Northern and Southern Ontario as a Periphery and Core
Northern and Southern Ontario as a Periphery and Core

Northern and Southern Ontario as a Periphery and Core

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  • Published: January 30, 2017
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The concept of the dependency theory is one used to describe the relationship between core countries and periphery countries. In this theory, the nations comprising the periphery are poor countries, whose main purpose is the extraction of raw material. The raw material extracted from these countries flow towards the core, which happen to be the rich countries. These countries refine the staple and turn them into products ready to be put on the market. The relation between the core and the periphery country is a very intricate one.

After refining the raw materials into manufactured goods, the transfers continue. The poor nations provide a destination for the products and its corresponding technologies, which in turn provides market for the wealthy nations. Without this market and this reciprocity, the wealthy nation cannot enjoy the standard of living it enjoys. In addition to this, without this relationship, the scarcity of jobs and the economy in the poor nations thrive on the extraction of the staples pertinent to that region or country. The relationship between the core and the peripheries is usually viewed in the world scale.

Normally, a comparison is made between first world countries, like Canada, and third world countries, such as those in Latin America, in terms of dealing with the dependency theory between the core and the peripheries. The truth of the matter is that Canada has a core and a periphery within itself. The Prairies and Central Canada are considered as the core, and provinces, such as the Maritimes, can be considered the periphery. What is interesting ab

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out Canada is that even within provinces, the differences between a core and periphery is visible, as is the case in Ontario.

Ontario has benefited from all three national policies; it has also been ahead of most provinces in its development, especially its economic development. Ontario’s business sector was one of the pioneers in Canada. At the same time, Ontario also has all the accessibilities in transportation in terms of importing and exporting goods. The said city also has sufficient land that produces agriculture, being rich in staples as well. This is of great advantage for Ontario over the other provinces and regions that are usually driven by a main source of income.

Although Ontario has all these advances, one can still argue that there is the potential for a self sustained economy, Ontario can also be divided into a core and a periphery. The Northern part of Ontario is considered as the periphery, while the southern part is considered as the core. This strange relationship between North and South Ontario can be compared to its relationship with the rest of Canada. The truth is that Northern Ontario lags behind Southern Ontario. Factors have definitely hindered its development, and these include the geographical position, lack of economic diversification and the population age.

These factors have delayed Northern Ontario’s progress and have created a government dependency (Woodrow, p. 4). It has been stated that Northern Ontario’s geographical position is factor that has negatively contributed to its development. In so doing, it is crucial to envisio

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its geographical position, and the potentials that the region has in order to provide sustainability for its population. Northern Ontario can be further divided into two regions; Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. Then Northwestern region is then subdivided into three districts.

These districts are Thunder Bay, Rainy River and Kenora, the remaining are part of Northeastern Ontario. This region is situated around the Canadian Shield, which is a very rocky region. Northern Ontario is also known for its climate and extreme temperatures. The winter days are typically harsh, with their summers being extremely hot. Due to the extreme climate change, it became difficult to maintain agricultural industry in this region. As a staple based community, the economy of Northern Ontario allowed the meeting of the first criterion of being a periphery, which are staple based societies.

The main industries include mining, forestry and the hydro electric sector. Although, Northern Ontario is rich in mining, forestry and hydroelectric staple, it also needs a place to export its resources to create sustainability. The said export location is where the geographical position plays an important role in its delayed economy. Northern Ontario’s small local markets are far apart from the larger markets. In contrast, Southern Ontario had the advantage of being in a very accessible geographical position. Moreover, Northern Ontario found it difficult and more costly to export raw materials and import manufactured goods.

On the other hand, Southern Ontario had easy access to the United States and to the methods of transportation that made overseas trade more convenient. Northern Ontario’s geographical positioning had also been stumbling for its integration in the global market. It presented times of globalization as something essential for an economy to finally have access and integration in the global market. On the other hand, Southern Ontario had its corporate center in Toronto, with its location enabling easy access to the larger world market.

Furthermore, it easily integrated itself into the global market due to its neighboring nation, the United States. Northern Ontario’s location not only hinders it in the international level, or in its ability transportation access, but also affects the ability to integrate and form an economic fraternity amongst its own districts. Not known to all, Northern Ontario is sparse in terms of land, resulting to the market sector and the population being spaced out. Regardless of these, it is still safe to say that Northern Ontario has two main market sectors.

The market sector for Northwester Ontario is Thunder Bay, with Sudbury being the market sector for Northeastern Ontario (Wikipedia). With these given, it may be concluded that the two main market sectors in Northern Ontario are very distant from each other. As a result, the Northern Ontario market was disconnected into two. This spaced them from the larger market that distinguished them as a periphery. At the same time, it also disconnected them from one another, further isolating them from the market, allowing more seclusion from their side of the province.

This issue can also be compared to that of the Atlantic and North Atlantic Canada. The internal governments

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