Gender roles in the nursing profession
The treatment of the consequences is presented in this chapter. More specifically, it presents, the demographic information gathered, the male nurse ‘s point of position in taking to be in the nursing profession, their experiences as male nurses, and the pigeonholing sing males experienced in the profession. Most significantly, this chapter of the thesis presents relevant literature that supported and disputed the consequences found by the research. Besides, the strengths and restrictions of the survey are discussed.
5.2 Demographic informations
The thesis consequences showed, in relation to the demographic informations, that the bulk, 28 nurses, or 80.7 % of the male nurses were between the ages of 20 to 35 old ages old and that 32.2 % worked for less than five old ages. This information conformed to the informations collected from a qualitative survey of Lou et. al. , ( 2009 ) , where 83.8 % of the participants were under the age of 35 old ages, and 49.4 % had been working for less than five old ages.
The present consequences revealed that a greater portion of the male nurse population was diploma holders ( 59 % ) and 26 % baccalaureate alumnuss. These consequences are similar to Lou ‘s et. al. , ( 2009 ) , surveies conducted in Taiwan where 47.1 % of male nurses were in the ownership of an undergraduate grade The thesis consequences showed that male nurses normally worked in male wards ( 58 % ) and assorted wards ( 42 % ) and ne’er ( 0 % ) in female wards. These assorted or male wards included the exigency section, runing room, paediatric country, psychopathology, medical country, and intensive attention unit ( LaRocco, 2007 ) .
Similarly, in Norway and other Western states, male nurses normally worked within the wellness sector ‘s limited parts such as the psychopathology and acute medical specialty ward and disposal ( Bakken 2001 ) . In footings of “ forte, 24 % worked in the operating suites ( Lou, et.al. 2009, p 905 ) ” . In fact, psychopathology is one of the most common Fieldss where 15 % of all male nurses transfer to ( Abrahamsen, 2004 ) . Furthermore, Dassen et.al. ( 1990 ) found that in The Netherlands, work forces were ruling ” proficient wards, and critical attention units ” ( p.367 ) . It seems that they wanted to be involved in less feminine facet of nursing. As Evans argues ( 1997 ) , to compromise his repute in patriarchal society, work forces in nursing develop different schemes as to busy administrative and elect forte places in order to protect themselves from the feminine image of nursing.The latest consequences from UK reveal that “ one tierce of the about 100,000 nurses who have a mental wellness making are work forces ” ( Torjensen & A ; Waters, 2010, p.21 ) .
In the 1960s, work forces were non allowed to come in the bringing room and this still remains until today. Even though unfairness is decreasing, state of affairss like these in countries such as the OBs and gynaecology sections continue ( Chung, 2006 ) . This may so be attributed as the primary ground why the survey consequences found that 0 % of the responses worked in female wards. However, it is deserving adverting that in Malta, up to the 1960 ‘s female nurses were excluded from the male wards ( Camilleri, 1964 ) .
5.3 Challenges that male nurses encounter at work
The present findings indicated that about half of male nurses were cognizant of chances in the nursing profession. With increased graduate student makings, pursuit of managerial places is fast paced ( O’Lynn & A ; Tranberger, 2006, Marsland, et Al, 2003 ) among the male nurse respondents, and their leaning to gain more is improved ( Hader, 2005 ) . Besides, surveies found that it is easier or quicker for males to get top managerial places than their female opposite numbers ( Kvande 1998, Hoel 1995 ) . Similarly, Abrahamsen ( 2002 ) , findings showed that 70 % of male nurses after twenty old ages from graduation were in leading place, and off from bodily wards. Furthermore, Yang ( 2004 ) found that the male nurses ‘ hereafter development has more possible because their callings would non be disrupted by a pregnancy leave. In add-on, an interview done by LaRocco ( 2007 ) , confirms as one adult male stated that “ being a male in a preponderantly female profession sets you up to be recognized ” ( p.127 ) .
In contrast, most of the respondents in this study, or 61 % disagreed that work forces in nursing are promoted rapidly, which is non in the understanding with the statement of Williams ( 1992 ) , that work forces in nursing are privileged minority which enables them to travel out of female dominated profession by the “ glass escalator ” to the most rewarded and respected occupations reserved merely for work forces in this patriarchal society.
In relation to this, LaRocco ‘s ( 2007 ) , survey showed that one adult male revealed his income to be “ below $ 50,000, while three indicated that theirs was greater than $ 100,000 per twelvemonth ( p.123 ) ” . However, the findings of Stoltenberg et.al. , ( 2008 ) , suggest that ” nursing needs to go on to raise the saloon wage, because merely 46.67 % of male nurses rated nursing as financially honoring. ” Hence, these consequences are in understanding with the thesis consequences findings where merely 32 % of male nurses agreed that nursing provides good wage and benefits.
Despite these advantages, some work forces, nevertheless, find unfairnesss in other Fieldss, like OBs and gynaecology, which put considerable force per unit area on them ( Williams 1995, Tseng 1997 ) . Truly, Hart ( 2005 ) found that 56 % of male nurses were seen as “ musculuss ” ( p.48 ) , and “ detached ” by their female co-workers, merely because of their gender. This so puts a strain on how the male and female nurses communicate with their co-workers ( Hart, 2005 ) .
Furthermore, some surveies found that males perceive that being in a preponderantly female profession brings about a low position upon the male nurses ( MacDougall, 1997 ; Williams, 1989 ) . In History of Nursing in Malta, during nineteenth Century, it was written that “ the societal category from which nurses were recruited was illiterate and without any instruction ” , and that the same conditions existed in other European states ( Camilleri,1964 ) . Besides, labeling nursing as an extension of adult females ‘s domestic function devaluated profession in relation to male business. Although this image is altering, many negative images still persist. Further still, in relation to the little addition of work forces in the nursing profession, uneven Numberss of male nurses are go forthing compared to female nurses due to deficient regard from their co-workers, occupation dissatisfaction and jobs originating in a preponderantly female profession ( Sochalski, 2002 ) .
However, consequences in this research revealed that bulk, or 88 % of respondents disagreed that work forces in nursing feel insecure because it is a female dominated profession. Findingss in this thesis suggest that male nurses in Malta do non experience as they are ‘crossing segregated work boundaries ‘ , and ‘infiltrate ‘ in female sphere ( Bagilhole & A ; Cross 2006, p.35 ) . In add-on to, 71 % of work forces in nursing in this study expressed that they are satisfied with the work they do. As one respondent wrote “ nursing is a male ‘s profession as the other profession or occupations are ” . Hence, this consequence tally with findings of Rochlen et. al. , ( 2009 ) where work forces employed as nurses were satisfied with their work in non-traditional calling. Harmonizing to Avery ( 2007 ) , despite the feminine image in nursing, “ nursing is profession for everyone ” , due to the fact that work forces were present in nursing since 250 B.C when “ males-only nursing schools opened in India ” ( p.1 ) . They continued playing an of import function in nursing ( Meadus, 2000 ) , until Florence Nightingale stated that “ Every adult female is a nurse ” , set uping nursing as merely one gender profession. ( Fitzerald, 2007 ) , and portraying the presence of the work forces nurse in this profession as an “ anomalousness ” ( Meadus, 2000, p.6 ) .
5.4 Respondent ‘s motive for taking a traditionally female profession
The present findings indicated that 48 % or 15 male nurses choose the nursing profession to assist others. As one male nurse replied there is “ nil better than being able to assist people ” , and “ conveying smiling to others ” . However, 16 % or 5 respondents stated that the “ money kept them in the profession ” . These consequences coincide good with old surveies of Bartlett et.al. , ( 1999 ) where selflessness and occupation satisfaction, instead than extrinsic wagess, have been found to be the chief motivation factor for male nurses. Furthermore, Larocco ‘s ( 2007 ) survey showed that eight work forces specifically stated that linking with patients and helping people are of import factors when nursing is considered. One participant besides added that “ I merely idea of nursing as caring for patients ” ( LaRocco, 2007, p.126 ) .
Furthermore, harmonizing to Boughn ( 1994 ) , Brown and Srones ( 1971 ) , Bush ( 1976 ) , Garvin ( 1976 ) , Mannino ( 1963 ) and Perkins et Al. ( 1993 ) , interaction with patients and assisting people are of import grounds in taking nursing. Even Taylor et Al. ( 1983 ) , Skevington & A ; Dawkes, ( 1988 ) , Galbraith, ( 1991 ) , Cyr, ( 1992 ) , Kelly, et Al ( 1996 ) , MacDougall, ( 1997 ) suggested that caring for others and holding the desire to be of aid is a chief factor for work forces in taking a calling in nursing.
Family and friends besides served as the motive for the ensuing 26 % or 8 of the male nurses who took portion in this thesis study. Positive household influence, like a nurse relation, a female parent who is a nurse, became a good motive for work forces. Furthermore, in La Rocco ‘s ( 2007 ) survey, five of the interviewees had a female parent nurse. This response was found to be similar to the consequences of this thesis where three males had a female parent nurse, and surprisingly one respondent had both parents working as nurses. Besides, these findings conformed to the informations collected from a qualitative research of Whittock et. al. , ( 2003 ) , where positive influence, for most participants, on taking nursing as a calling comes from the parents, specifically female parents who worked in nursing sector or other healthcare profession. Besides, friends who gave positive reactions helped with their calling pick of being a nurse ( LaRocco, 2007 ) . Eleven work forces in LaRocco ‘s ( 2007 ) survey, claimed that their household was really pleased with their calling pick.
In contrast, some work forces were discouraged by both household and friends, to come in the field of nursing and other medical Fieldss ( LaRocco, 2007 ) . As found in a survey done in the UK, merely 12 % of the male nurses said that their parents were happy about their calling pick ( Skevington & A ; Dawkes, 1988 ) . Abrahamsen ( 2004 ) , besides stated that most work forces who decide to measure up as a nurse discovery themselves debatable because the determination to go a nurse causes household and friend ‘s incredulity and surprise. In a society where nursing is seen as a female profession, really frequently household and friends ask, ‘You want to be a nurse? Why non a physician? ‘ I guess they feel that traditionally males are physicians and females are nurses. “ ( Chung, 2006, p.1 ) .
Other than that, ten per centum of the male nurses who served as the respondents for this survey stated that their motive was good wage and security. It seems that nursing in Malta, harmonizing to the informations collected from the study, is being ” one of the last secure occupation stations ” , as one respondent replied. Furthermore, Yang ( 2004 ) , interviewed a adult male who stated “ One twenty-four hours I noticed a statement in the newspaper which said, ‘Male nurses earn every bit much as NT $ 50,000 per month ‘ , so I put ‘nursing section ‘ down on my signifier as my pick ” ( Yang, 2004, p.645 ) . In add-on, LaRocco ( 2007 ) , besides had a duologue with a male nurse who stated “ I knew I would ever hold a occupation, [ and ] I did it for a steady occupation that I could manage ” ( LaRocco, 2007, p.125 ) . Most significantly, Boughn ( 1994 ) found that money and occupation security were two major motives for taking nursing. On the other manus, Simpson ( 2005 ) , found several grounds that motivate work forces to “ seek ” a non-traditional calling, and one of them was ” that most were non seeking entry ” ( p.365 ) . They entered female-dominated businesss about by ” default ” in that they were non actively seeking such entry, but merely ‘fell into it ‘ . ( Williams & A ; Villemez ‘s s, 1993 P. 66. ) These consequences are in understanding with the consequences in this survey where, three or 10 % of respondents could n’t give the ground for taking nursing as a calling, which suggests, as found antecedently, that “ they were non actively seeking such occupation but merely fell into it, either through handiness or convenience ” ( Simpson, 2005, p.365 ) .
Finally, the least per centum of participant stated that they considered nursing as a last resort and one even said: “ I did n’t acquire accepted by any school except for that nursing one, so it was my lone pick, and I studied there ” ( Yang 2004, p.645 ) . The findings in this thesis revealed that two nurses or 6 % did n’t hold other calling chance, which supports the old research consequences of Yang ( 2004 ) . The findings besides showed that these nurses were age over 40 and with working experience of more than 20 old ages. These two respondents stated that “ fright to alter ” , and “ deficiency of a good chance ” where the grounds for staying in nursing profession.
5.5 Perceived stereotypes of work forces in nursing
In add-on to the job that nursing is a female profession, male nurses besides have to confront the job of get the better ofing the stereotype that they are cheery or effeminate ( Williams, 1995 ) . Some of the stereotypes that these male nurse have to postulate with were presented in the thesis consequences that 52 % of male nurses were non embarrassed of their pick of profession. These consequences are similar to the findings of Hart ( 2005 ) , where 40 % of respondents sometimes feel “ awkward or defensive when asked about their profession ” ( p.47 ) . Harmonizing to the thesis consequences, most of the respondents or 64 % strongly disagreed that work forces in nursing are being questioned if they are a ‘real work forces ‘ . Furthermore, 77 % disagreed that work forces in nursing are excessively cheery or feminine. These findings revealed that they are non in understanding with the consequences of several surveies that have found back uping informations sing these stereotypes. For illustration, because of unfairnesss, male nurses ‘ gender is normally questioned and they are labelled as homophiles ( Kelly, et Al, 1996 ) . Furthermore, Wingfield besides reported that work forces in nursing consider themselves as sick persons of homophobic maltreatment, with a respondent even claiming that “ I ‘ve been called atrocious things-you fagot this, you faggot that ” ( 2009, p.23 ) . Furthermore, Harding ( 2007 ) , explored “ discourses which stereotyped or labeled male nurses as homosexual and conflate homophiles and sexual marauders ” ( p.639 ) . Besides Harding ( 2007 ) reported that bulk of work forces in nursing are heterosexual but public perceptual experience is still that most male nurses are cheery. This stereotype persists merely in general nursing, work forces working as psychiatric nurses are perceived as masculine due to necessitate of physical strength. Although society is going more comfy with work forces as nurses, about half or 48 % of the respondents experienced the stereotype that work forces choose nursing because they failed to come in a medical class.
Because of the state of affairss and stereotypes, a more serious stereotyped belief was formed that male nurses are non appropriate health professionals ( Evans, 2002 ) . Truly, different societal norms have created constructs of caring as something that is non included in masculine images of males, and that caring falls under a female construct ( Evans, 2002 ) . Evans ( 2002 ) found out that for work forces nurses ” touching patients is potentially unsafe ” , and that work forces are “ vulnerable health professionals ” ( p. 7 ) . Similar consequences were found by Abrahamsen ( 2004 ) , where male nurses were minority in bodily wards due to the fact that they were pressurized by their friends and household to use for more ‘masculine occupations or seek a leading places ‘ , because it is non natural for work forces to set about intimate nursing undertakings ( p.12 ) .
Gender pigeonholing creates a compound and conflicting state of affairs of rejection, credence and uncertainty for male nurses ‘ ability as health professionals and nurturers ( Evans, 2002 ) . Therefore, as a sad consequence of this, and to avoid tight state of affairss, some male nurses alter their lovingness rules and nursing functions ( Egeland & A ; Brown, 1989 ; Kauppinen-Toropainen & A ; Lammi, 1993 ) . Even though, surveies of Ekstrom ( 1999 ) resulted that male nurses exhibit lower lovingness behaviors, they in general, do non consequence the attention given to the patients. As Mac Doughall ( 1997 ) stated, adult male do hold ability to care, but they need to be shown how. ( p.813 ) . Recently, society is going more comfy with work forces as nurses. As Cyr ( 1992 ) , stated, “ the art and scientific discipline of nursing has non ever been a preponderantly female profession ” ( p.54 ) .
In all, this chapter has presented a treatment of the findings of the survey. The assorted demographic profiles of the respondents, the grounds for taking nursing, the experiences, and the stereotypes among male nurses in Malta were presented, with subsequent presentations of other relevant surveies. At the terminal of the analysis and treatment, it was found that assorted related literatures, both old and new, confirmed the consequences of the survey, while there were a few others that disputed it. Overall, the findings suggested that work forces employed in nursing, are merely every bit committed to the profession as adult females.
5.7 Strengths and Limitations of the survey
It should be noted that this survey has several restrictions and strengths. First, the chosen sample does non stand for male nurses as a whole. The male nurses that work in Gozo, and other different infirmaries in Malta were non included in this research. Furthermore, a satisfactory response rate ( 88.6 % ) helped beef up the result of the survey.
However, the intent of the survey was non intended to let generalization among the male nurses working in different infirmaries in Malta and Gozo.
Second, a self- administered questionnaire was used to roll up informations, and therefore all informations that were used in this survey were self-reported. Although the inquiries for the study were carefully chosen and modified by the research worker reading an extended literature particularly Smith ( 2008 ) , it seems that some of the respondents did non understand that their sexual orientation was non questioned, but merely construct of gender stereotype. To avoid similar misinterpretations, in future surveies, a focal point group design method could lend to explicate the motive for taking nursing as a profession, and calling development of male nurses in a female dominated profession.
The instead high response rate of 88.5 % indicated that male nurses were interested in capable, and this helped beef up the result of the survey. Although in this survey, the research tool was a questionnaire, some qualitative informations were besides obtained.
Despite being clip limited prior to specific deadlines, this survey has educated and motivated the research worker to understand more nursing as a scientific discipline.
Although this survey was strictly quantitative, some findings provided valuable information about male nurses in a female dominated profession. Further qualitative research could give clearer image about the existent perceptual experiences of work forces in nursing, and set up the extent to which the findings from this research can be applied in more general context. The following chapter shall reason this thesis with recommendation for farther research, and deductions in nursing.