Ideology Was Coined By A French Philosopher Sociology
Ideology was coined by a Gallic philosopher, Antoine Destutt de Tracy in 18th century ( Van Dijk, 2000 ) . Then the survey of political orientation continued by a German philosopher, Karl Heinrich Marx with his Marxist Theory, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Louis Althusser and other philosophers.
Ideology is “ a system of thoughts and ideals, particularly one which forms the footing of economic or political theory and policy ” ( Oxford Dictionaries, 2012 ) . In general, political orientation is the thought or point of view of the theory and policy. It fundamentally related to political relations, society and faith ( Van Dijk, 2000 ) .
Tracy defined political orientation as “ a broad societal and economic doctrine which provided the footing for a strong defense mechanism of private belongings, single autonomy, the free market, and constitutional bounds to the power of the province ” ( Hart, 2012 ) . Ideology is a common “ scientific discipline of thoughts ” ( the survey of people ‘s thought, statements, speech production and others ) which known as psychological science or scientific discipline of cognitive presents ( Van Dijk, 2000 ) .
Harmonizing to Van Dijk ( 2000, pp. 6-8 ) , political orientation can be the beliefs practiced by a group of people or community, the false and deceptive beliefs used by the politicians in Marxism theory, the societal patterns ‘ footing of a group of people or it can be every bit cardinal as the general construct in societal, spiritual and political constructs. Likewise, Morrow ( 2006, pp. 1-3 ) defines political orientation as political political orientation, false consciousness and background premise.
Ideology often associated with political relations and the sphere group of the society. Some of the illustrations of political political orientations are liberalism, socialism and some general political orientations promoted by politicians like racism, ecological and feminist ( Van Dijk, n.d. ) . Political political orientation has many old ages of history which it started in the twentieth century. The first political political orientation is the classical liberalism ( Kettler, 1988 ) .
Besides that, political orientation has really close relation with mass media. Media are frequently used to advance political orientation. The media including the films and movies like the war films, broadcast like telecasting and entering like music in the yesteryear. Nowadays, it is widely spread through Internet and besides through nomadic devices.
Peoples normally learn political orientations from the closest people around them, so from the media ( Van Dijk, 2000 ) . This reflects why the dominant groups use political orientation with media.
1Malaysia construct is an political orientation ( 1Malaysia, 2012 ) which introduced by Prime Minister YAB Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak in April 2009.
The construct aimed to construct the national integrity in assorted sector such as political, socio-economy, instruction and others without mentioning to races, civilizations, faiths and societal position. It besides aspired to cut down the spread between the group of hapless and rich, and between provinces and federal. The aims of the construct will convey Malaysia to be a better state in the hereafter. In order to make the national integrity, authorities has to better the sense of belonging and togetherness among the people without prejudice on the race and other factors ( Hasnul Mohamad Salleh, n.d. , p. 1 ) .
In 1970s, Malaysians lived within their cultural groups, Malays, Chinese and Indians. The races practiced their civilizations, spiritual and life styles. This made the economic sciences of Malaysia disparity and the tragic event of May 13 in 1969. ( Hasnul Mohamad Salleh, n.d. , pp. 3-4 )
The authorities had put attempt on constructing a integrity state since old ages ago. The earliest program was the New Economic Policy ( NEP ) , followed by National Development Policy ( NDP ) and Vision 2020. Old ages subsequently, Prime Minister YAB Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak developed 1Malaysia construct to better the racial harmoniousness in Malaysia. The old policies are the stepping rocks for the formation for 1Malaysia construct.
1Malaysia construct is formed from assorted issues or values ( mention Figure 1 in Appendix for the map of 1Malaysia construct ) . There are eight nucleus values in the construct, including civilization of excellence, doggedness, humbleness, credence, trueness, meritocracy, instruction and unity. Six National Key Results Area ( NKRAs ) are besides included in the construct. The NKRAs are “ cut downing offenses, war against corruptness, widening the entree to affordable and quality of instruction, raising populating criterion of the low income earners, upgrading substructure in the rural countries and the interior part and bettering public transit in a moderate period of clip ” ( Hasnul Mohamad Salleh, n.d. , pp. 8-9 ) .
With the 1Malaysia construct, authorities had put an attempt on programs and programmes. Government had developed the 1Malaysia People ‘s Menu, 1Malaysia Unity Sports Carnival, 1Malaysia Cultural Village, 1Malaysia Grocery Stores, 1 Care and the latest program is 1Malaysia Mega Sale Carnival. Prime Minister besides announced the ‘Negeri Aman Jaya 1Malaysia Bersatu ‘ Concept, widely known as ‘NAJ1B ‘ Concept in Perak. Additionally, some of the NGOs associated with 1Malaysia besides been formed such as 1Malaysia Foundation and 1Malaysia Youth Fund.
The merchandises of 1Malaysia are produced and sold in the food market shops. Besides that, 1Malaysia is widely promoted through mass media, whether in wirelesss, telecastings, newspapers, Internet or others. 1Malaysia subject vocal, ‘Satu Malaysia ‘ and other back uping vocals such as ‘Satu Malaysia, Satu Bahtera ‘ are composed to advertise the construct. The vocals are broadcasted in the local Television Stationss like RTM1, 8TV and radio Stationss like ai.fm. The logo of 1Malaysia ( Figure 2 ) and the wordss of 1Malaysia subject vocal ( Figure 3 ) are in the Appendix.
There are a few mottos for 1Malaysia since the issued twelvemonth. The first motto for 1Malaysia was “ Rakyat Didahulukan, Pencapaian Diutamakan ” which means “ Peoples First, Performance Now ” in 2009. For 2010, the motto was “ Menjana Transformasi ” , “ Generating Transformation ” in English. While in 2011 and 2012, “ Transformasi Berjaya, Rakyat Sejahtera ” as “ Transformation Successful, People Prosperous ” and “ Janji Ditepati ” as “ Promises Fulfilled ” severally.
1.2 Research Problem
In the old research mentioned in ‘1Malaysia – Concept and Values ‘ , a study was conducted after the proclamation of 1Malaysia construct by Prime Minister, YAB Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak. The consequence shows that 76 % of the samples were cognizant of the 1Malaysia construct. About half of the samples claimed that the construct is to advance the racial integrity and 18 % said that the construct “ is about equity and equality among the races ” ( Hasnul Mohamad Salleh, n.d. , p. 2 ) . The consequence besides showed 39 % of the surveyed people did non understand the construct ( Hasnul Mohamad Salleh, n.d. , p. 3 ) .
There is no research survey on the perceptual experience of Penang Chinese college pupils towards the 1Malaysia construct. The survey is conducted to happen out these replies.
What is the perceptual experience of Penang Chinese college pupils towards 1Malaysia?
What is their awareness degree on 1Malaysia construct?
How cognize about 1Malaysia construct?
What they know about 1Malaysia?
How deep they learned about 1Malaysia?
What is the sentiment of Chinese college pupils in Penang towards 1Malaysia construct associated with integrity of race?
1.3 Research Aims
To happen out the perceptual experience of Penang Chinese college pupils towards 1Malaysia construct.
To happen out the consciousness of Penang Chinese college pupils towards 1Malaysia construct.
To analyze the apprehension of 1Malaysia construct among Penang Chinese college pupils.
To happen out the attitude of Penang Chinese college pupils associate 1Malaysia construct to integrity of race.
1.4 Research Question
What is the perceptual experience of Penang Chinese college pupils towards 1Malaysia construct?
1.5 Operational Definition
Concept will be mentioning to the 1Malaysia construct which is established by the Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak in 2009 and it aimed to construct the integrity between the races.
Races mentioned along with the 1Malaysia are mentioning to the races in Malaysia. They are Malay, Chinese, Indian, Kadazan, Iban, and other Aborigines.
Penang mentioned in this study is mentioning to Penang island which pretermiting the Province Wellesley: Seberang Perai, Bukit Mertajam and etc.
Penang Chinese college pupils ( PCCS ) are defined as the Chinese pupils from Penang College. They are the Penang citizens with aged between 18 to 23 old ages old. In this research, it is besides known as college pupils or pupils.
Penang colleges in this survey are mentioning to Han Chiang College, KDU College, DISTED College and INTI College which are the colleges those the samples are selected from.
1.6 Significance of Study
The significances of survey of the perceptual experience of PCCS towards 1Malaysia construct are as below. This survey will profit and convey Penang towards a successful and solidarity province in the hereafter. Nowadays, 1Malaysia construct is widely promoted in many ways such as the 1Malaysia vocals, 1Malaysia merchandises, 1Malaysia Television web site and others.
The first significance of survey is to happen out the consciousness of PCCS understanding 1Malaysia construct. The consciousness degree towards the 1Malaysia construct will be tested in the research which it will be the footing to understand the perceptual experience of samples towards 1Malaysia construct.
Second is to analyze the apprehension of 1Malaysia construct among the college pupils. The cognition of the pupils is to be tested in the questionnaire. This will assist in analyzing the perceptual experience of the PCCS towards 1Malaysia construct.
Last, is to happen out the attitude of PCCS associate 1Malaysia construct to integrity of race. Through this survey, this undermentioned statement can be defined. 1Malaysia can even assist in credence from different race of people and assist frontward beef up their tolerance? ( Hamad, 2011 ) . This survey is besides able to happen out that had PCCS understand the 1Malaysia construct and 1Malaysia construct can even convey out construct of loyal spirit among PCCS. ( Huda, 2011 ) .
‘1Malaysia ‘ can make us in many ways and anyplace. For illustration, Student Discount Card 1Malaysia ( Kad Siswa 1Malaysia ) , 1Malaysia store and etc. 1Malaysia chiefly promote the position and rights, justness and equality between the races and to be able to acquire benefits with integrity and solidarity. It besides can be known as racial harmoniousness and national integrity. There will be three dogmas toward 1Malaysia. First dogmas are rule of credence, 2nd is rule of national spirit while the 3rd dogmas is rule of societal justness. ( Rahanum, 2012 ) .
Harmonizing to this survey, the credence from different races of people and uniy will assist Malaysia towards an promotion and prosperity state in the hereafter. In add-on, the apprehension of 1Malaysia construct will assist in economic strength and uninterrupted growing, such as promoted biotechnology, information and communicating engineering. Last but non least, loyal spirit will be successfully implemented which is one of the most of import points of 1Malaysia construct.
PCCS are the selected samples for this survey. The research is conducted within the PCCS but non to the populace and other races. This is because the research intended to happen out the perceptual experience of adolescents who are the Chinese from Penang and peculiarly the college pupils.
The samples will be the college pupils who are aged between 18 and 23 old ages old. This scope of pupils is the youngest group in the grownup group and will be the leaders of industries in future. It is critical to transport out a research to analyze their perceptual experience including their consciousness, cognition and attitudes towards 1Malaysia construct. This will convey a platform for the 1Malaysia construct to better.
Additionally, they are the college pupils from the Penang colleges who are educated with the lowest educational degree of certification. Students taking third instruction will hold the footing of understanding and handiness. This will take them easier to derive the information about 1Malaysia and will hold higher exposure to the construct if comparison to the high school educated pupils.
Penang province is chosen as the topographic point to roll up informations from. This is because Penang is one of the provinces those are ruled by the oppositional party. Penang is under the authorization of Democratic Action Party ( DAP ) alternatively of authorities parties such as Malaysian Chinese Association ( MCA ) . This survey will be a research on the perceptual experience of citizens from the resistance towards the authorities executed construct. This will be a research from a different position and point of position towards 1Malaysia construct.
As the research is to happen out the perceptual experience of Penang citizens, the college pupils have to be Penang citizens in order to bring forth consequences that stand foring the citizens of Penang. The college pupils replying the questionnaire must be Penang citizens who can be original born and unrecorded in Penang or in a legal manner of holding Penang reference in the individuality card.
Chinese raced pupils are chosen as the research samples because Chinese has the largest population in Penang. Harmonizing to the entire population of cultural groups in Penang, the consequence of research conducted by Department of Statistics in 2010, there are 1,526,324 of people, Malayan and non-Malaysian, remaining in Penang. In this latest research consequence, it stated that Chinese has the highest population with the figure of 654,828 people. Chinese is somewhat larger population than the natives which about 99.35 % of 628,577 people are Malays ( Department of statistic, 2011 ) . Further, Penang was ruled by the MCA, the authorities Chinese-based party for many old ages. Penang Chinese is the most suited group to carry on research on to prove their perceptual experience towards 1Malaysia.
The technique used in the research is non-probability sampling and purposive sampling is used to acquire samples when roll uping informations. PCCS are the selected sample for this survey. The research is conducted within the PCCS but non to the populace and other races. Merely the people who meet the standards as a Penang citizen, a Chinese and a college pupil are qualified to make full in the questionnaire. This is because the research is intended to happen out the perceptual experience of adolescents who are the Chinese from Penang and peculiarly the college pupils.
The size of the sampling is 150 pupils. This trying size was chosen because of the clip constrain as the research will be merely conducted in 10 hebdomads. The colleges selected are from Penang province, which are KDU College, DISTED College and Han Chiang College and INTI College. These colleges have more Chinese pupils which this has made a Chinese sphere community that similar to the Penang community.
The personal inside informations and information of the samples will non be reviewed in the study. In the questionnaire, the personal information such as names, income, individuality and others are non been asked.
The method of research is used in this survey is quantitative study. This is because the chief intent of this survey is to research on the perceptual experience of PCCS towards the construct 1Malaysia. It is to happen out the statistics alternatively the in-depth researching through questionnaire. The questionnaire is structured to happen out the consciousness, understanding and attitude of the college pupils upon the 1Malaysia constructs and tie in the construct with race integrity.
The questionnaire contains 14 inquiries which are divided into four parts. First, Part A is to roll up the demographics of the samples which are the age and the highest degree of instruction. Second, Part B is to happen out the degree of consciousness of the samples toward 1Malaysia construct. Next, Part C is to analyze the samples ‘ apprehension towards 1Malaysia. Last, Part D is to happen out the samples ‘ attitude associate 1Malaysia construct to national integrity. Besides, a pilot trial had been conducted on the convenient samples, TAR College ‘s pupils in order to polish the study inquiries.
The dependability of the research is that the inquiries are structured to roll up the informations about the consciousness degree, understanding degree and the attitude towards 1Malaysia construct which will convey the acknowledge of perceptual experience towards the construct. The inquiries are dependable which the replies will convey back the perceptual experience. The content cogency is used in this survey as the questionnaire is checked by the lector and refined until it is most accurate and effectual to roll up informations.
The dependant variable in this research is the perceptual experience or the attitude of the PCCS towards 1Malaysia construct. On the other manus, the independent variables are the consciousness and apprehension of PCCS towards the construct. The perceptual experience towards 1Malaysia construct will be measured through the perusal of awareness degree, knowledge degree and the attitude. The degree of consciousness, understanding and attitude will impact the perceptual experience of PCCS towards 1Malaysia construct.
The variables are measured in the evaluation systems, yes or no footing and multiple pick replies. Both ordinal graduated table and internal graduated table are used to roll up informations. Some of the inquiries are given assorted equality replies as the ordinal graduated table while some of the replies are in the internal graduated table. This will enable to roll up more accurate reply.
The survey of the perceptual experience of PCCS towards 1Malaysia construct is of import because this will assist in understanding the effectivity and feelings of the construct in the Penang Chinese immature community. In the old survey ( Hasnul Mohamad Salleh, n.d. , p. 2 ) , it showed that most of the Malaysians do non aware about the construct.
In this survey, the consciousness degree, understanding degree and attitude of PCCS will be found out, which indicate to the apprehension of the perceptual experience of samples towards 1Malaysia construct. In the outlook to this survey, the consequences of high degree of consciousness, degree of understanding and positive attitude towards 1Malaysia construct will be obtained.
3.2.4 Research Procedure
A questionnaire with 18 inquiries with division of demographics, consciousness towards 1Malaysia, cognition about 1Malaysia attitude towards 1Malaysia was designed intended to carry on this quantitative study on the perceptual experience of PCCS towards the 1Malaysia construct. The questionnaire was so checked by the lector for corrections. At the same clip, the pilot trial was carried out on 30 convenient samples which are the TAR College pupils. The questionnaire was finalised to 14 inquiries with the dividers of demographics, consciousness towards 1Malaysia, apprehension of 1Malaysia and attitude towards 1Malaysia.
The questionnaires were equally distributed in the Han Chiang College, KDU College, INTI College and DISTED College. 25 of Chinese pupils from each college were chosen to make full in the questionnaire. During the procedure of roll uping informations, some of the jobs like the pupils decline to make full in the questionnaire, the misinterpretation of inquiries, by chance jumped to the following inquiry and others.