Anaximander, And AnaIn the early times, before the beginning of human civilization and development of
philosophy, people believed in the idea that Gods, who basically controlled every
individual aspect of human existence, controlled the world. Some primitive people
believed in the idea of Animism, or Hylozoism. (The belief that everything in the
universe, especially material objects, have some kind of sole or is a living being.) These
people believed that rocks, trees, and water had some kind of sole. Animism can still be
seen today in Native American tribes as well as the Aboriginal people of Australia.
Although the Greek culture didn’t believe in Animism, an Ionian named Thales
adopted this idea in his own way. Thales was born in the Greek city-state of Ionia in the
mid 620’s(BC.) Thales did not only study knowledge philosophy, but also practiced
science, history, engineering, geography, and politics. Thales was the first of his time to
propose theories of a primary substance that causes change, and supports the universe.
Thales believed that water was this substance, and the essence of life. He also believed
that it was made up of small Gods. Although his theories didn’t prove to be right, such as
spontaneous generation, or the theory that earthquakes were caused by waves, Thales is
considered to be the father of philosophy.
Anaximander was another Ionian who happened to be a philosopher. He knew
Thales but disagreed with him in his theories. Anaximander wasn’t only a philosopher,
but a scientist and inventor. He is even credited for creating the first sundial.
ved in the theory of “apieron.” Apieron is the unlimited, indeficit,
indestructible substance out of which individual things are created with and destroyed.
Although he believed apieron was real, he also believed that it was unexplainable. It
would be like saying that the letter W explained the alphabet. He also believed that the
formation of the world was due to the separation of opposites, and that the opposites were
constantly at war. With these factors, he believed that moderation is the key to success.
Although some of his theories were proved wrong, Anaximander was the first person to
brush the theory of evolution and was the father of Astronomy and cosmology. Many of
Anaximander’s accomplishments are still regarded today.
Anaximenes was another Greek philosopher who lived around the time of
Anaximander. He was Anaximander’s most notable student, but disagreed with
Anaximander on many levels. Anaximenes disagreed with the notion of apieron, but
went back a generation of thought to Thales ideas on the substance of which life is made.
Anaximenes’ ideas were much different from the ideas of Thales because Anaximenes
believed that air was the ultimate substance, rather than water or apieron. Anaximenes
introduced the ideas of condensation and rarifacation. To prove this theory he said that
when air is rarified, it becomes fire, but when air is condensed, it would become water.
Anaximenes was also credited as the first person to perform a scientific experiment. It
stated that if one held his hand near his mouth and blew with tight lips, the air would be
cool, however, if he blew o
his hand with an open mouth, it would be warm. Through this slow evolution of thought while new generations of philosophers debated the ideas of their predecessors, philosophy was able to advance as quickly as the human societies that incorporate philosophies.
- Maria Montessori
- Cognitive Psychology
- Critical Thinking
- Form Of The Good
- Human Nature
- Immanuel Kant
- Personality Type
- Philosophy Of Life
- Philosophy Of Mind
- Sigmund Freud
- Rene Descartes
- Albert Camus
- John Dewey
- Michel Foucault
- Self Esteem
- Self Reflection
- Self Reliance