Freedom of look and freedom of assembly and association are amongst the cardinal rights noted in the European Convention on Human Rights and Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( every bit good as other human rights instruments ) . So are these rights respected in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, zemljama potpisnicama tih deklaracija?
In this paper I will seek to happen out what is the connexion between the extremely spiritual national individualities in these states and the low degree of tolerance towards sexual minorities? I will seek to research what values are promoted in these societies and by whom so that the background of these violent onslaughts can be understood.
National individualities created after the disintegration of Yugoslavia by the chauvinistic political elites are based on the stiff images created by these elites. . These images are shaped on the spiritual, cultural and national base and are extremely intolerant to those who do non suit them, such as sexual minorities.
When I talk about sexual minorities I refer to groups of people who are defined by their sexual orientation and gender individuality. The term ‘sexual minority ‘ includes homosexual, A tribade,...
A bisexual, and transgenderedA people, who are “ frequently seen as holding a common civilization, which can be calledA LGBT civilization, A QueerA civilization, or cheery civilization ”.
Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, both portion the yesteryear of the Communist Yugoslavia, so I will get down my paper with a brief analysis of the Communist government and the influence it had on these states in footings of societal emancipation, particularly with respects to adult females because it is closely linked with attitudes towards sexual minorities. In the 2nd portion of the chapter, I will reflect on the post-communist passage period concentrating on the function that faith had in the creative activity of the national individualities in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Creation of the national individuality will be observed from the gender position as good.
In my 2nd chapter I will concentrate on position of the sexual minorities in today ‘s societies. First I will travel through international and national Torahs on freedom of look and assembly to see what is the legal state of affairs sing these issues. Then I will concentrate on the attitudes of the spiritual leaders of the mainstream faiths in these states, Islam and Orthodox Christianity, towards homosexualism.
In the 3rd chapter two events will be discussed Gay Pride in Belgrade and Queer Sarajevo Festival ) in order to demo how spiritual patriotism is linked to the public bitterness and shutting of the events. In the first portion of the paper I will largely concentrate on the work of Sabrina P. Ramet and Robin Okey. I will confer with their work on the communist period in the lives of these states, with specific focal point on 1989, as the passage twelvemonth. For the analysis of the creative activity of national individualities and the influence that faith had i
this period I will besides confer with Sabrina P. Ramet, Spyros Sofos ( who wrote from the gender position ) and Vjekoslav Perica. In the 2nd portion of the paper I will concentrate on the international paperss on the freedom of look and assembly and I will associate them to the national Torahs of Serbia and BiH. For the comparing of the place of sexual minorities in these two states I will confer with NGO studies, newspaper articles on the two events ( Gay Pride Belgrade and Queer Sarajevo Festival ) and related articles.
How the societies transformed – from communism to post-communism
Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina portion a great trade of common history, but one period will be of a particular involvement to me, a displacement from the Communist Yugoslavia, a secularized society in the sixtiess and 1970s, to its disintegration and the creative activity of national individualities, in which faith and ethnicity played a important function. Due to the nature of my subject the gender position will be pointed out through the whole chapter.
‘Brotherhood ‘ , ‘unity ‘ , ‘solidarity ‘ , ‘reciprocity by everyone towards all ‘ – these constructs present the basic rules of the Communist Yugoslavia, which was imagined as a society where everyone shall be equal. But, before I go into deepness on the value system of communist Yugoslavia I want to sketch the context of the clip.
After World War II, Yugoslavia was a preponderantly agricultural land and provincials presented over 80 per centum of the population. Under the Communist government Yugoslavia experienced societal transmutation that was triggered by the industrialisation of the society, which resulted in a growing of the figure of workers. “ In the mid-1980s, the societal ( province controlled ) sector of the economic system employed about 98 per centum of the state ‘s workers. ” This alteration was a consequence of several reforms introduced in Yugoslavia in 1950s, including the alone economic system that rested on the worker ‘s self-management.
Economic reform was non the lone reform of the Communist government. Illiteracy rates in Yugoslavia after World War II were highly high. Harmonizing to Robin Okey, even though “ mass primary instruction had mostly come about before 1939 mass secondary instruction was a communist accomplishment ” which resulted in the important lessening of illiteracy among the population. We can discourse the grounds for such a great investing in instruction by the government, one of which is surely the possibility to distribute its political orientation, but due to the bounds of my paper I will non travel into deepness on the subject.
Women ‘s emancipation was another precedence of the Communist government, in line with its political orientation of equality. If we want to sketch the place of adult females in the society at that clip we can utilize the public/private duality. Womans were excluded from the public life and their functions were entirely connected to the private life. They were perceived as female parents and married womans but non as public histrions, since ‘public sphere ‘ was reserved for work forces. In order to alter this ‘order ‘ communist government introduced