Question 1: The role of Ralph Tyler’s book on curriculum development
As a result of the basic principles from Ralph Tyler’s book on the principles of curriculum development substantially changed the way educators and teachers approached the issue of the modeling curriculum in the American schools and far. Through the four steps that Ralph Tyler developed for the curriculum development, the teachers and curricularist were had their roles shifted to those of scientists in imparting the required knowledge to the students.
Unlike the curricula that were in place before, the fundamental principles that were developed by Ralph Tyler were able to establish a direct relation to the expected results on the students. In this case, the curriculum was modeled towards enhancing the learning outcomes of the students through offering discretion to the educators to acquire the learning experience alone or through the directions of the teacher or the instructor. This had highly changed the education programs whereby the students are tested based on their ability to portray their learning outcomes other than the ‘copy paste’ memory that was encouraged by the curricula before Ralph developed the models.
Additionally, the teachers were transformed into scientific observers determining whether the curricular hypothesis is demonstrated by the behavior of the students. Through the core principles of the Ralph model, the educators can make adjustments that ensure there are decent resul
ts in the classroom. The functionality brought by Ralph’s model has facilitated the process of curriculum planning for the educators in the classrooms.
Ralph Tyler model on curriculum development changed the American modes of learning by creating a more student oriented approach that is based on the understanding and the application of the basic concepts learnt in the class system.
Question 2: Changes in the Goals and Aims of Education since The 1800s
Over the centuries, the aims and goals of education have changed significantly. This is mainly based on the curriculum development and the learning methods on the students. Since the mid-18th century, the curriculum, as well as the syllabuses, has been changed to adapt to the dynamic needs in the intellectual world. For instance, the goals of education in the USA in the late 18th century were focused on imparting American nationalism in the minds of the American students. Therefore, the syllabus was directed towards nationalism whereby the students were taught intense philosophies that would ensure that they were loyal and nationalistic to America. However, after the end of the American war, the curriculum changed, and the education system in the country was channeled towards science and technology in the wake of the development of motors and engines. Towards the mid-19th century, the educational goals globally were varied with some countries such as Russia concentrated on science while other nations had a flexible curriculum entailing all the subjects.
In the mid-18th century, the educators slowly started deviating away from the traditional forms of education which were more theoretical to experimental forms, the belief here was that education based on firsthand events and experimentation was more effectual in outcomes than the abstract forms where the students were constrained t
reading theories and philosophy. The development of teaching aids such as maps, charts and models were significantly introduced into the education systems towards 19th century to today. It is in the same periods that high schools in America, for example, started building labs where the students would practice the theories that were directly taught by the teachers in the class. The brought a lot of inventions especially in the field of science from the mid-18th century to the early 19th century.
Question 3: Educational Philosophies
According to this educational philosophy, education should be channeled towards enlightening the students on the high ideas of the Western civilization. It focuses on teaching eternal ideas, which are less dynamic as the human world doesn’t change at any natural level according to this philosophy. Therefore, perennialism advocates for the western civilization education as it has the potential of solving challenges at all the eras.
According to this philosophy, education would focus on the whole of the child other than the contents or the maxims of the educators. Therefore, students should be able to test and check their understanding through active experimentation as part of the curricula. Progressivism argues that learners should be problem solvers creating solutions to challenges through individual experience from the cultural, mental and physical contexts.
Essentialist philosophers claim that knowledge exists in a common core and should be transmitted to the learners in systematic and disciplined procedures. The philosophy lies on a conservative approach on how ethical and moral standards should be imparted to the students. However, unlike perennialism, the philosophy believes that the core curricula should be dynamic in nature to prepare students to be role models in the society.
The educators supporting this policy assert that the curricula in place should be able to highlight educational reforms that address the social reforms in the society as a whole. As per the philosophy, learners should be able to learn theories that enlighten them on resisting oppression through the use of education and literacy for social change. Reconstructionism encourages democracy in the world through encouraging equal treatment for all the members of the society. The emphasis in this case is on the political class to be fair in their dealings.
Question 4: Schools Influence the Society
Through the school learning processes, societal change is inevitable for some reasons. As a start, it is through the school systems that individuals can learn and understand the universal human rights, their responsibilities as well as those of the governing authorities. A school-based society is the most orderly society as the individuals as well as the governments know clearly what is required of them. Therefore, through the school system, the nations have high chances of changing the societies for the active. Education provides light and therefore in determining how organized society is, the school system in place can provide insights on the society as a whole.
Ralph’s book on the principles of curriculum development has brought various changes in the education sector facilitating the role of the educators in providing high-quality education for the students. On the other hand, the philosophies of education significantly influence the country’s school system
- Bachelor of science
- Bachelor's Degree
- Education System
- Educational Goals
- Educational Psychology
- Graduate School
- Higher Education
- Importance Of College Education
- Language Learning
- Middle School
- Philosophy of Education
- Physical Education
- Purpose of Education
- Second Language
- Special Education
- Studying Business
- Vocational Education