Influence of the British and Mughals on India Essay
Mughal influence can be seen in cultural contributions such as: * Centralised, imperialistic government which brought together many smaller kingdoms.  * Persian art and culture amalgamated with Indian art and culture.  * New trade routes to Arab and Turkic lands. * The development of Mughlai cuisine.
 * Mughal Architecture found its way into local Indian architecture, most conspicuously in the palaces built by Rajputs and Sikh rulers. * Landscape gardeningAlthough the land the Mughals once ruled has separated into what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan, their influence can still be seen widely today. Tombs of the emperors are spread throughout India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The Mughal artistic tradition was eclectic, borrowing from the European Renaissance as well as from Persian and Indian sources. Kumar concludes, “The Mughal painters borrowed individual motifs and certain naturalistic effects from Renaissance and Mannerist painting, but their structuring principle was derived from Indian and Persian traditions. ADMINISTRATION: | Administration of Mughal DynastyAdministration of Mughal Dynasty brought about certain fundamental changes in the administrative system of India.
They introduced a number of new positions in administration in an organised way. By far the biggest change they brought with them was that of religious tolerance in administrative matters. | | | | | | | | | | Administration of Mughal Dynasty was carried out by incorporating certain elementary changes in the central administration structure in India. Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire assumed the title of `Badshaah` which was continued by his successors. Akbar enhanced further the power and prestige of the emperor.He declared himself the authority in case of disparity of opinions regarding Islamic laws.
However, Mughal rule was not theocratic. ExceptAurangzeb no other Mughal emperor attempted to carry his administration on the principles of Islam. A major change that they brought about in matters of administration was the principle of religious tolerance. These new innovations in polity set aside Mughal administration. It was Akbar who raised the structure of Mughal administration.
It persisted till the reign of Aurangzeb with minor changes. The weak successors of Aurangzeb, however, could not maintain it.The Omrahs or the nobles were the pillars of the imperial system. They were quick to criticize, and looked down upon anything unsophisticated. It was necessary for the sovereign to retain their support, which he did by various methods such as personal courtesy, giving presents, and bestowing honours on them such as prestigious robes, turban ornaments of precious stones or the taxation rights of a Mansab or Jagir. The hierarchy of the Omrahs was constantly getting altered and with the passage of time, new families and tribes gained ascendancy and, more significantly, there were new alliances.
Many old friends became enemies and vice-versa. | | RELIGIOUS POLICY The religious policy of the Mughal emperors was, on the whole, a tolerant one. Though staunch Sunnis personally, Babur and Humayun were tolerant. Akbar’s policy was positively motivated towards achieving the cultural unity of India.
Akbar’s was a liberal and enlightened policy. He abolished pilgrim tax and jaziya in 1563 and 1564 respectively. Akbar’s religious views undKrwent a process of evolution. Though brought up as an orthodox Sunni Muslim he was greatly influenced by the mysticism of the Sufi doctrines, especially when he came in contact with the two brilliant brothers, Faizi and Abdul Fazal, who were Sufis.
He invited learned professors of various religions to his Ibadat KJuzna, the hall of worship he built at Fatehpur Sikri in 1575. Here he gave impartial hearing to all religious experts-Hindu, Muslim, Jain, Christian and Zoroastrian. He was against rigid orthodoxy and narrow sectarianism of the Sunnis, who were bitterly opposed to his tolerant policy. Hence at the suggestion of Shaikh Mubarak, father of Abdul Fazal and Faizi, Akbar assumed the role of the spiritual leader of Islam. In 1579, he issued the so-called Infallibility Decree (Mahzar) in this regard.
This decree made him the ‘Pope as well as king’, by which he appropriated to himself the right to choose any interpretation of the Quran in the interest of public good. This ended the dominance of bigots. In 1582, he promulgated Din-i-Ilahi, a new religion. The underlying principle . was Suleh-i-Kul (universal toleration).
There was belief in unity of God, with the mingling of some Hindu, Jain and Persian doctrines. The new system was called Tawahid-i-Ilahi or Divine Monotheism. Among the principle members there was only one Hindu, Raja Birbal. Din-i-Ilahi did not swvive after Akbar’s death.British influence on culture| | India is more ‘western’ after years of colonial legacy Some analysts would say that Britain bequeathed India with: * English language * Secular law * Education system * Constitutional government * Railways.
Most secondary schools in the upper tier conduct lessons in English. Many of these were established by Christian missionaries during the Raj for both British and those of aristocratic, wealthy or well-connected Indians. Over time they opened to middle class families and now often to poor children. Many are run in English public school style, with cricket, soccer, hockey nd perhaps boxing as main sports. More importantly, as English is the medium of instruction, Shakespeare and other classical English literature are on the curriculum and so graduates can speak English as well as any English kids, though sometimes a bit archaically. In fact, some of these Indians not only think but also dream in English.
Many who live in Commonwealth countries will know, mission schools are prevalent and often amongst the top performing. And they were so in China. My paternal grandfather went to St Xavier’s a Jesuit run school in Shanghai. Years later, I studied at St Xavier’s, Calcutta.For kids determined to succeed, often entrance to one of the elite Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) is sought after.
Competition is fierce – 60 candidates for each place. Some IIT graduates had moved abroad, with many staying on as professors and others ending up as entrepreneurs, such as in Silicon Valley. The majority remains in India and usually is very successful in industry or commerce, though some, like Jairam Ramesh (see Home page) entered politics very successfully. * Indians are generally more fluent in English than the Chinese. And more Indians speak English than Chinese do.
But India has lower literacy than China: 60% (45% women). Worse for Dalits: 31% for men and 11% for women. Lack of educated workers is beginning to hamper economic growth. * It produces over 250,000 new engineering graduates and nearly 700,000 science and maths graduates each year. However, note should be taken of the reality behind the headline figures. There are probably around 100,000 engineering graduates per year of requisite standard – see Duke University report, esp slides 6 and 7.
Indian institutions are largely based on 19th Century British institutions adapted to Indian conditions and updated at the time of independence.For example, there is clear separation between the legislative, judiciary and executive branches of government. The civil service is modelled on that of British India. And the Bombay stock exchange was modelled on the London one and opened in 1850s, the oldest in Asia, and company laws were originally derived from British company laws.
At one time, Indian lawyers and judges dressed similarly to British counterparts and the barrister would address the judge as “milord”. * They often dwell as large ‘joint’ families. * India has over 100,000 $millionaires and c100m middle class people. * It has more ‘ultra’ poor (