Why did industrialisation depend on agriculture in the USSR Essay
1. “Why did industrialisation depend on agriculture in the USSR?”
Industrialisation in the USSR relied on agriculture through the trade economy factor. To industrialise a country as huge as Russia vast financial resources needed to be utilised however Russia did not have the ready cash to cope with the demands. The middle classes had collapsed so borrowing money from them was not an option, borrowing money from abroad would be too controversial, many of the countries disliked and distrusted the advancing communist regime. Russia also had neither the technological capabilities within the factories to produce goods for the international market, also the goods Russia could produce were far below the standard of the western powers. The only trade-able and ready product was grain. Russia had a majority population of peasants, so the people producing a surplus creates a marketable commodity. In conclusion grain was the only thing Russia, which had been financially and technologically crippled by the wars, was able to produce quickly and in vast enough quantities to sell.
2. “What were the political reasons for Stalin’s great turn?”
Stalin instigated “the great turn” for a number of political reasons. At the 15th party congress (December 1927)Stalin announced the initiation of the first 5 year plan.
3. “What were the fundamental differences between bukharin and preobrazenky’s two economic theories?”
Both economic theories were developed in response to the failing initiative of the nep. Both illustrated their theories in a diagram to to give a physical dimension to the proposed ideologies. However, although both were concerned with the same issue there are some fundamental differences. The main features of each are their interpretations of the market. Bukharin favours a free market yet preobrazensky takes a fixed (state controlled)market as the linchpin of the economy. Preobrazenky’s diagram is far simpler in construction than that of Bukharin. He gives no leeway to the peasants at all, they are derived as commodities am are to be exploited under the more commited communists. Bukharin however details peasants recieving fair payment for grain, a fair market to purchase goods and savings, and investments. All government, industry and peasants have equal chance to make a profit and to have possibility of rising up in stature and status. Preobrazensky’s ideas are far more rigid and more state/communist based where-as bukharin’s waver on the edge of capitalism. Preobrazensky’s theory utilises “state trade monopoly” and is a quicker way of achieving trade results.
4. “why do you think the leading communists had little time for peasants?”
leading and influential communists had little time for peasants and the kulaks for a variety of reasons. The peasants essentially were in it for the money. They were not interested in the ideology of communism or of its Marxist principles. When the compulsory confiscation of surplus grain was introduced by the government under war communism the kulaks were accused of deliberately hoarding grain. They became apathetic, growing only enough grain to feed them, their familes and to re-plant the next year. This had a knock on effect on the workers In the towns, bread was far too expensive in comparison to the wage average and so the scissors crisis developed. The peasants were uneducated, country people. They had nothing to contribute to the socialist order. Marx said “socialism can only exist in a state where the majority are urban workers.” The peasants were below urban workers and so as long as they were repressed, contributed their grain quota to the state and kept “out of the way” they had very little to do with the communist leaders.
5. “what benefits would the great turn bring to the soviet union?”
Stalins “Great turn” and its introduction af the 5 year plans (5yp’s) would have a huge economic and social effect on the country. The N.E.P was failing: there was widespread unemployment among the workers, factories and industry had reached their saturation point of productivity and food was expensive in comparison to earnings. In the last “normal” year before the revolution Russia exported 12 million tonnes of grain however, under the N.E.P it was never more than 3 million. Under stalins new economic policy (an interpreatation of preobrazenky’s theory) the country would undergo rapid industrialisation, trade would increase.
State control would become essential therefore creating a far more efficient productivity margin. Stalin’s plans for collectivisation would also benefit a great number of the Russian populace. All peasants would be supported, all would have a house, food and stability. All workers would have a job, all workers would have a house however it would be state owned. The issue of state control would reap huge rewards for the government who would gain highly from increased profit.