Health 334- Exam 2

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All of the following are types of heart disease found in women except
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Hypersensitive heart disease
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Cancer can be prevented by
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All of answer choices listed are correct (avoiding tobacco and limiting alchohol use, Getting recommended screenings, eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that one in ______ American women aged 18 or older smoke cigarettes
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Six
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Current cancer treatment involve all of the following except
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Beta drugs
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The first warning sign of cancer is “color”
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False
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The leading cause of cancer death among women is cancer of the
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Lung
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Major strategies for controlling and treating heart disease include all of the following except
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High blood pressure
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Risk factors for breast cancer include
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All answer choices listed are correct
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The seven warning signs of cancer spell out the word
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Caution
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Some chronic diseases and heart conditions are genetic an ssubsequently
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True
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Unchangeable risk factors risk factors for heart disease include al of the following except
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Hypertension
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Communicable or infectious disease
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is caused by a pathogentic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly from one person to anohter
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Chronic diseases
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are disease of long duration and generally slow progression
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Chronic conditions
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can result from communicable or infectious diseases
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7 to 10 deaths
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among americans each year are from chronic diseases
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Name the ones that are Chronic conditions
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Arthritis, Asthma, Autism Spectrum disorder, Cancer, Cardiac Arrhythmias, Cognitive heart failure, Coronary artery disease, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Dementia (including Alzheimer’s) Depression, Diabetes, Hepatitis, Human Immunodeficiency (HIV), Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Osteoporosis, Schizophrenia, Stroke, Substance abuse disorders (drug and alcohol)
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What are the 3 leading causes of death in women in the United Sates
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Heart disease, cancer and stroke
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For women of reproductive age (ages 15-44 years) what are some of the common chronic diseases
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are depression, hypertension (high blood pressure) and diabetes.
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Different types of heart disease
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angina, congenital heart disease, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, coronary microvascular disease, Cyanotic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, ischaemic heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, organic heart disease, pulmonary heart disease, structural heart disease.
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Which of the following improves energy levels and decreases risk for anemia?
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Iron
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A scientific evidence review published every 5 years to aid in choosing a healhty
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dietary guidelines
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BMI stands for Body Mass Index
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True
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This typed of fat is composed of fatty acid molecules that contain all the hydrogen atoms they can carry
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Saturated
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How many calories per gram does protein have?
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4
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The nutrient transports essential fatty acids around the body and provides taste, consistency, and stability in foods
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Fats
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Physical activity is not recommended during the third trimester of pregnancy
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False
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All of the following are fat-soluble vitamins except
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Vitamin B
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Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
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Vitamins
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A BMI of > 30 indicates a person is
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Obese
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Which of the following activities is not safe to do while pregnant?
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Deep knee bends or full sit-ups
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The recommended first step to take if beginning a new exercise plan, especially if you have never exercised before is
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See a doctor
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Which of the following is not component of exercise?
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BMI
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A comprehensive fitness program should include all but which of the following?
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Emotional Strength
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Which of the following is not a principle of conditioning?
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Health
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Benefits of exercise for older adults include all of the following except
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All of these are benefits of exercise, balance and strength, decreases risk of falls, and endurance
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The maximum heart rate for a 20 year old female is:
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200 BPM
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If you are not engaging in regular exercise prior to pregnancy, it is not safe to begin once pregnancy occurs
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False
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Active children are more likely to become active adults
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True
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Warning signs of compulsive exercising include:
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All of these: Becoming upset when you miss a workout, the amount you eat dictates how much you exercise, exercising when sick
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Which of the following is not a risk of binge drinking?
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All answer choices are risk factors, liver disease, brain shrinkage/damage, deterioration of teeth
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What organization is a resource to help women with alcohol problems?
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Alcoholics anonymous (AA)
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Social consequences of abuse include all of the following except
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Depression
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Women with substance problems are more likely to ascribe their problems to depression, anxiety, or family trouble.
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True
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Babies born to women who smoke during pregnancy have an increased likelihood of dying of:
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Sudden infant death syndrome
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This is responsible for 80% of lung cancer deaths in women
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Tobacco use
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What condition resulting from consuming alcohol while pregnant leaves children with abnormal facial features, growth issues, and central nervous system problems?
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Fetal alcohol syndrome
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Which of the following does not affect the absorption of alcohol is the body?
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Social function
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Women who have a history of depression are more likely to drink excessively
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True
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All of the following are direct modes of infectious disease transmission except:
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Food Borne
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A mosquito borne illness affection 500 million people annually and mainly found in tropical climates is
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Malaria
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The epidemiologic triad includes all of the following except:
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Disease
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Diseases are becoming rare in the United States due to:
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Immunizations
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Unchangeable risk factors for heart disease include all of the following except:
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Hypertension
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A woman’s anatomy places her at a unique risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections as well as having more severe issues related to the infection
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True
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Abstinence and mutual monogamy are methods to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections
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True
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Which of the following is not a way to prevent or control infectious diseases?
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Drink after others
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If not treated, STI’s can lead to all of the following except:
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Stroke
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The most advanced stage of HIV is:
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AIDS-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
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Benign
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are rarely life threatening. they are made up of of cells that are encapsulated, they do not spread to other parts of the body and do not invade surrounding tissues
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Malignant tumors
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cancer and refer to numerous diseases characterized by abnormal cells the divide uncontrollably , have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal cells.
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Metastasize
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travel to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. It’s cells can form new tumors and invade tissue and organs in the new area of the body.
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Seven major warnings signs of cancer
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a change in bowel or bladder habits sore that does not heal unusual bleeding or discharge from any place lump in the breast or other parts of the body Chronic indigestion or difficulty in swallowing Obvious changes in a wart or mole Persistent coughing or hoarseness
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4 most common categories of cancer are
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carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma and leukemia
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Carcinomas
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are the most common type of cancer in the united States, representing 80-90 percent of all reported cancers. Originate in the glandular or epithelial cells, which line the organs of the body.
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Sarcomas
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cancers that begin in the connective tissues of the body, either the bone, muscles, or cartilage and are relatively rare in the US, accounting for less than 2 percent of all new cancers each year.
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Lymphomas
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cancers of the lymphatic system and can be broadly subdivided into Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (a number of diseases)
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Leukemia
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cancer of the blood forming tissues and can be one of many types. Early symptoms mimic those of other diseases, including mononucleosis, tonsillitis, mumps, and others. Blood tests and examination of the cells in the bone marrow are necessary for diagnosing leukemia
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” in situ”
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refers to cancerous tumors that are usually early stage and localized. The survival rates are usually higher for in situ cancer than for invasive cancer, which has spread to other tissues.
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TNM
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staging system, developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union and the International Union Against Cancer.
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TNM
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T- represents the tumor size and level of invasion ranging from 1 to 4. N-represents the nodal involvement, the size and number of the nodes and degree of spread to lymph nodes ranging from 1 to 4. M represents the absence or presence of distant metastases, denoted as X, O or !
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Carcinogens
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cigarette smoking, diet, exposure to carcinogenic chemicals, ionizing radiation and ultraviolet rays account for the vast majority of cancers.
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Cigarette smoking
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associated with cancers of the lung, larynx, pharynx. oral cavity, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, uterus and cervix. Accounts for 87 percent of lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. accounts for 87 percent of lung cancer deaths and 30 percent of all cancer deaths. passive (or secondhand) smoke causes disease, including lung cancer, in healthy non smokers, which includes one in five US women. Remains the most significant factor in premature death of women, particularly in the areas of cancer and heart disease.
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Diet and Physical Activity
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1/3 of cancer deaths in the US are due to diet and lack of physical activity, according to research studies.
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Hepatitis B
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linked to live cancer
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HSV-2 and HPV
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associated with an increase in cervical cacner
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Exposure to sun
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More than 1 million cases of basal cell or squamous cell cancers occur annually. Serious form of skin cancer is melanoma
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UVA and UVB
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have been linked to skin cancer.
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UV radiation
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causes most cases of basal and squamous cell skin cancer and contributes significantly to skin melanoma
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Carcinogens
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asbestos, nickel, cadmium, uranium, radon, vinyl choloride, benzidene, and benzene
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Adjuvant therapy
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substance to enhance the action of drugs to treat the cancer.
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Neoadjuvant therapy
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the use of drugs to shrink the cancer before surgical removal
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chemotheraphy
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can cure some cancers, keep others from spreading, cause remission or reduce large tumors before surgery
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T-helper and macrophages
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use their own chemicals, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin and interferon to prevent tumor growth or attack cancer cells.
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Stem cells
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helps patients to receive high doses of chemotherapy, radiation or both

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