Genetic engineering

Production of human proteins by recombinant bacteria
DNA analysis to identify individuals
DNA analysis to determine tissue compatibility for organ transplants
Production of antiviral drugs to treat influenza
examples of practical applications of genetic manipulation.

T/F In the laboratory, the chemistry of DNA allows varying temperatures to be used to separate the two stands and replicate the DNA.

Gel electrophoresis
Which of the following techniques utilizes an electric current and the fact that DNA molecules are negatively charged?

Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA at specific locations
Please choose the statement that best describes the role of restriction enzymes in genetic engineering.

Southern blot analysis is used to identify DNA fragments that are carrying specific DNA sequences.
Please choose the statement that best expresses the goal of Southern Blot analysis.

RNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
Gel electrophoresis
dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dATP, dTTP, dGTP,dCTP)
Fragment of DNA to be sequenced
Please select all of the necessary components for sequencing DNA. Assume you have already purified the DNA that you wish to sequence.

Heating target DNA to 94 degrees Celsius to separate it into two strands

Cooling to approximately 60 degrees Celsius to allow the oligonucleotide primers base-pair with specific sites

Raising the temperature to 72 degrees Celsius and adding DNA polymerase and nucleotides

DNA (gene) to be cloned
Cloning vector
Restriction endonucleases
RNA polymerase
Screening for recombinants
Bacterium serving as host (cloning host)
Please select all of the materials and procedures necessary to clone a gene into a bacterium. Assume the gene to be cloned has been isolated and purified

Which of the following is NOT a type of protein product obtained through recombinant DNA technology

T/F Biotechnologists have developed and tested bacteria that may be used to clean up oil spills

T/F One benefit of transgenic animals is that they will not automatically transcribe and translate eukaryotic genes and accurately carry out posttranslational modification of the protein

A cloning vector used specifically to introduce DNA to plants is the __________ plasmid

Herbicide resistant plants
Insect resistant plants
Nutrient enriched plants such as golden rice
Please select examples of improvements resulting from genetic modifications of plants.

nlike antisense RNA therapies, side effects from gene therapy are rare

T/F Because the sequence of DNA nucleotides is unique for each organism, DNA technology may now be used to emphasize these differences and display the entire genome in a pattern for comparison

Polymerase chain reaction
Which of the following is NOT one of the most reliable methods of DNA fingerprinting?

Which of the following could NOT be the recognition site of a restriction endonculease?

DNA ligase
The single-stranded ends of DNA molecules can be joined together by

bacterial DNA cut with restriction enzyme A.
Human DNA cut with restriction enzyme A can be joined to

T/F The joining of sticky ends involves the formation of phosphodiester bonds

T/F Restriction enzymes cut only at specific sites and therefore are not useful for genetic engineering

has a nucleotide sequence complementary to the 3′ end of the region to be copied
The primer used in Sanger sequencing

single-stranded DNA
DNA polymerase
four deoxyribonucleotides A, T, C, G
all of the above
To carry out Sanger sequencing, a mixture is needed containing

T/F To sequence DNA by this method, the DNA must first be made in single-stranded form.

T/F Examining the electrophoresis gel and reading from bottom to top, one base at a time, gives the sequence of DNA

DNA introns must be added
In order to clone eukaryotic DNA into prokaryotic cell

eukaryotic DNA with only exons that can be cloned into prokaryotes
cDNA is

T/F Prokaryotic DNA contains both exons and introns.

T/F RNA polymerase removes exons from precursor RNA.

locate a specific DNA nucleotide sequence in a test sample
DNA probes are used to

DNA strands must be homologous, having regions with similar or identical nucleotide sequences
For DNA probes to hybridize

T/F Non-homologous DNA will attach to a DNA probe

T/F At high temperature, two complementary DNA strands will anneal.

removal of the plasmid from the bacterial chromosome
Which of the following statements best describes plasmid excision

In this animation plasmid excision occurs by ________ recombination

T/F Plasmid integration into the bacterial genome typically occurs via a single cross-over between the two molecules

T/F Excision of a plasmid from a bacterial genome occurs by only one mechanism.

false; only one restriction site
T/F The pSC101 plasmid had two restriction sites for the enzyme EcoRI

false; 1973
T/F Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer conducted their experiment in the 1990s

restriction enzymes.
In traditional DNA fingerprinting, the DNA that has been collected is cut into smaller pieces by..

gel electrophoresis.
The resulting thousands of different sized DNA fragments are then separated by size using.

T/F The main difference between traditional DNA fingerprinting and the method that has superceded it is that the newer method does not contain variable number of tandem repeat sequences – or VNTRs

single stranded DNA
DNA microarrays contain ________.

To use a microarray, mRNA from cells of interest are first converted to ________.

In the microarray procedure, what molecule is labeled with a fluorescent tag?

T/F DNA microarrays are used to study patterns of gene expression.

T/F DNA microarrays may be used to study how a cell responds to specific environmental conditions.