Gender Inequality In Educational Sector Of Pakistan Sociology Essay Example
Gender Inequality In Educational Sector Of Pakistan Sociology Essay Example

Gender Inequality In Educational Sector Of Pakistan Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 10 (2530 words)
  • Published: August 3, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The widespread acknowledgment of the significance of formaldehyde in hatcheries coexists with a notable gender disparity in education within Pakistan. Women frequently encounter disadvantages in their educational accomplishments, emphasizing the urgency to tackle gender inequality within the education field. Numerous studies have been conducted on sex distinctions, focusing particularly on analyzing secondary data.

The literature review includes 10 articles. The first article, written by HAQ, is titled "The Position of Women in Pakistan, 1988." It discusses how women face discrimination in societies, including Pakistan, despite comprising about 52% of the world's population. The article focuses on the challenges faced by rural women who are forced to work for long hours without pay, ranging from 14 to 16 hours. Their social status is determined by local customs rather than teachings from the Quran. As a result, women in traditional societie


s have a marginalized position.

The text highlights the historical expectations placed on women in the subcontinent, both before and after marriage. It notes that many women in Pakistan lack individuality due to limited education and societal constraints. The text identifies two variables, local customs and lack of awareness, that contribute to this gender disparity. The author argues that reducing gender inequality should be a priority, suggesting that traditional norms should be challenged. Specifically, the author advocates for increased female participation in decision-making and education on family planning. The article also addresses the dire maternal mortality rates and emphasizes the need to address the educational gaps and gender discrimination women face in Pakistan.The article discusses how educated and independent adult females have a greater enthusiasm for life and a better understanding of modern changes, as compared to illiterate an

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dependent adult females. It further highlights that gender discrimination is primarily due to the traditional customs that are mainly followed in small towns.

Hypothesis: Advancing the Position of Adult Women in Pakistan

In this 1990 article, Nelly P. Stromquist focuses on gender inequality in education, specifically in Pakistan. The article emphasizes the significance of enhancing the social status of adult women in the country. It addresses the decrease in literacy rates and educational accomplishments among women while acknowledging progress that has been made over time. Current adult women possess more education compared to previous generations, but disparities between genders persist. Enrollment rates for women have increased in primary and secondary schools during the past three decades, with slightly greater growth observed as they extend their average years of schooling. Nevertheless, despite these advancements, women still fall behind men regarding education.

The author highlights the perception of women in developing nations as feminine but lacking power in income and social status. The lack of gender-based data collection, especially regarding higher education, is seen as a reflection of the insufficient attention given to improving women's education. It is observed that females from impoverished backgrounds and marginalized ethnic groups have the lowest educational attainment levels, leading to identified variables such as low income group, marginalized ethnic background, and dropout rate.

The author discusses how gender inequality in societies is predominantly caused by categorical differences, which fully accounts for the presence and perpetuation of gender disparity. Moreover, the article highlights the limited research that distinguishes between inequalities based on gender and those rooted in category or race. In 1985, Rosemberg's study found that income-based discrimination was more prevalent than race-based discrimination. Furthermore,

there exists an unequal distribution of education among various social categories. This article specifically argues that prioritizing boys' education over girls' undermines the importance of educating girls.

The lack of education for adult females is influenced by multiple factors, including high rates of dropping out from primary and secondary schools primarily due to early marriages. Additionally, the limited availability of spots in secondary schools, coupled with the expensive nature of co-education and the inadequate quality of education specifically tailored for girls contribute to this problem. Numerous studies overlook the reasons why women's education is deemed less important than men's or why societal norms strongly link women's education to their roles as wives and mothers.

The article "Class and Gender in Education-Employment Linkage" by Hanna Papanek explores the impact of global economic and political changes on low-income countries. It examines societal inequalities in education using various theories, such as functionalist or consensual approaches, along with struggle or neo-Marxist approaches.

Hypothesis: Is women's education considered less important than men's?

In impoverished households relying solely on labor income for survival, both men and women are likely to engage in paid work or labor exchange agreements. This makes educational participation difficult for both genders. However, males typically receive higher priority for school attendance due to a wider range of earning opportunities compared to females. On the contrary, in certain socioeconomic levels where families rely less on female labor income, there is slightly more emphasis placed on women's education.

The article discusses the impact of family position on access to economic and political resources, which in turn affects women's educational opportunities. It also explores the concept of household award and its relationship to income based

on family status. The author defines variables that indicate differences in control over women, as reflected by household award. For example, some girls may be prohibited from attending schools outside their village to preserve household award and protect potential marriages. On the other hand, attaining higher levels of education may bring prestige to the family, compensating for any perceived loss of status due to girls living away from home. Furthermore, a girl's chances of marriage may improve if she is educated enough to read and write her own name, enabling her to earn a minimal livelihood.

Education in Egypt has historically been associated with social status and class, particularly higher education which plays a crucial role in maintaining the middle class, although not always as anticipated. While not all illiterate women in Egypt originate from impoverished backgrounds, a considerable percentage, especially among older women, are isolated from the outside world due to familial restrictions. Nonetheless, the majority of poorly educated women come from disadvantaged households. This article draws on both a comparative regional study conducted in Asia and similar research undertaken in Egypt. The ongoing study encompasses various countries with substantial Muslim populations including Indonesia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, and Malaysia.

The article, titled "Muslims, markets, and the significance of a 'good' education in Pakistan," written by Mattew J. Nelson in October 2006, explores the notion that female educational engagement is more a result of higher household position rather than a means of achieving upward mobility. The hypothesis of the article is that females have less access to both schooling and employment compared to males. It analyzes the local educational needs in Pakistan and demonstrates that parents

usually prefer religious education for girls. However, access to education for girls in Pakistan has been limited. Although there have been improvements in the past 20 years, underlying factors still contribute to the inefficiency of the state education system, resulting in a male to female literacy ratio of 65:40.

This misconception is based on the false belief that our religion forbids girls from receiving mainstream education. In rural areas, parents often opt to send their daughters to madrasas as a more accessible and convenient choice. The article further explores the significance of education in Pakistan's economy. Even middle-class families who can afford to provide basic education for their daughters still prefer sending them to religious schools, which are comparatively affordable. They reserve higher education opportunities for their sons, as they believe our faith dictates that girls should remain at home.

The article identifies the variable of faith (Islam). The writer defines this variable by conducting a study and questionnaire, in which two groups of people were questioned. The first group consisted of those for whom the local madrasa (Islamic spiritual school) was most important. The second group consisted of parents from a variety of economic backgrounds. Out of 112 respondents, 91 were in favor of Tamil Nadus for girls. This article is relevant to the subject as it discusses how the choice of religious education for girls is creating a disparity in Pakistan's educational sector.

The main focus of the article is on the significant characteristics of local educational demand and spiritual demand. The hypothesis states that preference for spiritual instruction is higher than local instruction.

Hypothesis: Is demand in favor of spiritual instruction instead of local?

The article "Girls

Are... Boys Are: Myths, Stereotypes & Gender Differences" by Patricia B. Campbell, Ph.D. and Jennifer N. Storo in 2006 primarily discusses the influence of gender in education. The author asserts that sex is not a reliable indicator of academic achievement or interests. The author also explores various myths associated with girls, such as the notion that they are unable to handle the stress of higher education. These myths lead to lower expectations from parents and gender biases. The variable studied in this article is "MYTHS AND STEREOTYPES."

The author examines the enduring presence of gender and race-based myths throughout history, which have influenced societal perceptions and definitions. One prevalent belief is that men are the primary providers for their households and thus entitled to certain privileges. This belief has played a significant role in prioritizing men's education over women's education. Additionally, there is a commonly held notion that if women prioritize intellectual growth, it could negatively impact their ability to reproduce. In other words, it was concluded that educated women would not be submissive to men. An example supporting this claim is the idea that using intelligence during menstruation may lead to a decrease in breastfeeding capability.

The content of this peculiar article is relevant as it addresses the myths related to education in Pakistan that are still believed and practiced. Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were used, including the utilization of graphs, charts, and theories, to measure various myths.

Hypothesis: Is there a biological bias towards sex differences?

The article titled "The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education on Rural Poverty in Pakistan" was written by Imran Shareef Chaudray and Saeed ur Rahman in 2009. Its main objective

was to identify the presence of gender inequality in education and its effect on rural poverty in Pakistan. The article highlights that gender inequality in education prevails in most impoverished countries, including Pakistan.

There are significant gender disparities in both rural and urban regions of Pakistan. Adult females in Pakistan experience various forms of discrimination. The country faces numerous education-related challenges, such as lack of investment, cultural restrictions, poverty, gender and regional inequalities in educational funding, low enrollment rates in public schools due to their poor condition, rapid population growth leading to more illiteracy, and ineffective implementation of educational policies.
Major emerging issues include violence against women, class discrimination, poverty, insufficient educational facilities, and the existence of parallel education systems in government and private sectors. These issues can be addressed through curriculum reforms and effective educational policies. Among these issues, poverty stands out as a significant variable. The conclusions were drawn using logit regression analysis on primary data.

The article "DOCUMENT TO DEBATE AND FINALIZE THE NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY" by JAVED HASAN ALY in December 2006 discusses the impact of poverty on gender disparity in education in Pakistan. It highlights the significantly low educational status of women in the country, with only 19% completing education up to Matric level, 8% up to Intermediate level, 5% possessing a Bachelor's degree, and 1.4% achieving a Master's degree. The adult female illiteracy rate is currently at 60%.

Approximately 2.503 million of the 3.3 million children not attending school are girls, indicating a significant gender disparity in education. The enrollment rate for primary-aged boys is 92.1%, while it drops to only 73.6% for girls. Regrettably, Pakistan views female education as mistreatment despite evidence

highlighting its benefits for female workers.

To tackle this issue and bridge the gender gap in education, multiple policies have been proposed but they have faced challenges in effective implementation due to insufficient funding and inadequate allocation of human resources by the government. Thus, two main factors arise from this article: lack of financial allocation and inefficient resource utilization.

The writer further explains that Pakistan has prioritized promoting girls' education through various policies and reforms since gaining independence in 1947. However, limited financial resources have led to persistent gender discrimination within the country's educational system.

The article discusses the policies and their impact on the educational sector of Pakistan. Specifically, it focuses on the future of girls' education in Pakistan. The authors, Dr. Humala Shaheen Khalid and Dr. Eshya Mujahid-Mukhtar, wrote this article in August 2002. They highlight the challenge of keeping children in primary schools, despite high enrollment rates. Poverty, the opportunity costs of attending school, parents' limited perception of education, poor quality of education, teacher absenteeism, and children's poor health are all factors contributing to a high dropout rate. The reasons for leaving primary school differ between boys and girls, with most boys leaving due to a lack of willingness and most girls citing the need to help at home.

Over the past decade, a number of initiatives have been implemented to improve girls' education in the country. Alongside two educational policies - the National Education Policy (1992) and the National Education Policy (1998-2010) - the Government of Pakistan introduced the Social Action Programme (SAP) in 1993/94, which aimed to enhance social indicators for girls and women. However, these policies were not effectively implemented due to insufficient

financial allocation, lack of government support, and inadequate school facilities.

The educational facilities in Pakistan are lacking behind in providing adequate education for girls. There are various obstacles, such as poverty, low societal status of women, security concerns, and a lack of school facilities, teaching materials, and female teachers. Additionally, the education sector is closely connected to other sectors. This study is based on secondary sources, including national statistical sources such as the Population and Housing Census 1998, Economic Surveys, and reports from the National Education Management and Information System (NEMIS). The study also heavily relies on other data sources and relevant research reports from the Central Bureau of Education, Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM), and the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS).

Hypothesis: Impact of Miss 's Instruction in Pakistan

The article "ROLE OF WOMEN IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF PAKISTAN" by Jehan Qamar in 2000 discusses the significance of women's role in economic development. It provides extensive information on the state of women in education and employment, as well as highlighting the influence of political and cultural instability on their status in Pakistan. These variables are also extracted from the article.

Furthermore, the article discusses that the deduction of cultural norms is impacting the instruction of adult females. A lot of different policies made by the Pakistan's government were reviewed before composing this article, determining whether their deduction is active or not and how it is affecting the economy. However, it was concluded that the role of adult females in economic development can be improved if they are provided with proper education.

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