers of graphics. and architectural alterations to the human civilization. But what we know of these sites is still turning. What will the hereafter clasp for us? While we continue to unearth and research these sites. will we happen that the worlds of Neolithic times were smarter or as smart than we are today? Are at that place any more new architectural finds to be found at these sites? Will we happen more art that change the manner we look at Art History? These three locations are a huge heap of cognition still waiting to be discovered and hopefully it will non take us as long to detect the cognition as it took the ancients to make the locations.
Figure 1. Great Stone Tower. Jericho. Reproduced from smarthistory. hypertext transfer protocol: //smarthistory. khanacademy. org/jericho. hypertext markup language.
Figure 2. Plastered Skulls from Yiftah’el. Reproduced from smarthistory. hypertext transfer protocol: //smarthistory. khanacademy. org/jericho. hypertext markup language.
Figure 3. On-site Restoration of a typical inside. Catal Hoyuk. 2005. Reproduced from Wikipedia. hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Catal_H % C3 % BCy % C3 % BCk_Restauration_B. JPG.
Figure 4. Deer Hunt. 5750 BCE. Level III. Catal Hoyuk. Turkey. Museum of Anatolian Civilization. Ankara. Reproduced from Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages. A Global History ( Boston. MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. 2011 ) . 26.
Figure 5. Landscape with volcanic eruption. 6150 BCE. Level III. Catal Hoyuk. Turkey. Museum of Anatolian Civilization. Ankara. Reproduced from Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages. A Global History ( Boston. MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. 2011 ) . 27.
Figure 6. Stonehenge: Phase 1. Reproduced from David Souden. Stonehenge Revealed ( New York. New york: Facts on File Inc. . 1997 ) . 31.
Figure 7. Stonehenge: Phase 3. inner circles. Reproduced from David Souden. Stonehenge Revealed ( New York. New york: Facts on File Inc. . 1997 ) . 39.
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