The treatment of the consequences is presented in this chapter. More specifically, it presents, the demographic information gathered, the male nurse's point of position in taking to be in the nursing profession, their experiences as male nurses, and the pigeonholing sing males experienced in the profession. Most significantly, this chapter of the thesis presents relevant literature that supported and disputed the consequences found by the research. Besides, the strengths and restrictions of the survey are discussed.
The thesis consequences showed, in relation to the demographic information, that the bulk, 28 nurses, or 80.7 % of the male nurses were between the ages of 20 to 35 old ages old and that 32.2 % worked for less than five old ages. This information confirmed the information collected from a qualitati...
ve survey by Lou et. al., where 83.8 % of the participants were under the age of 35 old ages, and 49.4 % had been working for less than five old ages.
The present consequences revealed that a greater portion of the male nurse population was diploma holders ( 59 % ) and 26 % baccalaureate alumni. These consequences are similar to Lou's et. al., surveys conducted in Taiwan were 47.1 % of male nurses were in the ownership of an undergraduate grade The thesis consequences showed that male nurses normally worked in male wards ( 58 % ) and assorted wards ( 42 % ) and ne'er ( 0 % ) in female wards. These assorted or male wards included the exigency section, running room, pediatric country, psychopathology, medical country, and intensive attention unit.
Similarly, in Norway and other Western states, male nurses normally worked within the wellness
sector's limited parts such as the psychopathology and acute medical specialty ward and disposal. In footings of '' forte, 24 % worked in the operating suites''. In fact, psychopathology is one of the most common Fieldss where 15 % of all male nurses transfer to. Furthermore, Dassen et.al. found that in The Netherlands, workforces were ruling '' proficient wards, and critical attention units ''. It seems that they wanted to be involved in a less feminine facet of nursing. As Evans argues, to compromise his repute in a patriarchal society, workforces in nursing develop different schemes as too busy administrative and elect forte places in order to protect themselves from the feminine image of nursing. The latest consequences from the UK reveal that `` one tierce of the about 100,000 nurses who have a mental wellness making are workforces ''
In the 1960s, workforces were non allowed to come in the bringing room and this still remains until today. Even though unfairness is decreasing, states of affairs like these in countries such as the OBs and gynecology sections continue. This may so be attributed as the primary ground why the survey consequences found that 0 % of the responses worked in female wards. However, it is deserving adverting that in Malta, up to the 1960s female nurses were excluded from the male wards.
Challenges that male nurses encounter at work
The present findings indicated that about half of male nurses were cognizant of changes in the nursing profession. With increased graduate student makings, the pursuit of managerial places is fast-paced among the male nurse respondents, and their learning to gain more is improved. Besides, surveys found that it
is easier or quicker for males to get top managerial places than their female opposite numbers. Similarly, Abrahamsen's, findings showed that 70 % of male nurses after twenty old ages of graduation were in leading place, and off from bodily wards. Furthermore, Yang found that the male nurses ' hereafter development has more possible because their callings would non be disrupted by a pregnancy leave. In add-on, an interview done by LaRocco, confirms as one adult male stated that `` being a male in a preponderantly female profession sets you up to be recognized ''.
In contrast, most of the respondents in this study, or 61 % disagreed that workforces in nursing are promoted rapidly, which is non in the understanding with the statement of Williams, that workforces in nursing are a privileged minority which enables them to travel out of the female-dominated profession by the ''glass escalator '' to the most rewarded and respected occupations reserved merely for workforces in this patriarchal society.
In relation to this, LaRocco's, survey showed that one adult male revealed his income to be '' below $ 50,000, while three indicated that theirs was greater than $ 100,000 per twelvemonth''. However, the findings of Stoltenberg et.al., , suggest that '' nursing needs to go on to raise the saloon wage because merely 46.67 % of male nurses rated nursing as financially honoring. '' Hence, these consequences are in understanding with the thesis consequences findings where merely 32 % of male nurses agreed that nursing provides good wage and benefits.
Despite these advantages, some workforces, nevertheless, find unfairness in other Fieldss, like OBs and gynecology, which put considerable force per unit area on
them. Truly, Hart found that 56 % of male nurses were seen as '' musculus '', and '' detached '' by their female co-workers, merely because of their gender. This so puts a strain on how the male and female nurses communicate with their co-workers.
Furthermore, some surveys found that males perceive that being in a preponderantly female profession brings about a low position upon the male nurses. In History of Nursing in Malta, during the nineteenth century, it was written that ''the societal category from which nurses were recruited was illiterate and without any instruction '', and that the same conditions existed in other European states. Besides, labeling nursing as an extension of adult females' domestic function devaluated the profession in relation to male business. Although this image is altering, many negative images still persist. Further still, in relation to the little addition of workforces in the nursing profession, uneven Numberss of male nurses are go forthing compared to female nurses due to deficient regard from their co-workers, occupation dissatisfaction, and jobs originating in a preponderantly female profession.
However, consequences in this research revealed that bulk or 88 % of respondents disagreed that workforces in nursing feel insecure because it is a female-dominated profession. Findings in this thesis suggest that male nurses in Malta do non-experience as they are 'crossing segregated work boundaries ', and 'infiltrate ' in the female sphere. In add-on, 71 % of workforces in nursing in this study expressed that they are satisfied with the work they do. As one respondent wrote '' nursing is a male's profession as the other profession or occupations are ''. Hence, this consequence tally with the
findings of Rochlen et. al., where workforces employed as nurses were satisfied with their work in non-traditional calling. Harmonizing to Avery, despite the feminine image in nursing, '' nursing is a profession for everyone '', due to the fact that work forces were present in nursing since 250 B.C when '' males-only nursing schools opened in India ''. They continued playing an of import function in nursing until Florence Nightingale stated that '' Every adult female is a nurse '', set uping nursing as merely one gender profession., and portraying the presence of the workforces nurse in this profession as an '' anomalousness ''
Respondent's motive for taking a traditionally female profession
The present findings indicated that 48 % or 15 male nurses choose the nursing profession to assist others. As one male nurse replied there is '' nil better than being able to assist people '', and '' conveying smiling to others ''. However, 16 % or 5 respondents stated that the '' money kept them in the profession ''. These consequences coincide well with old surveys of Bartlett et.al., where selflessness and occupation satisfaction, instead of extrinsic wages, have been found to be the chief motivation factor for male nurses. Furthermore, Larocco's survey showed that eight workforces specifically stated that linking with patients and helping people are of import factors when nursing is considered. One participant besides added that '' I merely the idea of nursing as caring for patients ''
Furthermore, harmonizing to Boughn, Brown, and Stones, Bush, Garvin, Mannino, and Perkins et Al., interaction with patients and assisting people are of important grounds in taking nursing. Even Taylor et Al., Skevington & A; Dawkes,
Galbraith, Cyr, Kelly, et al, MacDougall, suggested that caring for others and holding the desire to be of aid is a chief factor for workforces in taking a calling in nursing.
Family and friends besides served as the motive for the ensuing 26 % or 8 of the male nurses who took a portion in this thesis study. Positive household influence, like a nurse relation, a female parent who is a nurse, became a good motive for workforces. Furthermore, in La Rocco's survey, five of the interviewees had a female parent nurse. This response was found to be similar to the consequences of this thesis where three males had a female parent nurse, and surprisingly one respondent had both parents working as nurses. Besides, these findings conformed to the information collected from qualitative research of Whittock et. al., where positive influence, for most participants, on taking nursing as a calling comes from the parents, specifically female parents who worked in the nursing sector or another healthcare professional. Besides, friends who gave positive reactions helped with their calling pick of being a nurse. Eleven workforces in LaRocco's survey claimed that their household was really pleased with their calling pick.
In contrast, some workforces were discouraged by both household and friends, to come into the field of nursing and other medical fields. As found in a survey done in the UK, merely 12 % of the male nurses said that their parents were happy about their calling pick. Abrahamsen besides stated that most workforces who decide to measure up as a nurse discover themselves debatable because the determination to go a nurse causes household and friend's incredulity and surprise.
In a society where nursing is seen as a female profession, really frequently households and friends ask, 'You want to be a nurse? Why non a physician? ' I guess they feel that traditionally males are physicians and females are nurses.
Other than that, ten per centum of the male nurses who served as the respondents for this survey stated that their motive was good wage and security. It seems that nursing in Malta, harmonizing with the information collected from the study, is being '' one of the last secure occupation stations '', as one respondent replied. Furthermore, Yang interviewed an adult male who stated '' One twenty-four hours I noticed a statement in the newspaper which said, 'Male nurses earn every bit much as NT $ 50,000 per month ', so I put 'nursing section ' down on my signifier as my pick ''. In add-on, LaRocco besides had a duologue with a male nurse who stated '' I knew I would ever hold an occupation, I did it for a steady occupation that I could manage ''. Most significantly, Boughn found that money and occupation security were two major motives for taking nursing. On the other manus, Simpson found several grounds that motivate workforces to '' seek '' a non-traditional calling, and one of them was '' that most were nonseeking entry ''. They entered the female-dominated business by '' default '' in that they were non actively seeking such entry, but merely 'fell into it '. These consequences are in understanding with the consequences in this survey where, three or 10 % of respondents couldn't give the ground for taking nursing as a
calling, which suggests, as found antecedently, that they were non actively seeking such occupation but merely fell into it, either through handiness or convenience ''
Finally, the least per centum of participants stated that they considered nursing as a last resort and one even said: I didn't acquire accepted by any school except for that nursing one, so it was my lone pick, and I studied there ''. The findings in this thesis revealed that two nurses or 6 % didn't hold other calling chance, which supports the old research consequences of Yang. The findings besides showed that these nurses were age over 40 and with working experience of more than 20 old ages. These two respondents stated that fright to alter '', and deficiency of a good chance '' were the grounds for staying in the nursing profession.
Perceived stereotypes of workforces in nursing
In add-on to the job that nursing is a female profession, male nurses besides have to confront the job of getting the better ofing the stereotype that they are cheery or effeminate. Some of the stereotypes that these male nurses have to postulate with were presented in the thesis consequences that 52 % of male nurses were nonembarrassed of their pick of the profession. These consequences are similar to the findings of Hart, where 40 % of respondents sometimes feel awkward or defensive when asked about their profession ''. Harmonizing to the thesis consequences, most of the respondents, or 64 % strongly disagreed that workforces in nursing are being questioned if they are a 'real workforces '. Furthermore, 77 % disagreed that workforces in nursing are excessively cheery or feminine. These findings revealed
that they are non in understanding the consequences of several surveys that have found back uping pieces of information sing these stereotypes. For illustration, because of unfairness, male nurses ' gender is normally questioned and they are labeled as homophiles. Furthermore, Wingfield besides reported that workforces in nursing consider themselves as sick persons of homophobic maltreatment, with a respondent even claiming that I've been called atrocious things-you fagot this, you faggot that ''. Furthermore, Harding, explored discourses which stereotyped or labeled male nurses as homosexual and conflate homophiles and sexual marauders ''. Besides Harding reported that the bulk of workforces in nursing are heterosexual but the public perceptual experience is still that most male nurses are cheery. This stereotype persists merely in general nursing, workforces working as psychiatric nurses are perceived as masculine due to the necessity of physical strength. Although society is going comfier with workforces as nurses, about half of 48 % of the respondents experienced the stereotype that workforces choose nursing because they failed to come in a medical class.
Because of the state of affairs and stereotypes, a more serious stereotyped belief was formed that male nurses are non-appropriate health professionals. Truly, different societal norms have created constructs of caring as something that is non included in masculine images of males, and that caring falls under a female construct. Evans found out that for workforces nurses '' touching patients is potentially unsafe '', and that workforces are vulnerable health professionals ''. Similar consequences were found by Abrahamsen, where male nurses were a minority in bodily wards due to the fact that they were pressurized by their friends and household to use for
more 'masculine occupations or seek leading places' because it is non-natural for workforces to set about intimate nursing undertakings.
Gender pigeonholing creates a compound and conflicting state of affairs of rejection, credence, and uncertainty for male nurses ' ability as health professionals and nurturers. Therefore, as a sad consequence of this, and to avoid the tight state of affairs, some male nurses alter their loving rules and nursing functions. Even though surveys of Ekstromresulted in that male nurses exhibit lower loving behaviors, they in general, do non consequence the attention given to the patients. As Mac Dougall stated, adult males do hold the ability to care, but they need to be shown how. Recently, society is going comfier with workforces as nurses. As Cyr, stated, the art and scientific discipline of nursing have non ever been a preponderantly female profession ''.
In all, this chapter has presented a treatment of the findings of the survey. The assorted demographic profiles of the respondents, the grounds for taking nursing, the experiences, and the stereotypes among male nurses in Malta were presented, with subsequent presentations of other relevant surveies. At the terminal of the analysis and treatment, it was found that assorted related literature, both old and new, confirmed the consequences of the survey, while there were a few others that disputed it. Overall, the findings suggested that workforces employed in nursing, are merely every bit committed to the profession as adult females.
Strengths and Limitations of the survey
It should be noted that this survey has several restrictions and strengths. First, the chosen sample does non stand for male nurses as a whole. The male nurses that work in Gozo and
other different infirmaries in Malta were non included in this research. Furthermore, a satisfactory response rate ( 88.6 % ) helped beef up the result of the survey.
However, the intent of the survey was non intended to let generalization among the male nurses working in different infirmaries in Malta and Gozo.
Second, a self-administered questionnaire was used to roll up information, and therefore all information that was used in this survey was self-reported. Although the inquiries for the study were carefully chosen and modified by the research worker reading extended literature particularly Smith, it seems that some of the respondents did non understand that their sexual orientation was non questioned, but merely construct of gender stereotype. To avoid similar misinterpretations, in future surveies, a focal point group design method could lend to explicate the motive for taking nursing as a profession and calling the development of male nurses in a female-dominated profession.
The instead high response rate of 88.5 % indicated that male nurses were interested incapable, and this helped beef up the result of the survey. Although in this survey, the research tool was a questionnaire, some qualitative information was besides obtained.
Despite being clip limited prior to specific deadlines, this survey has educated and motivated the research worker to understand more nursing as a scientific discipline.
Although this survey was strictly quantitative, some findings provided valuable information about male nurses in a female-dominated profession. Further qualitative research could give a clearer image of the existent perceptual experiences of workforces in nursing, and set up the extent to which the findings from this research can be applied in the more general context. The following chapter shall reason this
thesis with recommendations for further research, and deductions in nursing.
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