Events That Led To The Big Bang Theory Essay Example
Events That Led To The Big Bang Theory Essay Example

Events That Led To The Big Bang Theory Essay Example

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  • Published: March 31, 2022
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People regard the big bang theory as the leading way of giving an explanation of the origin of the Universe. This theory originated from an observation of the other galaxies going at very high speeds away from the “universe” in all the directions.

History of the Big Bang theory

Scientists such as Vesto Slipher, Doppler Redshift, Alexander Friedmann, and Albert Einstein made discoveries which helped towards the identification of the Big Bang theory as the theory better explaining the origin of the universe. Events that led up to the Big Bang Theory of the Origin of the Universe.


People regard the big bang theory as the leading way of giving an explanation of the origin of the Universe. At its simple terms, the theory brings out a discussion on the univers


e by looking at the way it started from a minor singularity and the expanded in the 13.8 billion years that followed to the great mass everybody knows today. This theory originated from an observation of the other galaxies going at very high speeds away from the “universe” in all the directions. They appeared as if a certain explosive force has played a role in this type of movement (Big Bang Theory 1). Scientists hold a very strong belief in that before this big bang, all the volume of the universe we see today, including all its radiation was compacted in a very dense and hot mass having a diameter of few millimeters. The proponents of the big bang suggest that a massive blast that happened around 10-20 billion years ago made the small dense mass increased in terms of volume. The theory maintains the idea in

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minute fraction of a second immediately after the occurrence of this big bang, the universe went through expansion with an incomprehensible speed from the pebble size it was having initially to astronomical scope. Similar expansion occurred at a very slow rate in the next billions of years. Scientists however do not have a very clear idea on the way the universe became formed. They argue that similar atoms were formed which later expanded to form galaxies and stars that we see in the universe today (Brown 11).


Working backwards from the way the universe is currently, scientists have held up a theory that the universe must have resulted from a single atom having finite time and infinite time that started expanding. After the first expansion, the theory argues that sufficient cooling of the universe followed in order to facilitate the creation of small particles, and the n simple atoms were formed later. Through the force of gravity, giant clouds of these elements formed galaxies and stars later through coalesce (Big Bang Theory 1). This process started around the last 13.9 billion years and this is hence taken as the number of years the universe has. By a way of conducting tests on theoretical examples, experiments comprising of high energy states and particle accelerators , and studies on the astronomy that have looked at the universe deeply , scientists have come up with a timeline of events starting with the occurrence of the big bang and later resulted into the state of cosmic evolution experienced currently. The earlier times in the formation of the universe however, lasting from an approximated period between 10-43 and 10-11 seconds after

the occurrence of the big bang- are the idea of extensive speculation (Brown 11).

Given the fact that laws of physics had not been created during this time, this means that the fate of the universe was only based on many hypotheses and assumptions since the physics laws were yet to be developed during this period. It is very hard to determine ways in which the formation of the universe was governed. Experiments to investigate on the energy types involved in the process of universe formation have not been created up to date. This is because the question about dark energy content remains misery. Though the scientists have ideas on dark matter and its hypothetical particles, they still have no sufficient information about dark matter. There is hence limited information on the types of energy involved as the universe was undergoing a formation. Many theories still prevail on the occurrences that took place during this time of universe formation, many of which have proven to be compatible (Big Bang Theory 1).


Also referred to as the Planck Era or the Planck Epoch Era, this is termed as the earliest period according to the information given by historians of this time. During this time in the formation of the universe, all matter was compacted on a certain point having an extreme heat and very high densities. It is a common belief that during this period, physical interactions were under the dominance of quantum effects of gravity. Significance forces are produced when gravity and electromagnetism react. The magnetic and electrical fields then cancel out. Therefore, the force of gravity tends to be dominant over large distances. Another belief was

that there were no other physical forces comparable to gravitational forces in terms of strength (Gorbunov & Valery 5). The Planck period of time as stated above ranges from 0 to an approximated period of 10-43 seconds. Due to the high density of matter and extreme amounts of heat, the universe could not be kept under a state of stability. With time, expansion as well as cooling of the universe started resulting into the expression of fundamental physical laws. From an approximated period of between 10-36 and 10-32 seconds after the occurrence of the Big Bang, the temperatures experienced in the Universe were quite low (around 1028 K) to an extent that electromagnetic forces which are very strong forces and the weak nuclear forces had the capability of going through a separation hence leading to the formation of two distinct forces (Gorbunov & Valery 5).

Inflation Epoch

The inflation Epoch started with the formation of initial fundamental forces in the process of the formation of the universe. This period started from 10-32 seconds according the time of Planck to a point which has not yet been established. Most of the cosmological models present a suggestion that the universe during this time was homogeneously filled with energy of very high densities. The incredibly high pressures and temperatures resulted into rapid cooling and expansion. This started at 10-32 seconds a time during which the phase transition that resulted towards this separation of forces in addition contributed towards a period in which an exponential growth of the universe was observed. Baryogenesis occurred during this period in time which is used when referring towards a hypothetical period during which the temperatures

had grown so high to an extent that the random movement of these particles took place at relativistic speeds. Due to the increased speeds, antiparticle-particle pairs of various kinds were continuously being created and destroyed when these collisions were taking place.

People have held a belief in that these collisions resulted into matter predominance over antimatter during the presently formed universe. This inflation then came to a stop, a time during which the universe comprised of quark-gluon plasma. This point gave the way forward for the mathematical models to give description on universe evolution. High temperatures lead to high motion of the particles. Continuous cooling and expansion of the universe led to the physics forces and measurement of the particles into the form they are today. In addition to the plasma, the composition of the universe I addition was made up of some elementary particles. Starting from this point onwards, cooling of the universe started where matter coalesced and then a shape was formed (Brown 11).

Cooling Epoch

As the universe continued decreasing in terms of temperatures and density, the energy contained in each particle started decreasing at a time at which transitions of phase continued up to a point when the fundamental physical forces and the elementary particles went through changes in order to acquire the forms they have at present. Since the energies contained in particles would have gone through a decrease to values that through particle physical experiments were obtainable, this period going onwards has been treated with limited speculation (Hawley & Katherine 15). Science for instance has a belief in that after a period of approximately 10-11 after the occurrence of the Big Bang,

the drop of the energies dropped at a considerable rate.

Quarks and gluons at around 10-6 seconds merged together thus resulting into the formation of neutrons and protons, and a little quarks in excess over the ant quarks resulted into a little baryons in excess over the anti baryons. Since there were not high temperatures enough to facilitate the creation of new pairs of proton-antiproton or pairs of neutron-antineutron, annihilation of mass followed immediately thus leaving only one out of the original 1010 neutrons and protons. In the case of the antiparticles, none was left out of the great numbers they were having. For the positrons and electrons, a similar process was experienced approximately one second after the occurrence of the Big Bang. The remaining number of electrons, neutrons and protons after the annihilations were no longer undergoing through a relativistic movement. As well the photons were the particles dominating a large fraction of the energy of the universe during this time. Neutrons to a lesser extent possessed part of the energy contained in the universe (Gorbunov & Valery 13).

Another period referred to as Big Bang nucleosynthesis as well started few minutes towards the expansion. Thanks to the drops in temperatures up to approximately one billion Kelvin and the drop in the densities of energy to values nearly equivalent to the ones of air, a condition which made protons and neutrons start combining together in order to form the first deuterium of the universe. This first deuterium is a stable isotope comprising of helium and Hydrogen atoms. However, most of the protons in the universe such as the hydrogen nuclei remained in an uncombined (Hawley &

Katherine 15). After an approximated period of around 379,000 years, a combination of these nuclei with the electrons took place thus resulting in the formation atoms. Radiation then decoupled from matter after which it was subjected through an expansion in the space. Today, this form of radiation is what is termed as comprising of the CMB (cosmic microwave background) which presently is the oldest light to be ever known. As the CMB went through an expansion, its energy and density were gradually lost. This CMB can be visible in all sides at a distance roughly estimated to be 13.8 billion light years. The estimates of its real distance however argue that it has approximately 46 billion years when taken from the universe’s center (Hawley & Katherine 15).

Structure Epoch

In the course of the next billions of years, the less dense regions of the uniformly distributed matter started getting attracted towards each other as a result of forces of gravitation. They hence grew in terms of density leading to the formation of galaxies, stars, gas clouds, and many other astronomical features of the universe that we are able to see today. In simpler terms, this is referred to as the structure Epoch. The name is derived from the fact that this is the time during which the universe started assuming a definite shape. This comprises of the visible matter being distributed in varying sized structures ranging from galaxies to planets, super clusters, and galaxy clusters in which matter has been concentrated (Hawley & Katherine 15).

Details about this process are dependent upon the type and amount of matter contained in the universe. The common types of matter suggested

include baryonic matter, hot darker matter, warm dark matter, and cold dark matter. However, the model of Lambda-cold dark matter through which dark particles of matter moved in a speed lower compared to the one of light is taken as the standard model leading to the cosmology of Big Bang. This is because it is the one which clearly fits into the data available (Luntz 23). Through this model, estimation is that dark matter comprises of about 23 percent of the total energy/matter contained in the universe. Baryonic matter on the other hand makes up to a total of 4.6 percent. The Lambda is used to refer to a cosmological constant which is a theory proposed by Albert Einstein. This theory made attempts of bringing out the idea that there was static balance between energy and mass contained in the universe. In this case, the Lambda is linked to the dark energy which played a role in accelerating the process of universe’s expansion. It in addition played a role in making sure that its large scale figure is maintained uniform (Singh 9).

History of the Big Bang theory

The earliest Big Bang indications occurred due to deep observations in the space that were done in the course of the 20th century. Vesto Slipher, an American astronomer in 1912 did a number of observations on the spiral galaxies after which he proceeded to the measuring of their Doppler Redshift. The spiral galaxies in almost all the cases were seen as if they were shifting their positions away from our galaxy. In 1922, Alexander Friedmann, a cosmologist from Russia came up with Friedmann equations. These equations were derived from

the equations of general relativity develop by Einstein. Contrary to the work of Einstein which was using his cosmological constant, the work of Friedmann brought out the idea that the universe was going through a process of expansion. Gorges Lemaitre, in 1927 derived results similar to the ones that Friedmann came up with. Hubble during this time was also researching on the same topic. At some point, he posed an argument that the universe might have originated from a single point (Luntz 23).

The above discoveries contributed towards debates between physicists in the course of 1920s and 1930s. Majority of them were supporting the claim that the earth was in a state of steadiness. Through this model, there is continuous formation of matter as the universe undergoes an expansion thus maintaining the density and uniformity of matter as time goes on. Among these scientists, Big Bang appeared as an idea theological rather than being scientific (Society 1).

During this time, other theories such as the Oscillary Universe model and the Milne model were developed. These two theories were based on the general relativity theory by Einstein. It supported the idea that self-sustaining, indefinite and infinite cycles were followed by the universe (Singh 19). After the Second World War, this debate on the origin of the universe came to a conflict between Big Bang theory proponents and Steady state model proponents. Eventually, evidence collected through observation acted in favor of the Big Bang theory. The discovery and also the confirmation of the radiation of cosmic microwave background in 1965 helped in securing the Big Bang making it the best theory giving an explanation about the origin of the

universe. In the period between the 1960s and 1990s, cosmologists and astronomers played a role in improving the Big Bang theory through the way they were able to solve problems emanating from it. This comprised of papers submitted by many physicists during this time with Stephen Hawking being one of them. They brought out the idea that singularities were a predictable initial state of the Big Bang cosmology model and the general relativity. In 1981, Alan Guth who was a physicist presented a theory on a time of rapid cosmic expansion that helped towards resolving some of the problems that emanated (Singh 20).

The 1990s as well saw an increase in Dark Energy which was an attempt made so as to resolve the issues emanating from cosmology. In addition to offering an explanation to the mass missing from the universe, it also offered an explanation on the reasons behind the acceleration experienced by the universe. Lastly, it provided Einstein’s Cosmological Constant with a resolution. Significant progress was observed thanks to the advancements made in computer simulations, satellites, and telescopes which have contributed towards making cosmologists and astronomers see more details about the universe as well acquiring additional clear information on the true age of the universe. Space telescopes introduction, such as the COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy, the Planck Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope have also been of great importance.

According to Society (1), cosmologists today have come up with very accurate and accurate measuring instruments that have the capability of measuring different parameters. This is quite different from the past due to the fact that past astronomers and cosmologists aimed at the measurement

of age of the universe alone. These big changes emanated from an observation which claimed that massive stellar objects some long time ago were moving away from our galaxy at very low speeds.

Works cited

  1. "Big Bang Theory". N.p., 2016. Web. 1 May 2016.
  2. Brown, Mary. "Big Bang Theory." CFA Magazine 21.1 (2010): 11-12.
  3. Gorbunov, Dmitry S., and Valery A. Rubakov. "Hot Big Bang Theory." (2008).
  4. Hawley, John F., and Katherine A. Holcomb. Foundations of modern cosmology. 2005.
  5. Luntz, Stephen. "Big bang theory." Australasian Science 35.5 (2014): 23.
  6. Singh, Simon. Big Bang: The most important scientific discovery of all time and why you need to know about it. London: Fourth Estate, 2004.
  7. Society, National. "Origins Of The Universe, Big Bang Theory Information, Big Bang Facts, News, Photos -- National Geographic". National Geographic. N.p., 2016. Web. 1 May 2016.
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